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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 6 English Language Arts and Reading
TITLE : Unit 03: Analyzing and Crafting Informational Texts SUGGESTED DURATION : 25 Days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address analyzing and writing informational texts. This genre represents writing that informs, explains, and/or describes a topic. Readers read a variety of informational texts to learn about and deepen their understandings of specific topics and areas of interest.

Prior to this Unit

In previous units, students have developed the skill of self-selecting text/s and learned basic comprehension and response strategies. They have also discussed the importance and benefits of interacting with a text and analyzing author’s purpose, the intended audience, message of a text, and author’s craft. They have also utilized the writing process while crafting original texts, developed vocabulary, and practiced collaboration and discussion skills.

During this Unit

In Reading, students analyze a variety of informational texts for key ideas and the way in which organizational patterns and text features convey these ideas. Students identify the author’s purpose, intended audience, controlling idea/thesis as well as how the author uses evidence, facts, and details to support their controlling idea/thesis through close reading strategies such as notetaking and annotating. To develop a deeper understanding of their reading, students summarize and paraphrase texts as part of the comprehension process and utilize text evidence to support their understanding. Students also practice fundamentals of research by reading a variety of sources to gather and synthesize reliable, credible information in order to learn about a topic. Through a transfer of reading comprehension skills, students apply author’s craft to their own writing products.

In Writing, students engage in writing as a recursive process as they brainstorm/plan, draft, revise, and edit a multi-paragraph informational essay. Students apply author’s craft learned during informational text analysis to their own writing products. In revising, students review their texts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety. In editing, students focus on capitalization, spelling, subject-verb agreement, using consistent verb tenses, and employing a variety of sentence structures with correct use of conjunctive adverbs and subordinating conjunctions.

In Word Study, students continue to learn and build comprehension of unfamiliar grade-level vocabulary through authentic reading, annotation/notetaking, and use of resources to determine word meaning.

In Collaboration, students engage in discussion to develop a deeper understanding of informational texts by sharing their own analysis of a text and responding to the feedback and analysis of others. Students also engage in discussion to process and organize their thoughts about their research and to determine specific areas of interest and strength.

After this Unit

In future units, students will continue to develop their comprehension and analysis skills by exploring different genres of literature, including argumentative texts and making connections across genres. They will continue to apply their knowledge of how to select text/s as well as determine the author’s message and analyze the impact of genre characteristics on text meaning. As students write original texts in a variety of genres throughout the units, they will develop voice and apply author’s craft to their own writing while using a purposeful writing process. Word study and collaboration are ongoing skills throughout all units.

When possible and applicable, choosing culturally relevant texts for classroom assignments and assessments may prove helpful in encouraging student engagement and achievement in the ELAR classroom.

Additional Notes

As suggested by TEA, the TEKS in this unit are meant to be integrated with emphasis on the connections between listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking. There should be daily opportunities for students to discuss, read, and write. Students will continually develop their knowledge and skills with increased complexity over time.

Research

Beers and Probst (2016), in their book Reading Nonfiction, affirm that reading nonfiction is challenging in that readers must question the text, the author, and their own understanding of the topic. Nonfiction impels readers to question their assumptions and beliefs while determining what may be true or not true in the text. The authors state, “Our job as readers of nonfiction is to enter into that potentially messy reading as a co-constructor of meaning” (p. 21). Therefore, nonfiction and informational texts place demands on the reader that literary texts do not.

Beers, K. & Probst, R. (2016). Reading nonfiction: Notice and note stances, signposts, and strategies. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

In Diving Deep into Nonfiction, authors Wilhelm and Smith (2017) stress the importance of reading informational and nonfiction texts in order to better prepare students for their lives both in and out of the classroom. Students are faced with reading complex informational texts every day, so it is essential that they know how to approach understanding such texts.

Wilhelm, J. D. & Smith, M. W. (2017). Diving deep into nonfiction: Transferable tools for reading any nonfiction text, grades 6-12.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Georgia Heard (2013) discusses her passion for nonfiction and the importance of finding a variety of nonfiction mentor texts in Finding the Heart of Nonfiction. Furthermore, “nonfiction is the largest category of any of the writing genres; anything that is not poetry, drama, or fiction is nonfiction” (p. 8). Thus students need to be exposed to a multitude of nonfiction and informational texts and explore craft tools within these texts.

Heard, G. (2013). Finding the heart of nonfiction. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

In Text Structures from the Masters, Bernabei and Koppe (2016) urge teachers to embrace informational text because “public writing is part of a bigger conversation” (p. xvix). Nonfiction mentor texts present “common, universal, and human messages” that students may not expect to read at school but should (p. xx). Informational texts can do more than just inform.

Bernabei, G. & Koppe, J. (2016). Text structures from the masters: 50 lessons and nonfiction mentor texts to help students write their way in and read their way out of every single imaginable genre. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.


Performance Assessment Bundle #1

Readers use comprehension strategies to construct meaning.

  • How do I understand what I read?
  • What practices/skills help me understand texts?

Genres are categories of written or performed works, characterized by similarities in structures, features, form, and content.

  • How do I identify genre?
  • How does recognizing and understanding genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a reader interpret a text?
  • How does utilizing and reflecting on genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a writer construct a text?

Writers make deliberate choices regarding content, language, and style to craft texts for specific purposes, audiences, and contexts.

  • What is author’s craft?
  • What influences a writer’s choices regarding content, language, and style?

Readers can enhance understanding of a text by examining and analyzing author’s craft.

  • How do I examine and analyze author’s craft when reading a text?
  • How does a writer’s choices in craft impact meaning?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Readers can interact with texts in a variety of meaningful ways to enhance understanding and comprehension.

  • What does it mean to “interact with a text”?
  • How can annotating and notetaking help a reader understand a text on a deeper level?

Comprehension and Response

  • Interacting with text (e.g., annotating, notetaking, illustrating, writing, etc.
  • Meaning/Interpretation/ Analysis
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Readers make inferences about the implicit meanings in texts .

  • How do I infer the implied, non-literal meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or detail?
  • How do I make predictions about a text?

Comprehension and Response

  • Making inferences
    • Predicting
    • Drawing conclusions
    • Generalizing

Paraphrasing and summarizing allows readers to prove their understanding of a text.

  • What does a text say?
  • How do I paraphrase a part or detail of a text?
  • How do I summarize part of a text?
  • How do I summarize a whole text?

Comprehension and Response

  • Paraphrasing
  • Summarizing

 

Informational texts are a genre of nonfiction that objectively explain, describe, or define a topic without taking a position.

  • What makes informational texts unique?
  • What is the difference between objective informational writing and subjective informational writing? Why is it in important to distinguish the difference?

Genres

  • Informational texts

 

Writers focus the content of informational texts around a central idea/controlling/thesis

  • Why is identifying the controlling idea/thesis important?

Genres

  • Informational texts
    • Controlling idea/thesis

Writers utilize facts, details, and evidence to support their controlling idea/thesis. 

  • How can writers support and substantiate their controlling idea/thesis?

Genres

  • Informational texts
    • Facts/details/evidence

Writers use a variety of important genre characteristics to convey meaning and support their purposes when writing a text.

  • What genre characteristics apply to the text I am reading?
  • What genre characteristics apply to the text I am writing?
  • Why are genre characteristics important?

 

Genres

  • Genre characteristics

 

Writers write for a variety of purposes and audiences.

  • Why do writers write?

Writers think about purpose and audience when crafting texts.

  • How do purpose and audience influence author’s craft?

How effectively does a writer/speaker achieve his/her purpose?

  • How do I evaluate author’s purpose?

Purpose and Craft

  • Author’s Purpose

 

Writers write for an intended audience.

  • How does a writer/reader determine the intended audience of a text?
  • In what ways do authors adjust their writing depending on the audience?

Purpose and Craft

  • Audience

 

A writer’s message and purpose is influenced by cultural and historical contexts.

  • How is my message and purpose influenced by cultural and historical contexts?
  • When reading, what is significant about the context in which the text was written?
  • When writing, what is significant about the context in which I am writing?

Purpose and Craft

  • Context

 

Writers convey the central/controlling idea of a text either directly or indirectly through language and literary elements. 

  • How does author’s craft contribute to the message of the text?

Purpose and Craft

  • Message (theme, central/controlling idea, thesis, or claim)

Text/print and graphic features support the author’s purpose and message by adding important information to a text.

  • Why is it important to identify the text/print and graphic features of a text?
  • Why does a writer include specific details, paragraphs, sections, and/or other text/print features?
  • Why does a writer include specific graphs, images, and/or other graphic features?
  • How can analysis of text features enhance  comprehension of a text?

Purpose and Craft

  • Text/print and graphic features

 

Analyzing text structure/organization helps readers understand and comprehend texts. 

  • What is text structure/organization?

Text structure/organization and text meaning are interconnected.

  • How does the structure/organization of a text reveal text meaning?

Text structure/organization is influenced by genre, purpose, message and the intended audience.

  • What influences a text’s structure/organization?
  • How does a writer choose a text structure?
  • How does a chosen text structure impact the intended audience?
  • How does a chosen text structure support the author’s purpose?

Purpose and Craft

  • Text structure/organization

 


Performance Assessment Bundle #2

Genres are categories of written or performed works, characterized by similarities in structures, features, form, and content.

  • How do I identify genre?
  • How does recognizing and understanding genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a reader interpret a text?
  • How does utilizing and reflecting on genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a writer construct a text?

Readers can enhance understanding of a text by examining and analyzing author’s craft.

  • How do I examine and analyze author’s craft when reading a text?
  • How does a writer’s choices in craft impact meaning?

Readers use comprehension strategies to construct meaning.

  • How do I understand what I read?
  • What practices/skills help me understand texts?
  • How do I determine which strategies are best to comprehend a specific text?

Readers can convey their understanding through a variety of responses.

  • What types of responses can demonstrate my understanding?
  • How can I construct a response that clearly demonstrates my understanding?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Informational texts are a genre of nonfiction that objectively explain, describe, or define a topic without taking a position.

  • What makes informational texts unique?
  • What is the difference between objective informational writing and subjective informational writing? Why is it in important to distinguish the difference?

Informational texts are a genre of nonfiction that objectively explain, describe, or define a topic without taking a position.

  • What makes informational texts unique?
  • What is the difference between objective informational writing and subjective informational writing? Why is it in important to distinguish the difference?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Writers focus the content of informational texts around a central idea/controlling/thesis

  • Why is identifying the controlling idea/thesis important?

 

Genre

  • Informational texts
    • Controlling idea/thesis

Writers utilize facts, details, and evidence to support their controlling idea/thesis. 

  • How can writers support and substantiate their controlling idea/thesis?

 

Genre

  • Informational texts
    • o Facts/details/evidence

Writers use a variety of important genre characteristics to convey meaning and support their purposes when writing a text.

  • What genre characteristics apply to the text I am reading?
  • Why are genre characteristics important?

Purpose and Craft

  • Genre characteristics

 

How effectively does a writer achieve his/her purpose?

  • How do I evaluate author’s purpose?

Purpose and Craft

  • Author’s Purpose

Writers write for an intended audience.

  • How does a writer/reader determine the intended audience of a text?
  • In what ways do authors adjust their writing depending on the audience?

Purpose and Craft

  • Audience

 

A writer’s message and purpose is influenced by cultural and historical contexts.

  • How is my message and purpose influenced by cultural and historical contexts?
  • When reading, what is significant about the context in which the text was written?
  • When writing, what is significant about the context in which I am writing?

Purpose and Craft

  • Context

 

Writers convey the message (controlling idea/thesis) of a text either directly or indirectly through language and literary elements.

  • How does author’s craft contribute to the message of the text?
  • How do authors develop the controlling idea/thesis?

Purpose and Craft

  • Message (controlling idea/thesis)

Analyzing text structure/organization helps readers understand and comprehend texts. 

  • What is text structure/organization?

Text structure/organization and text meaning are interconnected.

  • How does the structure/organization of a text reveal text meaning?

Text structure/organization is influenced by genre, purpose, message and the intended audience.

  • What influences a text’s structure/organization?
  • How does a writer choose a text structure?
  • How does a chosen text structure impact the intended audience?
  • How does a chosen text structure support the author’s purpose?

Purpose and Craft

  • Text structure/organization

 

Text/print and graphic features support the author’s purpose and message by adding important information to a text.

  • Why is it important to identify the text/print and graphic features of a text?
  • Why does a writer include specific details, paragraphs, sections, and/or other text/print features?
  • Why does a writer include specific graphs, images, and/or other graphic features?
  • How can analysis of text features enhance  comprehension of a text?

Purpose and Craft

  • Text/print and graphic features

 

Readers can interact with texts in a variety of meaningful ways to enhance understanding and comprehension.

  • How can annotating and notetaking help a reader understand a text on a deeper level?
  • What do others find significant in a text, and how does this inform my own understanding of the text?
  • How can discussing a text help deepen comprehension?

 

Comprehension and Response

  • Interacting with text (e.g., annotating, notetaking, illustrating, writing, etc.
  • Meaning/Interpretation/ Analysis
  • Discussing 

Paraphrasing and summarizing allows readers to prove their understanding of a text.

  • What does a text say?
  • How do I paraphrase a part or detail of a text?
  • How do I summarize part of a text?
  • How do I summarize a whole text?

 

Comprehension and Response

  • Paraphrasing
  • Summarizing

 


Performance Assessment Bundle #3

Readers and writers engage in research to justify, challenge, or gain knowledge about an idea.

  • What is the purpose of research?
  • How can research confirm or change our current perspective?

Genres are categories of written or performed works, characterized by similarities in structures, features, form, and content.

  • How do I identify genre?
  • How does recognizing and understanding genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a reader interpret a text?
  • How does utilizing and reflecting on genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a writer construct a text?

Writers can create meaning in a text by utilizing author’s craft.

  • How do I employ author’s craft in my writing?
  • How do my choices in craft impact meaning?

Effective oral language helps me express ideas, thoughts, and feelings with others and understand what others think and feel.

  • Why do I speak?
  • Why do I listen?
  • How do I effectively communicate my ideas, thoughts, and feelings?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Researchers establish clear and focused questions to guide their inquiry.

  • What do I wonder about my topic?
  • How can I use questions to guide my inquiry/research?

 Researchers narrow their topic as new information is presented.

  • How do I narrow/focus my topic?
  • Why is it important to narrow my topic as I find new information?
  • How does new information guide or change my topic?
  • How do I utilize new information I discover about my topic?

Research Process

  • Generating questions on a selected topic

 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Researchers organize a research plan and modify it as necessary throughout the research process.

  • How do I need to adjust my plan as I get new information?

Research Process

  • Developing a research plan

Researchers gather information from a variety of sources.

  • Why is it important to find and use a variety of sources during research?

 

Research Process

  • Identifying and selecting information from sources

Writers utilize primary and secondary sources during research in order to learn information about a topic.

  • What is the difference between a primary and secondary source? Why is it important to distinguish the difference?

Research Process

  • Primary source
  • Secondary source

Effective researchers evaluate the credibility, validity, and relevance of sources and information.

  • What qualities make a source trustworthy or credible?
  • Can a source be trusted? How do I know?
  • What makes a source valid and accurate?
  • What makes a source relevant?
  • What is the relationship between the credibility of an author and his/her message?

Research Process

  • Credibility, validity, and relevance

 

As researchers critically read multiple sources, they synthesize the most significant and relevant information for their inquiry.

  • How do I collect, organize, and synthesize information within one source?
  • How do I collect, organize, and synthesize information across multiple sources?

Research Process

  • Synthesizing

 

Informational texts are a genre of nonfiction that objectively explain, describe, or define a topic without taking a position.

  • What makes informational texts unique?
  • What is the difference between objective informational writing and subjective informational writing? Why is it in important to distinguish the difference?

Genre

  • Informational texts

 

Writers focus the content of informational texts around a central idea/controlling/thesis.

  • Why is identifying the controlling idea/thesis important?

Genre

  • Informational texts
    • Controlling idea/thesis

Writers utilize facts, details, and evidence to support their controlling idea/thesis. 

  • How can writers support and substantiate their controlling idea/thesis?

Genre

  • Informational texts
    • o Facts/details/evidence

Writers think about purpose and audience when crafting texts.

  • How do purpose and audience influence author’s craft?

Purpose and Craft

  • Author’s purpose

Writers write for an intended audience.

  • How does a writer/reader determine the intended audience of a text?
  • In what ways do writers adjust their writing depending on the audience?

Purpose and Craft

  • Audience

Writers convey the message (theme) of a text either directly or indirectly through language and literary elements.

  • How does author’s craft contribute to the message of the text?
  • How do authors develop the controlling idea/thesis?

Purpose and Craft

  • Message (controlling idea/thesis)

A writer’s message and purpose is influenced by cultural and historical contexts.

  • How is my message and purpose influenced by cultural and historical contexts?
  • When reading, what is significant about the context in which the text was written?
  • When writing, what is significant about the context in which I am writing?

Purpose and Craft

  • Context

 

Writers use a variety of important genre characteristics to convey meaning and support their purposes when writing a text.

  • What genre characteristics apply to the text I am writing?

Purpose and Craft

  • Genre characteristics

Text/print and graphic features support the author’s purpose and message by adding important information to a text.

  • Why is it important to identify the text/print and graphic features of a text?
  • Why does a writer include specific details, paragraphs, sections, and/or other text/print features?
  • Why does a writer include specific graphs, images, and/or other graphic features?
  • How can analysis of text features enhance comprehension of a text?

Purpose and Craft

  • Text/print and graphic features

 

Analyzing text structure/organization helps readers understand and comprehend texts. 

  • What is text structure/organization?

Text structure/organization and text meaning are interconnected.

  • How does the structure/organization of a text reveal text meaning?

Text structure/organization is influenced by genre, purpose, message and the intended audience.

  • What influences a text’s structure/organization?
  • How does a writer choose a text structure?
  • How does a chosen text structure impact the intended audience?
  • How does a chosen text structure support the author’s purpose?

Purpose and Craft

  • Text structure/organization

 

Readers and writers use resources to support their understanding of unfamiliar words.

  • What resources can readers and writers use to determine word meaning?
  • How do I use resources to determine word meaning?

Oral Language

  • Vocabulary
  • Resources (e.g., dictionary, glossary, thesaurus, etc.)

Discussing ideas with others can improve everyone’s understanding of a topic. 

  • How can discussing my ideas and thoughts with others enhance my understanding?
  • How can I contribute positively to discussions?

 

                     

Oral Language

  • Discussing

 


Performance Assessment Bundle #4

Writing is a recursive process that includes several stages and is essential to crafting focused, coherent, and well-developed compositions.

  • What are the stages of the writing process? Why are they important?
  • How do the stages of the writing process reinforce each other?

Genres are categories of written or performed works, characterized by similarities in structures, features, form, and content.

  • How does utilizing and reflecting on genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a writer construct a text?

Writers make deliberate choices regarding content, language, and style to craft texts for specific purposes, audiences, and contexts.

  • What is author’s craft?
  • What influences a writer’s choices regarding content, language, and style?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Writers use a variety of methods to prepare to write in order to build understanding of the assigned/selected topic, purpose, and audience. 

  • Why am I writing? What is my purpose and topic? Who is my intended audience?
  • Why are discussing and reading about a topic prior to writing important in the planning process?
  • How does planning and discussion help me focus and organize my thinking?
  • What important practices/methods may help me begin to compose a piece of writing?

Writing Process

  • Planning
    • Brainstorming
    • Notetaking
    • Outlining

 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Effective writers keep the purpose and intended audience at the forefront of their minds throughout the drafting process.

  • Why is it important to think about purpose and audience as I write?
  • What does it mean to maintain focus throughout a draft?

Effective writers choose a structure that helps communicate their message clearly.

  • What structure do I choose when writing?

Writing Process

  • Drafting
    • Development
    • Focus

 

Writers use the revision stage of the writing process to improve and refine their writing for clarity and coherence.

  • What revisions do I need to make to improve my writing?
  • What does it mean to revise for clarity?
  • What does it mean to revise for coherence?

Writing Process

  • Revising
    • Clarity
    • Coherence

 

Writers use the editing stage of the writing process to improve and refine their language and adherence to conventions.

  • What edits do I need to make to correct my writing?

 

Writing Process

  • Editing
    • Grammar
    • Conventions
    • Spelling

Writers use different modes of publishing based on the audience, purpose, and message.

  • What’s the best way to publish/share my ideas?

Writing Process

  • Publishing/Sharing

 

Informational texts are a genre of nonfiction that objectively explain, describe, or define a topic without taking a position.

  • What makes informational texts unique?
  • What is the difference between objective informational writing and subjective informational writing? Why is it in important to distinguish the difference?

Genres

  • Informational texts

 

Writers focus the content of informational texts around a central idea/controlling/thesis

  • Why is identifying the controlling idea/thesis important?

 

Genres

  • Informational texts
    • Controlling idea/thesis

Writers utilize facts, details, and evidence to support their controlling idea/thesis. 

  • How can writers support and substantiate their controlling idea/thesis?

 

Genres

  • Informational texts
    • Facts/details/evidence

Writers use a variety of important genre characteristics to convey meaning and support their purposes when writing a text.

  • What genre characteristics apply to the text I am writing?

 

Purpose and Craft

  • Genre characteristics

Writers convey the central/controlling idea of a text either directly or indirectly through language and literary elements. 

  • How does author’s craft contribute to the message of the text?

Text/print and graphic features support the author’s purpose and message by adding important information to a text.

  • Why is it important to identify the text/print and graphic features of a text?
  • Why does a writer include specific details, paragraphs, sections, and/or other text/print features?
  • Why does a writer include specific graphs, images, and/or other graphic features?
  • How can analysis of text features enhance  comprehension of a text?

Analyzing text structure/organization helps readers understand and comprehend texts. 

  • What is text structure/organization?

Text structure/organization and text meaning are interconnected.

  • How does the structure/organization of a text reveal text meaning?

Text structure/organization is influenced by genre, purpose, message and the intended audience.

  • What influences a text’s structure/organization?
  • How does a writer choose a text structure?
  • How does a chosen text structure impact the intended audience?
  • How does a chosen text structure support the author’s purpose?

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may be confused about the difference between objective and subjective informational texts. This unit is primarily concerned with objective, fact-based informational texts.
  • Students may think that informational texts follow only formulaic structures such as an opening paragraph, three supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion, rather than intentional structures that also engage the reader and support an intended purpose and audience.
  • Students may think that the only way to conduct research is through secondary sources and may not realize that primary sources such as interviews and observations can be helpful as well. 

Unit Vocabulary

  • Audience — the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium
  • Author’s craft — intentional and deliberate use of organizational patterns, text and graphic features, syntax, devices, and diction to create an effective written work; author’s craft may vary by genre
  • Author’s purpose — the reason an author writes about a particular topic (e.g.,  to persuade, to entertain, to inform, to explain, to analyze,  etc.); the reason an author includes particular details, features, or devices in a work
  • Controlling idea — the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing; a controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author’s purpose for writing the paragraph or essay
  • Credibility — the quality of having reliable and trustworthy characteristics which may be influenced by an author having expertise on a topic, using unbiased and accurate reasoning, evidence, and sources to support ideas, and providing current and up-to-date information
  • Editing — a stage in the writing process when a written text is prepared for an audience by attending to and correcting mechanics, grammar, and spelling
  • Graphic feature — picture or other image within a text
  • Informational text a text that presents information in order to explain, clarify, and/or educate
  • Key ideas — important ideas throughout a work that support the central message, theme, tone, etc.
  • Paraphrase — restate the meaning of something in different words. Paraphrasing alters the exact wording of the source and transmits its ideas or information without evaluation or interpretation.
  • Primary Source — a source from the time in which an event being studied occurred and created by someone who was present at the event
  • Research Plan — a timeline created around the research process that identifies the initial steps needed to find accurate, significant, and relevant sources to support the topic of inquiry or working thesis, intermediary steps of reevaluating the research question and revising the thesis based on source analysis, and the final steps of drafting (or equivalent preparation), revision, editing, and presenting results in an appropriate mode of delivery (written, oral, or multimodal)
  • Secondary Source — a source that is a step removed from the original accounts of an event or experience          
  • Summarize — to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.
  • Text structure — the way or pattern in which an author organizes ideas within a text 
  • Text/print feature —  any characteristic of the text outside the main body of the text that helps convey meaning

Related Vocabulary:

  • Close Reading
  • Writing Process

TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
6.5 Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:
6.5A Establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text.

Establish

PURPOSE FOR READING ASSIGNED AND SELF-SELECTED TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Establishing a purpose for reading may include:
    • Previewing text/print features such as title, headings, graphics, etc.
    • Determining genre of text and considering previous knowledge about the genre
    • Identifying personal goals and reasons for reading a text, including personal interests and individual needs
    • Determining the focus and goals for an assigned reading task
    • Making connections between class discussions, previous readings, and reading goals
    • Reflecting on the purpose for reading and revising the purpose as needed
  • Purposes for reading may include:
    • To gain new knowledge
    • To understand or study differing perspectives on an issue
    • To learn task-related information and/or follow directions
    • To enlighten or reveal important truths
    • To enjoy or be entertained 
    • To solve problems
    • To analyze author’s craft, author’s purpose, and/or message
    • To analyze and evaluate an argument
    • To gather support or research

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • This SE focuses on the reader’s purpose for reading. Refer to 6.9A for more information about authors’ purposes for writing.
    • Refer to 6.4A for more information about self-selecting texts.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      •  II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
6.5B Generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information.

Generate

QUESTIONS ABOUT TEXT BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER READING TO DEEPEN UNDERSTANDING AND GAIN INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Questions before reading may relate to:
    • Identifying the genre, author, topic, intended audience, and context 
    • Making predictions about the text, topic, author’s purpose/message, characters, setting, events, etc.
    • Making connections using background knowledge
  • Questions during reading may relate to:
    • Monitoring comprehension and predictions
    • Making connections such as text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-society
    • Clarifying meaning or information, including unfamiliar vocabulary
    • Identifying the controlling idea/thesis, claim, or theme
    • Paraphrasing and summarizing key ideas
    • Analyzing author’s craft such as text structures, text/print and graphic features, literary/rhetorical devices, style, etc.
    • Analyzing genre characteristics
  • Questions after reading may relate to:
    • Determining author’s purpose
    • Determining the controlling idea/thesis, claim, or theme
    • Paraphrasing and summarizing key ideas
    • Making connections such as text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-society
    • Analyzing and evaluating how author’s craft conveys the purpose/message
    • Reflecting on unanswered questions or uncertainties about the text, topic, or author

Note(s):

  • To foster student ownership of metacognition, questions should be generated by the student not the teacher per the focus of this SE. However, teacher modeling may be necessary.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
6.5C Make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures.

Make, Correct, Confirm

PREDICTIONS USING TEXT FEATURES, CHARACTERISTICS OF GENRE, AND STRUCTURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making predictions may include:
    • Using background knowledge to make predictions
    • Using details and relevant evidence from the text
    • Using information available in text/print and graphic features such as titles, subtitles, endnotes, photographs, illustrations, charts, etc.
    • Using an understanding of genre characteristics
    • Using identification and understanding of text structures
  • Correcting, revising, and/or confirming predictions may include:
    • Using additional details and evidence from the text to correct, revise, and/or confirm predictions
  • Prediction — a form of inference in which the reader gathers and analyzes details in order to anticipate and foresee forthcoming events and information
  • Text/print feature — any characteristic of the text outside the main body of the text that helps convey meaning such as titles, charts, photographs, timelines, footnotes, etc.
  • Genre — the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content
  • Text structure — the way or pattern in which an author organizes ideas within a text

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.9C for more information about text/print and graphic features.
    • Refer to 6.7A-D and 6.8A-F for more information about genre-specific characteristics and text structures.
    • Refer to 6.6F for information related to making, inferences, including predictions.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A2. Use text features to form an overview of content and to locate information.
6.5E Make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society.

Make

CONNECTIONS TO PERSONAL EXPERIENCES, IDEAS IN OTHER TEXTS, AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making connections between a text and personal experiences may include:
    • Recalling personal situations, thoughts, feelings, relationships, self-identity, and experiences and comparing them with content from a text such as details, events, etc.
    • Building empathy for others represented in a text because of a shared experience 
  • Making connections between ideas and features across texts may include:
    • Comparing themes, topics, details, events, genre characteristics, text structures, etc.
  • Making connections between a text and society may include:
    • Comparing details, events, etc. to past, present, or future society
    • Analyzing connections to different levels of society such as communities, state, region, country, and world
    • Analyzing connections to different aspects of society such as economic, political, social, cultural, and environmental connections

 

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s): 
    • This SE emphasizes the metacognitive process of making connections. Refer to 6.6A for information related to describing personal connections. 
    • Honoring each student’s unique knowledge, language, and cultural/ethnic background is a critical part of supporting students’ ability to make connections. This is especially critical for English Language Learners.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — D. Acquire insights about oneself, others, or the world from reading diverse texts.
      • II. Reading — D1. Make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections.
6.5F Make inferences and use evidence to support understanding.

Make

INFERENCES TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making inferences may include:
    • Combining details read, heard, or viewed, including text/print or graphic features, with background knowledge in order to go beyond a literal interpretation of the text
    • Generating inferences about author’s purpose, message, author’s craft, topic, events, word meaning, etc.
    • Considering the rhetorical situation (author, the intended audience, speaker/writer, topic, and context) when making inferences
  • Inference — a logical guess made by connecting bits of information
    • Types of inferences include:
      • Drawing conclusions — a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information and comes to a decision; the conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.
      • Generalization — a form of inference in which the reader makes a broad statement about a group of people or things based on a limited amount of information
      • Prediction — a form of inference in which the reader gathers and analyzes details in order to anticipate and foresee forthcoming events and information

Use

EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Included, but not limited to:

  • Using evidence to support understanding may include: 
    • Rereading text for key information
    • Determining the words, phrases, and sentences that best support an inference, idea, assertion, or analysis
    • Differentiating between relevant and irrelevant details
    • Citing the author and source as necessary
  • Evidence — specific details or facts that support an inference or idea

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.5C for more information about predictions.
    • Refer to 6.6C for information related to using text evidence.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A4. Make evidence-based inferences about a text’s meaning, intent, and values.
6.5G Evaluate details read to determine key ideas.

Evaluate

DETAILS READ TO DETERMINE KEY IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • • Evaluating details to determine key ideas may include:
    • Determining the explicit or implicit meaning of details
    • Distinguishing between significant and insignificant details
    • Examining the relationships between details
    • Analyzing how details support the message and the author’s purpose
    • Identifying the key ideas of the text after careful analysis
  • Evaluate — to judge or determine the significance, worth, or quality of something
  • Key ideas — important ideas throughout a work that support the central message, theme, tone, etc.

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
      • II. Reading — A3. Identify explicit and implicit textual information including main ideas and author’s purpose.
6.5H Synthesize information to create new understanding.

Synthesize

INFORMATION TO CREATE NEW UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Synthesizing information in a single text or across multiple texts, including media, may include:
    • Monitoring comprehension at various points during a text
    • Employing annotation strategies to determine author’s purpose, key ideas, controlling idea/thesis, etc.
    • Analyzing text features, text structures, and author’s craft
    • Making connections between background knowledge and details
    • Adjusting previous understandings and analysis of text as new details are revealed through the reading process
    • Creating new understandings based on careful analysis 
  • Synthesizing information from multiple texts, including media, may additionally include:
    • Identifying a purpose for reading multiple texts
    • Employing annotation strategies to note similar or contrasting purposes and ideas
    • Drawing conclusions about patterns and relationships in ideas across texts
    • Creating new understandings based on analysis of multiple texts 
    • Formulating an original thesis or claim based on analysis of multiple texts and background knowledge
    • Organizing evidence from multiple texts to effectively support a controlling idea/thesis
  • Synthesize — to combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole

 

6.6 Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:
6.6A Describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts.

Describe

PERSONAL CONNECTIONS TO A VARIETY OF SOURCES, INCLUDING SELF-SELECTED TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Describing personal connections may include:
    • Identifying relevant personal connections
    • Explaining personal connections to specific details in sources using oral/written language, illustrations, and/or other media
    • Identifying specific details and text evidence that supports personal connections
    • Explaining the significance of personal connections to understanding details in the source
  • Personal connections include:
    • Connecting to one’s own experiences
    • Connecting to other texts/sources
    • Connecting to society

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • The SE emphasizes the student’s ability to describe their connections to sources. Refer to 6.5E for information related to the metacognitive process of making connections.
    • Refer to 6.4A for more information about self-selecting texts.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — D. Acquire insights about oneself, others, or the world from reading diverse texts.
      • II. Reading — D1. Make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections.
6.6B Write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres.

Write

RESPONSES THAT DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Responses that demonstrate understanding of informational texts may include:
    • Identifying the rhetorical situation of the text (author, intended audience, topic, context)
    • Identifying the author’s controlling idea/thesis
    • Identifying the key ideas, supporting details of a text, and various types of evidence and examples provided by the author
    • Analyzing the meaning and significance of text/print features and text structures
    • Paraphrasing parts of the text and summarizing the entire text 
    • Explaining inferences
    • Describing personal connections and responses to the text
    • Using relevant text evidence to support ideas in responses
  • Responses that compare and contrast ideas across a variety of sources may include: 
    • Explaining similarities and differences in controlling ideas/theses, topics, text structures, genre characteristics, etc.
  • Written response — a written sentence, paragraph, or essay that answers a question or prompt and typically requires detail, description, and/or analysis of a text
  • Informational text — text that presents information in order to inform or educate an audience 

Note(s):

  • At the middle school level, literary and rhetorical analysis responses may involve isolated paragraphs of analysis as opposed to complete essays of analysis.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Notetaking and annotating may be helpful prior to writing a response. Refer to 6.6E for more information related to these skills.
    • Refer to 6.6C for more information about using text evidence to support responses.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A7. Compare and analyze how features of genre are used across texts.
6.6C Use text evidence to support an appropriate response.

Use

TEXT EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT AN APPROPRIATE RESPONSE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using text evidence to support a response may include: 
    • Understanding the focus of a self-selected or teacher-provided question, prompt, or idea
    • Re-reading relevant portions of the text including text/print and graphic features, to identify key words, phrases, and information in the text that explicitly or implicitly relate to the question, prompt, or idea
    • Annotating or taking notes to identify relevant textual evidence
    • Inferring the meaning of details in the text
    • Determining the most pertinent details from the text needed to support a response
    • Choosing to directly quote or paraphrase the evidence from the text to support a response
    • Embedding enough context around the origin of the paraphrased or directly quoted evidence to ensure clarity of thought
    • Providing original commentary that explains connections between the selected text evidence and idea/answer
  • Text evidence — paraphrased or directly quoted detail(s) from a text that supports a reader’s claim, thought, inference, or analysis about the text
  • Commentary — written/spoken explanations or interpretations that further develop an idea

Note(s):

  • This SE supports using text evidence for both oral and written responses for a variety of purposes.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.6B for more information on writing responses that demonstrate understanding of text.
6.6D Paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order.

Paraphrase

TEXTS IN WAYS THAT MAINTAIN MEANING AND LOGICAL ORDER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Paraphrasing may include:  
    • Identifying key ideas in a section of text and/or a whole text
    • Considering the context surrounding a section of text to ensure ideas are interpreted correctly
    • Differentiating between significant and less significant details
    • Restating ideas from a text using one’s own words while maintaining the author’s intended message
  • Paraphrase — restate the meaning of something in different words. Paraphrasing alters the exact wording of the source and transmits its ideas or information without evaluation or interpretation.

Summarize

TEXTS IN WAYS THAT MAINTAIN MEANING AND LOGICAL ORDER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Summarizing may include:  
    • Determining key information, ideas, or details from a section of text or whole text
    • Differentiating between significant and less significant details
    • Identifying the overall text structure
    • Synthesizing and describing key ideas from the beginning, middle, and end of the text to maintain logical order
    • Emphasizing the author’s intended message, controlling/thesis, or claim
    • Incorporating applicable vocabulary as necessary, including language associated with the text structure
  • Summarize — to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Note(s):

  • The terms paraphrase and summarize should not be used interchangeably. Please note that paraphrasing may involve giving attribution to the source.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A4. Make evidence-based inferences about a text’s meaning, intent, and values.
6.6E Interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating.

Interact

WITH SOURCES IN MEANINGFUL WAYS

Including, but not limited to: 

  • Interacting with sources in meaningful ways may include: 
    • Notetaking and organizing thoughts, ideas, and questions
    • Annotating and commenting on the text to identify and explain key ideas, record connections, and ask questions
    • Freewriting to document understandings, reactions, and personal connections to a text
    • Illustrating images to demonstrate understanding
    • Capturing notes and ideas in journals, graphic organizers, sticky notes, digital devices, etc.
  • Notetaking — the study skill of outlining or summarizing the ideas of a lecture, a book, or another source of information to aid in the retention of ideas 
  • Annotating — marking a text with notes and/or comments 
  • Freewriting — writing openly and continuously without restriction or focus on the conventional rules of language 

Note(s): 

  • This SE highlights the importance of interacting with sources to create meaning and to support deeper reading.
  • Grade Level(s): 
    • This SE may provide scaffolding for students in writing responses to sources. Refer to 6.6B for more information on writing responses to texts.
6.6G Discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text.

Discuss, Write 

ABOUT THE EXPLICIT OR IMPLICIT MEANINGS OF TEXT 

Including, but not limited to: 

  • Determining explicit meanings many include:
    • Identifying key ideas and supporting details stated in the text
    • Identifying the meaning of key terms or vocabulary in the text
    • Synthesizing meaning from various parts of the text
  • Determining implicit meanings may include: 
    • Identifying and considering the rhetorical situation of the text (author’s purpose, topic, intended audience, context), including the author’s background, historically relevant information, and societal implications of the text
    • Considering the relationship between controlling idea/thesis and specific details to infer meaning
    • Identifying and considering potential biases in the text and their effect on meaning
  • Explicit meaning — an idea that is clearly stated, unambiguous, and leaves little room for interpretation  
  • Implicit meaning — an idea that must be inferred through an analysis of details, actions, tone, dialogue, body language, visuals, etc. 

Note(s): 

  • Text evidence/support is particularly useful when discussing implicit meanings in order to justify interpretations.
  • TxCCRS: 
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A4. Make evidence-based inferences about a text’s meaning, intent, and values.
6.6H Respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice.

Respond

ORALLY OR IN WRITING WITH APPROPRIATE REGISTER, VOCABULARY, TONE, AND VOICE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making considerations before responding orally or in writing with an appropriate style may include:
    • Identifying the purpose, intended audience, context, and topic of the response
    • Assessing the audience’s knowledge and interest level in the topic
    • Determining a register suited for the response such as formal, casual, consultative, intimate, or frozen/fixed based on the rhetorical situation of the response (speaker, topic, audience, context)
  • Determining an appropriate style for a specific register of an oral or written response may include:
    • Choosing appropriate and necessary vocabulary and diction, including use of formal vs. informal word choice (use of slang, contractions, etc.), and pronunciation
    • Choosing an appropriate speaking volume, raising and lowering one’s voice for emphasis and to ensure the entire audience can hear/read the response
    • Choosing a speaking rate, including use of pauses, tolerance for interruptions, awareness of audience attention, and time management
    • Choosing appropriate non-verbal communication such as gestures and eye-contact
    • Establishing a tone through content and delivery that accurately communicates the writer/speaker’s attitude towards the topic/audience
    • Establishing a compelling voice by engaging the reader/viewer with unique and meaningful content and delivery
  • Register — refers to a specific style of speaking and writing such as formal, casual, consultative, intimate, frozen, etc. that is based on the social setting of the communication
  • Tone — the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in writing
  • Voice —an author’s unique articulation or expression of language created by stylistic elements such as syntax, diction, and figurative language

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • This SE could be applied to any of the interdependent response skills identified in 6.6A-I.
    • Refer to 6.1C for more information about speaking and presentation skills.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — D. Acquire insights about oneself, others, or the world from reading diverse texts.
      • II. Reading — D1. Make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections.
6.6I Reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

Reflect, Adjust

RESPONSES AS NEW EVIDENCE IS PRESENTED

Including, but not limited to:

  • Reflecting on and adjusting responses may include:
    • Considering initial thoughts, feelings, and/or responses to a source, prompt, or question
    • Analyzing new information and evidence from a text or outside sources for validity, accuracy, and connections to one’s original response
    • Questioning if initial feelings, thoughts, and responses correspond with new information or evidence
    • Revising a response by synthesizing new evidence with original/previous ideas
    • Evaluating and adjusting a response for accuracy and clarity in details and support
  • Reflection — an intentional or instinctual mental process composed of contemplation and long consideration that is integral to the learning process

Note(s):

  • While reflection is a mental process and is an integral part of the learning process, it is important to consider that writing and speaking about reflections allows the student to make connections to the source and use evidence to support ideas.  
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — D. Acquire insights about oneself, others, or the world from reading diverse texts.
      • II. Reading — D1. Make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections.
6.8 Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:
6.8D Analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

Analyze

CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF INFORMATIONAL TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Previewing and reading strategies to use prior, during, and after analyzing an informational text may include: 
    • Identifying the genre, author, intended audience, purpose (to explain, to define, to inform, to educate, to present an analysis, etc.), topic, and context/occasion of the work
    • Identifying the type of informational text such as a newspaper article, essay, biography, procedural text, summary, instructions, etc.
    • Identifying and annotating the work for genre characteristics such as controlling idea/thesis, supporting details, examples, text structures, text/print or graphic features, etc.
    • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Explaining how the genre characteristics reinforce the author’s purpose may include:  
    • Analyzing the relationship between structural elements, text features, text meaning, and author’s purpose 
    • Explaining the impact of the text features on the intended audience
  • Summarizing and paraphrasing the text may include:
    • Distinguishing between significant and less significant ideas
    • Explaining the author’s ideas by putting them into other words 
  • Informational text —a text that presents information in order to explain, clarify, and/or educate

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.8Di-iii for more specific information on the characteristics and structures of informational text.
    • Refer to 6.11B for information related to composing informational texts.
    • Refer to 6.9A-C for information related to author’s purpose and craft.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A8. Identify, analyze, and evaluate similarities and differences in how multiple texts present information, argue a position, or relate a theme.
6.8D.i the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

Analyze

characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

THE CONTROLLING IDEA OR THESIS WITH SUPPORTING EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying the controlling idea/thesis and supporting ideas may include:
    • Analyzing the introductory paragraph to identify an implicitly or explicitly stated controlling idea/thesis (if present, may appear later in the text)
    • Identifying key ideas in each paragraph and determining if they identify or support the controlling idea/thesis
    • Identifying the meaning and purpose of details, examples, evidence, and text/print or graphic features such as headings, charts, graphs, illustrations, photos, etc. and determining which key idea or supporting idea they relate to and support
    • Distinguishing between supporting ideas/reasoning, evidence, examples, etc.
    • Identifying different types of evidence such as facts, data, statistics, etc.
    • Analyzing the controlling idea/thesis and examples/evidence used in the text to determine the supporting ideas
    • Explaining how the evidence supports the controlling idea/thesis
    • Determining if the evidence includes any potential biases that may affect the text’s credibility
    • Determining information that may have been intentionally or unintentionally omitted, if any, and explaining why this omission is important
    • Analyzing all paragraphs in the text to determine how it reinforces the controlling idea/thesis and purpose
    • Analyzing how the conclusion provides closure for the audience
  • Controlling idea — the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing; a controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author’s purpose for writing the paragraph or essay.
  • Thesis — a statement or premise supported by arguments
  • Evidence — specific details or facts that support an inference or idea

Note(s):

  • Refer to 6.11B for more information on composing informational texts.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A3. Identify explicit and implicit textual information including main ideas and author’s purpose.
6.8D.ii features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information; and

Analyze

characteristics and structural elements of informational texts, including:

FEATURES TO GAIN BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyzing features of informational texts may include:
    • Identifying the meaning and purpose of graphic features such as the introduction, foreward, preface, references, acknowledgements, insets, timelines, sidebars, headings, charts, graphs, illustrations, photos, etc. and determining which key idea or supporting idea they relate to and support
    • Determining the function of the text/print or graphic features:
      • To clarify information
      • To summarize information
      • To aid in visualization
      • To provide additional information
      • To explain a process
      • To organize or group ideas and information
      • To emphasize ideas
      • To support ideas
    • Determining how the features support the author’s purpose, controlling idea/thesis, and/or provide background/contextual information
    • Determining if the features include any potential biases that may affect the text’s credibility
  • Text/print feature — any characteristic of the text outside the main body of the text that helps convey meaning
  • Graphic feature — picture or other image within a text

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s): 
    • Refer to 6.5C for information related to making predictions using text features.
    • Refer to 6.9C for information related to author’s use of print and graphic features.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A2. Use text features to form an overview of content and to locate information.
6.8D.iii organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage.

Analyze

characteristics and structural elements of informational texts, including:

Analyzing

ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying the organizational patterns/text structures employed to support the controlling idea/thesis may include:
    • Identifying patterns/structures such as definition, classification, advantage/disadvantage, sequential order, problem/solution, description, compare/contrast, cause/effect, etc. in the text by looking for word choice and details that indicate a particular structure
    • Deconstructing the structural elements of the organizational pattern to determine how the elements impact the overall message of the text
    • Determining how the pattern(s)/ structure(s) contribute to or reinforce the controlling idea/thesis, text meaning, and purpose
    • Explaining the influence or effect of the pattern(s)/ structure(s) on the intended audience 
  • Organizational pattern — the pattern an author constructs as he organizes his or her ideas and provides supporting details
    • Definition — an organizational pattern in which an author explains or describes a topic by listing examples, features, and characteristics of the subject
    • Classification — an organizational structure in which an author sorts bigger ideas into smaller distinguishing groups and describes the traits of each group 
    • Advantage and disadvantage — an organizational pattern in which an author objectively explores the pros and cons of an issue

Note(s):

  • Organizational patterns can be found in sections of text (single or multiple paragraphs) or throughout an entire text. Some texts may have multiple organizational patterns.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.9B for more information about the connection between text structure and author’s purpose.
    • Refer to 6.10Bi for information related to using an appropriate organizational structure when composing texts.
6.9 Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:
6.9A Explain the author's purpose and message within a text.

Explain

THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE AND MESSAGE WITHIN A TEXT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying the genre and mode of discourse by looking for genre characteristics and audio/visual elements (if present) in order to determine the general purpose associated with the genre
  • Identifying details about the work’s rhetorical situation (author, topic, intended audience, context/occasion) that may reveal key information about the author’s purpose and message
  • Identifying the author’s stated or implied purpose (e.g., to inform, persuade, entertain, describe, explain, analyze, etc.)
  • Identifying the author’s message (theme, controlling idea/thesis, or claim) by closely reading, annotating, and analyzing key ideas, supporting details, text structure(s), and the author’s use of language
  • Explaining both the author’s purpose and message in a clear statement (e.g., John Doe wrote the article, “Title,” in order to argue that school uniforms benefit students. Jane Doe wrote the personal narrative “Title,” to explain the positive impact her grandmother had on her upbringing.)
  • Making inferences about the author’s purpose for including specific details, paragraphs, sections of text, text/print and graphic features, etc.
  • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Author’s purpose — the reason an author writes about a particular topic (e.g., to persuade, to entertain, to inform, to explain, to analyze, etc.); the reason an author includes particular details, features, or devices in a work 

Note(s):

  • While this SE focuses on determining the author’s purpose and message while reading (or viewing), this SE also applies to writing. Students should utilize the knowledge and skills gained from analyzing different authors and texts to their own writing and performances. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
      • II. Reading — A3. Identify explicit and implicit textual information including main ideas and author’s purpose.
6.9B Analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose.

Analyze

HOW THE USE OF TEXT STRUCTURE CONTRIBUTES TO THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying the genre and mode of discourse by looking for genre characteristics and audio/visual elements (if present) in order to determine text structure(s)/organization(s) associated with the genre
  • Identifying details about the work’s rhetorical situation (author, topic, intended audience, context/occasion) that may reveal key information about the text structure(s)/organization(s)
  • Identifying the author’s stated or implied purpose (e.g., to inform, persuade, entertain, describe, explain, analyze, etc.) and considering how the purpose may influence text structure(s)/organization(s) used
  • Identifying the author’s message (controlling idea/thesis) by closely reading, annotating, and analyzing key ideas, supporting details, text structure(s)/organization(s), and the author’s use of language
  • Examining word choice, including transitions that may indicate the text structure(s)/organizational pattern(s)
  • Determining text structures/organizational patterns within the text such as cause/effect, problem and solution, compare/contrast, description, order of importance, chronological, etc.; if the text is literary or fictional, linear and non-linear narrative plot structures may be appropriate to identify
  • Making inferences about how specific text structure(s)/organizational pattern(s) influence and reinforce key ideas and the author’s purpose throughout the text as well as create coherence throughout the text
  • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Text structure — the way or pattern in which an author organizes ideas within a text
  • Organizational pattern — the pattern an author constructs as he or she organizes his or her ideas and provides supporting details. Examples of commonly used patterns are cause and effect, problem and solution, description, and order of importance.
  • Author’s purpose — the reason an author writes about a particular topic (e.g., to persuade, to entertain, to inform, to explain to analyze, etc.); the reason an author includes particular details, features, or devices in a work

Note(s):

  • While this SE focuses on determining the connection between text structure and author’s purpose while reading (or viewing), this SE also applies to writing. Students should utilize the knowledge and skills gained from studying different authors and texts to their own products and performances.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.8Diii for more information related to organizational patterns.
    • Refer to 6.9A for information related to author’s purpose and message.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
6.9C Analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes.

Analyze

THE AUTHOR’S USE OF PRINT AND GRAPHIC FEATURES TO ACHIEVE SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Previewing or scanning the text for use of text/print and graphic features
  • Identifying the type of text/print and/or graphic feature(s)
  • Determining the function, meaning, and purpose of the feature(s) (e.g., to clarify, to summarize, to aid in visualization, to provided additional information, to explain a process, to organize/group ideas, to emphasize ideas, to support ideas, to evoke an emotional response, etc.)
  • Integrating the meaning of the text/print and/or graphic feature(s) with the meaning of the text as a whole or with a section of text and referring back to the features as needed to support comprehension
  • Explaining how the text/print and/or graphic features reinforce the author’s purpose and controlling idea/thesis
  • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Text/print features — any characteristic of the text outside the main body of the text that helps convey meaning
      • Examples may include: titles, headings, bolded, italicized, or highlighted text, subtitles/subheadings, captions, bullets, pull quotes, footnotes, endnotes, citations, sidebars, hyperlinks, pop-ups, etc.
  • Graphic feature — picture or other image within a text
      • Examples include: diagrams, illustrations/drawings, photographs, maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, infographics, embedded multimedia, icons, etc.

Note(s):

  • While this SE focuses on determining the purpose of text/print and graphic features while reading (or viewing), this SE also applies to writing. Students should utilize the knowledge and skills gained from studying different authors and texts to their own products and performances.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.8Dii for information related to text/print and graphic features.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
      • II. Reading — A2. Use text features to form an overview of content and to locate information.
6.10 Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:
6.10A Plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests.

Plan

FIRST DRAFT BY SELECTING A GENRE FOR A PARTICULAR TOPIC, PURPOSE, AND AUDIENCE USING A RANGE OF STRATEGIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Planning a first draft may include:
    • Annotating the prompt (if provided) or identifying a self-selected or teacher-selected topic
    • Identifying the purpose for writing: to inform, persuade, entertain, describe, analyze, etc.
    • Determining the occasion in which the writing will be read or viewed 
    • Identifying the audience intended for the writing and assessing the audience’s knowledge and interest level in the topic 
    • Understanding how to utilize the genre characteristics of the appropriate genre
    • Notetaking background knowledge and questions about the chosen topic and brainstorming ideas about personal interests in the topic
    • Reading, annotating, and analyzing texts that relate to a prompt or topics of interest
    • Discussing potential ideas with classmates/peers by asking and answering questions
    • Developing an engaging controlling idea/thesis relevant to the chosen topic
    • Organizing notes into a graphic organizer, map/web, or outline by categorizing ideas and details about the selected topic and determining the best sequence to present them in the draft
    • Drafting and revising the controlling idea/thesis throughout the planning process
  • Topic — a specific subject, idea, or issue that is the focus of a discussion, essay, article, or other work
  • Purpose — the intended goal of a piece of writing; the reason a person writes
  • Audience — the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium
  • Genre — the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Note(s):

  • Although planning (or prewriting) is often referred to as the first step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
      • I. Writing — A2. Generate ideas, gather information, and manage evidence relevant to the topic and purpose.
6.10B Develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

Develop

DRAFTS INTO A FOCUSED, STRUCTURED, AND COHERENT PIECE OF WRITING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Developing drafts into structured, focused, coherent writing may include:
    • Revising the working outline, graphic organizer, map/web from the planning stage based on readings, thinking, conversations, notes, and experimenting with the sequence of the organization to support the writing purpose and to appeal to the intended audience 
    • Writing a draft that follows the pre-planned outline, graphic organizer, or map/web
    • Using a text structure(s) throughout the draft that is appropriate to the genre, audience, and purpose of the prompt, including a strong introduction, detailed body, and meaningful conclusion when necessary
    • Determining and using an appropriate tone, voice, and diction for the work
    • Utilizing genre characteristics during writing, including literary/rhetorical devices
    • Emulating aspects of other authors’ craft in the same genre
    • Including text evidence, ideas, or details that are strongly related and contribute to the controlling idea/thesis
    • Maintaining focus on the topic to create cohesion of ideas
    • Elaborating on specific parts of the text to support the author’s purpose and the audience’s visualization and understanding
    • Using appeals and engaging hooks that will influence the intended audience throughout the draft
    • Choosing words that are precise and support the author’s purpose and voice as well as assist the audience in visualizing and understanding the ideas presented
    • Experimenting with sentence structure to support rhythm, flow, author’s purpose, and the audience’s visualization and understanding
    • Experimenting with conventions to draw the reader’s attention to the text, support author’s purpose, and enhance the audience’s understanding
    • Continuing discussion with a community of writers
  • External coherence — organization of the major components of a written composition—introduction, body, conclusion, or, in the case of a multi-paragraph essay, the paragraphs—in a logical sequence so that they flow easily and progress from one idea to another while still holding true to the central idea of the composition
  • Internal coherence — a logical organization and fluid progression of ideas and/or sentences. A piece of writing with internal coherence does not contradict itself.

Note(s):

  • Although drafting is often referred to as the second step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Reading and writing are reciprocal processes. As writers develop drafts, they draw ideas from texts they have read and may apply the craft and techniques of other authors in their own writing. Refer to 6.9A-G for more information about author’s purpose and craft.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A3. Evaluate relevance, quality, sufficiency, and depth of preliminary ideas and information; organize material generated; and formulate a thesis or purpose statement.
6.10B.i organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

Develop

drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

Organizing

WITH PURPOSEFUL STRUCTURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organizing a draft with purposeful structure may include:
    • Choosing an appropriate text structure(s) for the author’s purpose, genre, context/occasion, and the audience’s knowledge and interest levels
      • Examples of text structures include: chronological order, sequential order, order of importance, cause-and-effect, compare and contrast, problem/solution, and description
    • Using meaningful transition words/phrases and sentence-to-sentence connections to enhance the flow of the work and create cohesiveness
      • Examples of transitions that add include: and, furthermore, in addition to
      • Examples of transitions that compare include: also, likewise, as well
      • Examples of transitions that contrast include: but, however, alternatively
      • Examples of transitions that prove include: consequently, thus, therefore
      • Examples of transitions that show relationships in time include: first, second, third, finally, then
      • Examples of transitions that give an example include: for example, for instance
      • Examples of transitions that summarize or conclude include: finally, in conclusion
      • Examples of transitions that emphasize include: in fact, always, without a doubt, definitely, obviously
    • Including and building upon ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to creating a focused, controlled work
    • Choosing words that are purposeful and precise and support the overall meaning of the work
    • Ensuring there is coherence within and across paragraphs by establishing clear connections and logical order between ideas
    • Shifting the order of paragraphs, sentences, and information during the writing process to improve clarity and coherence
    • Writing an effective introduction, detailed body paragraphs, and meaningful concluding paragraphs when appropriate for the genre and writing purpose
  • Organization of a paper — the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.
  • Text structure — the way or pattern in which an author organizes ideas within a text
  • Transitional words/phrases — words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.
  • Coherent — logically ordered, with consistent relations of parts to the whole (e.g., a coherent essay)

Note(s):

  • Text structures are highly dependent on the chosen genre, and not all text structures work with all genres.
  • The length of any draft is determined by various factors such as purpose, genre, assignment, time constraints, student ability, publishing space/format, etc. Students should be writing drafts of varying lengths.
6.10B.ii developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

Develop

drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

Developing

AN ENGAGING IDEA REFLECTING DEPTH OF THOUGHT WITH SPECIFIC FACTS AND DETAILS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Strategies for developing and supporting engaging idea (controlling idea/thesis) may include:
    • Deepening knowledge of specific details related to the topic through various methods such as reflective writing/notetaking, discussions, background reading/research, interviewing, etc.
    • Reflecting on personal, social, and/or universal implications of the topic and considering multiple perspectives on topic details to revise the working engaging idea as necessary
    • Creating, narrowing, and modifying supporting ideas that maintain a focused and coherent connection to the topic, purpose, and working engaging idea
    • Connecting prior knowledge, facts, and details to develop each supporting idea
    • Developing explanations of supporting details that move beyond a literal meaning
    • Selecting and utilizing specific and relevant examples, facts, analogies, and/or anecdotes to illustrate each supporting idea
    • Providing meaningful and insightful commentary for each supporting idea and any examples, facts, etc. discussed therein
    • Ensuring all development of ideas correspond with specified genre characteristics
  • Facts — truths that are verifiable
  • Details — ideas included or intentionally omitted by an author that contribute to his or her purpose
  • Examples — instances or explanations that demonstrate, further clarify, or prove the accuracy of a statement or idea and may include a series of facts, interpretations, personal anecdotes, or hypothetical situations

Note(s):

  • As students develop their ideas throughout their draft, it is important to maintain a purposeful organization as addressed in 6.10Bi.
6.10C Revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety.

Revise

DRAFTS FOR CLARITY, DEVELOPMENT, ORGANIZATION, STYLE, WORD CHOICE, AND SENTENCE VARIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Revising drafts may include:
    • Reviewing task or purpose of the writing assignment and ensuring all content requirements have been met and applicable genre characteristics employed
  • Revising the draft for clarity by:
    • Assessing internal and external coherence by identifying areas lacking in sufficient detail and precision and adding relevant details to improve clarity
    • Checking for unclear references such as pronoun/antecedent agreement and adding nouns as necessary to improve clarity
  • Evaluating the draft for strong development of ideas by:
    • Ensuring that the draft is developed with specific, well-chosen examples and commentary that support the key ideas and fulfill the writing task
    • Modifying details to clarify meaning and ideas
    • Deleting extraneous, unrelated, or repetitive details/ information that detract from the topic and thesis
    • Adding details to develop or explain underdeveloped key ideas, evidence, or commentary
    • Reordering and combining details, sentences, and paragraphs to enhance readability, flow, and coherence
    • Reviewing closing/concluding sentence(s) for emphasis of the overall message or thesis
  • Evaluating the draft for strong organization by:
    • Examining the chosen text structure(s) of the paper to determine if it matches the writing task and if ideas flow, are clear, and are effectively supported with details
    • Ensuring the essay has a clear introduction/hook, body, and conclusion
    • Determining if paragraphs are in a logical order
    • Ensuring examples and evidence connect to the topic sentence and that paragraphs are focused on a specific topic
    • Improving transitions between ideas in sentences and paragraphs to enhance flow and coherence
  • Evaluating the draft’s stylistic features by:
    • Ensuring language is appropriately formal or informal
    • Avoiding use of the passive voice and favoring an active voice when possible and appropriate
    • Ensuring a consistent point of view, voice, tone, and perspective is maintained throughout the text
    • Improving word choice by incorporating precise words that create visual images and including sensory details that enhance meaning and are appropriate for the purpose and audience
    • Replacing over-used, vague, or ambiguous word choice with more appropriate and precise synonyms
    • Avoiding slang, euphemisms, or biased language as appropriate
    • Using words that best reflect the tone of the writing
    • Using varied syntax/sentence structures that are purposeful, controlled, and enhance the effectiveness of the piece
    • Rearranging syntax to emphasize an important idea or tone as necessary
  • Revising — a stage in the writing process when a text is examined holistically and changes are made to improve the focus, content, organization, sentence structure, and word choice in order to clarify the intended message, create flow, and more successfully engage the audience
  • Clarity — the quality of being clear; easy to see, hear, or understand
  • Development — the depth of thought provided in a work as a whole by incorporating strong details, supportive examples, and thorough commentary
  • Organization of a paper — the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.
  • Text structure — the way or pattern in which an author organizes ideas within a text
  • Style — the unique characteristics that describe a writer’s use of language; diction, syntax, sentence fluency, figurative language, and voice all contribute to a writer’s style
  • Word choice — the author’s thoughtful use of precise vocabulary to fully convey meaning to the reader

Note(s):

  • Revising is different from editing. Revision improves the content of the draft whereas editing corrects the grammar and mechanics.
  • Revising is an important part of the writing process. Many times students will feel like they are “done” after their first draft. Encourage students to continue re-reading their drafts through the eyes of their audience to find areas for improvement.
  • Although revising is often referred to as the third step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A4. Review feedback and revise each draft by organizing it more logically and fluidly, refining key ideas, and using language more precisely and effectively.
6.10D Edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

Edit

DRAFTS USING STANDARD ENGLISH CONVENTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Editing drafts using standard English conventions may include:
    • Checking for and correcting sentence structure
    • Checking for and correcting verb tense and subject-verb agreement
    • Checking for and correcting parts of speech and usage
    • Checking for and correcting capitalization
    • Checking for and correcting punctuation
    • Checking for and correcting spelling
    • Assessing whether choices in conventions and structures support the intended message and purpose
  • Other considerations for editing may include:
    • Studying mentor texts (texts used for study and imitation) for the use of standard English conventions and authors’ choices in conventions
    • Employing both standard English conventions and non-standard choices in spelling, grammar, and punctuation to craft a written message that affects the reader for a specific purpose
    • Using unconventional choices intentionally to affect the reader may include:
      • Using fragment sentences to draw the readers’ attention to a specific point, to create a dramatic pause, to create a rhythm in the syntax, etc.
      • Using unconventional grammar, spelling, and slang to convey regional dialects or speech patterns common in specific communities
      • Using run-on sentences to vary sentence structure, affect rhythm, or craft lyrical prose
  • Conventions — standard rules of grammar and language, including written mechanics such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and paragraphs and written/oral usage such as word order, subject-verb agreement, and sentence structure
  • Mechanics — in writing, the use of standard rules of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and usage as opposed to expressive or artistic considerations.
  • Editing — a stage in the writing process when a written text is prepared for an audience by attending to and correcting mechanics, grammar, and spelling.

Note(s):

  • Editing is different from revising. Editing corrects the mechanics; whereas, revising improves the content of the draft.
  • Although editing is often referred to as the fourth step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • It may be overwhelming for some students to edit an entire draft at one time, so editing periodically during the process of writing will lessen the burden at the end.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.10Di-ix for information on the specific grade-level expectations for language conventions. Students should also be responsible for previously learned conventions.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A5. Edit writing for audience, purpose, context, and style, assuring that it conforms to Standard American English, when appropriate.
6.10D.i complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

Edit

drafts using standard English conventions, including:

COMPLETE COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT AND AVOIDANCE OF SPLICES, RUN-ONS, AND FRAGMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Editing for complete sentences may include:
    • Checking complex sentences for one independent clause and at least one dependent clause beginning with a subordinate conjunction (see note below)
      • Example with the dependent clause first (requires a comma): Although the dog barked at the mail carrier, he wasn’t scared.
      • Example with the independent clause first (no comma required): The mail carrier was not scared when the dog barked at him.
    • Checking compound sentences for two independent clauses joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction or semicolon (addressed in previous grade level SEs)
      • Example: The dog barked at the mail carrier, but he wasn’t scared.
    • Checking simple sentences for a subject and a predicate (addressed in previous grade level SEs)
    • Avoiding comma splices where two independent clauses are incorrectly separated by a comma
      • Example: The dog barked at the mail carrier, he wasn’t scared.
        • Correction using period and capital letter: The dog barked at the mail carrier. He wasn’t scared.
        • Correction using a comma and a coordinating conjunction: The dog barked at the mail carrier, but he wasn’t scared.
        • Correction using a semicolon: The dog barked at the mail carrier; he wasn’t scared.
    • Avoiding run-on sentences where two or more independent clauses are joined inappropriately.
      • Example: The dog barked at the mail carrier he wasn’t scared.
        • Corrections are the same as the comma splice
    • Avoiding fragments that are not complete sentences/independent clauses and cannot stand alone
      • Example with a missing subject: Wasn’t afraid of the dog barking.
      • Example with a missing predicate:The barking dog.
      • Example that has a subject and predicate but also has a subordinating conjunction that makes it a dependent clause: When the dog barked.
  • Editing for subject-verb agreement may include:
    • Ensuring that singular subjects contain singular verbs and plural subjects contain plural verbs
      • Example of singular subject-verb agreement: The dog barks at the mail carrier every day.
      • Example of plural subject-verb agreement: The dogs bark at the mail carrier every day.
    • Ensuring that phrases separating the subject and verb do not affect the subject-verb agreement:
      • Incorrect example of subject-verb agreement affected by a phrase: The dog who has many friends bark at the mail carrier.
        • Correction: change the verb to barks
    • Ensuring that compound subjects do not affect the subject-verb agreement:
      • Incorrect example of subject-verb agreement affected by a compound subject: The mail carrier and the neighbor wasn’t scared of the barking dog.
        • Correction: change the verb to weren’t
      • Incorrect example of subject-verb agreement affected by a compound subject: The neighbors nor the mail carrier were scared of the barking dog.
        • Correction: change the verb to was
  • Considering syntactical variety and incorporating simple, complex, and compound-complex sentences to create flow
  • Complete sentence — an independent clause that contains a group of words expressing a complete thought that contains a subject (who or what) and a predicate (verb or action)
  • Simple sentence — a sentence with one clause
  • Compound sentence — a sentence composed of at least two independent clauses linked with a conjunction or semicolon
  • Complex sentence — a sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause
  • Independent clause— a group of words containing a subject and a verb that can stand alone as a complete sentence; also called a main clause
  • Dependent clause— a group of words with a subject and a verb that modifies a main or independent clause to which it is joined (e.g., until you leave in I will wait until you leave); also called a subordinate clause
  • Subordinate clause — a clause containing a subject and a verb that modifies a main or independent clause but cannot stand alone; also called a dependent clause
  • Comma splice — an incorrect sentence structure that occurs when two independent clauses are combined using only a comma
  • Run-on sentence — an incorrect sentence structure that occurs when two or more independent clauses are joined without any punctuation
  • Fragment — an incorrect sentence structure that occurs when a sentence is incomplete because it is missing a subject or predicate

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Although semi-colons are not addressed until Grade 7, students may encounter compounds sentences that use semi-colons.
6.10D.ii consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

Edit

drafts using standard English conventions, including:

CONSISTENT, APPROPRIATE USE OF VERB TENSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Editing for correct use of verb tense includes:
    • Identifying the most appropriate tense for the genre, purpose, and context of the work and checking for consistent use
    • Evaluating the text for shifts in time to indicate needed shifts in verb tense
    • Noting and verifying the proper use of irregular verb conjugation
    • Ensuring consistent and appropriate use of verb tense such as simple past, present, and future; progressive past, present, and future; perfect past, present and future; and perfect progressive past present, and future
    • Using correct simple past, present, and future tenses when appropriate
      • Examples include: I ate cake; I eat cake; I will eat cake.
    • Using correct progressive past, present, and future tenses when appropriate
      • Examples include: I was eating cake at the time; I am eating cake at this moment; I will be eating cake later today.
    • Using correct perfect past, present, and future tenses when appropriate
      • Examples include: I had eaten cake by that time; I have eaten cake; I will have eaten cake.
    • Using correct perfect progressive past, perfect, future tenses when appropriate
      • Examples include: I had been eating cake all morning; I have been eating cake all my life; I will have been eating cake for the last several days.
  • Consistent tense —the use of the same verb tense throughout a sentence, paragraph, or essay. Shifting from one verb tense to another should be done only when demonstrating a shift in time.
  • Irregular verb — a verb that does not follow the normal rules of conjugation (e.g., go, went, gone as forms of to go)
6.10D.iii conjunctive adverbs;

Edit

drafts using standard English conventions, including:

CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS                             

Including, but not limited to:

  • Editing for correct use of conjunctive adverbs may include:
    • Identifying conjunctive adverbs
      • Examples include: consequently, furthermore, indeed, however, nonetheless, therefore, meanwhile
      • Misconception: Students may think that all adverbs end in -ly
    • Ensuring that when a conjunctive adverb is used to show relationships between ideas within an independent clause, it is set off by a comma(s)
      • Example of a conjunctive adverb at the beginning of a sentence: School got out at noon. Finally, it was summer.
      • Example of a conjunctive adverb being used as an aside or pause in the middle of a sentence: I was waiting for my mom to pick me up from school. I was determined, nevertheless, to not let it bother me.
      • Example of a conjunctive adverb at the end of a sentence: School got out at noon. My mom picked me up at one o’clock, finally.
    • Ensuring that when a conjunctive adverb is used between two independent clauses in one sentence that it is preceded by a semi-colon and followed by a comma
      • Example: School got out at noon; however, my mom didn’t come until one o’clock.
  • Editing for adverbs (previously learned skills) may also include:
    • Ensuring that adverbs appropriately describe the verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs they modify
    • Eliminating or replacing overused and unnecessary adverbs
  • Adverb —a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
  • Conjunctive adverb — an adverb that introduces or connects independent clauses and that shows cause and effect, comparison, contrast, or some other relationship between clauses

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Semicolons are not officially addressed until Grade 7. However, students will need to understand the use of semicolons when using conjunctive adverbs
6.10D.vi subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

Edit

drafts using standard English conventions, including:

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS TO FORM COMPLEX SENTENCES AND CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Editing for correct use of subordinating conjunctions in complex sentences may include:
    • Identifying subordinating conjunctions in complex sentences:
      • Examples include: while, because, when although, if, unless, since, whereas, as
    • Ensuring that the meaning of the subordinating conjunction relates to the ideas in the sentence
    • Ensuring proper punctuation in complex sentences with subordinating conjunctions
      • Example of a complex sentence with the independent clause first followed by the dependent clause (does not require a comma): Both teachers and students were at the assembly because of the special guest.
      • Example of a complex sentence with the dependent clause first followed by the independent clause (requires a comma): Because of the special guest, both teachers and students were at the assembly.
    • Varying the placement of dependent clauses in sentences to improve flow and rhythm as necessary
  • Editing for correct use of correlative conjunctions in a sentence may include:
    • Identifying correlative conjunctions:
      • Examples include: either/or, neither/nor, both/and, if/then, whether/or
    • Ensuring one word from a correlative conjunction pair (e.g., either/or, neither/nor, both/and, if/then, whether/or) is used first and the other corresponding conjunction is used later in the sentence
      • Example of neither/nor usage: Neither the boys nor the girls are awake this morning.
      • Example of either/or usage: The principal will either make an announcement at the beginning of the day or at the day’s end.
    • Ensuring that the meaning of the correlative conjunction relates to the ideas in the sentence
  • Subordinating conjunction — a conjunction that introduces a dependent clause and connects it to an independent clause; the subordinating conjunction shows the relationship between two ideas in a sentence to indicate time, place, or cause/effect
  • Complex sentence— a sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause
  • Correlative conjunction — a type of conjunction comprised of a pair of words that work together to connect equivalent elements of a sentence and to indicate a relationship between these two parts of the sentence 
  • Independent clause — a group of words containing a subject and a verb that can stand alone as a complete sentence; also called a main clause
  • Dependent clause — a group of words with a subject and a verb that modifies a main or independent clause to which it is joined; also called a subordinate clause
  • Subordinate clause — a clause containing a subject and a verb that modifies a main or independent clause but cannot stand alone; also called a dependent clause (e.g., until he goes in I will wait until he goes)

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Correlative conjunctions are introduced in Grade 6.
    • Refer to 6.10Di for more information about complex sentences.
    • Refer to 6.10Dviii for more information on commas in complex sentences.
6.10D.vii capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

Edit

drafts using standard English conventions, including:

CAPITALIZATION OF PROPER NOUNS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Editing for correct capitalization includes may include:
    • Proper nouns, including:
      • Names of people and their titles
      • Historical periods, events, and documents
      • Titles of books, stories, and essays
      • Languages, races, and nationalities
      • Official titles of people
      • Holidays
      • Geographical names and places
      • Months and days of the week
      • Organizations (a group of people organized for a designated purpose in society or business)
      • Proper noun abbreviations
    • Proper nouns that can be common or proper depending on use
    • Capitalization skills addressed in previous grade levels include:
      • The first word of a sentence
      • The pronoun “I”
      • Abbreviations, initials, and acronyms
      • The greeting and closing of a letter
      • First words in a list
      • The first word of a direct quotation when the quote is a complete sentence and refraining from capitalizing direct quotations that are sentence fragments or embedded within a sentence
      • Both words in a hyphenated word that acts as a proper noun (ex. All-American); only one word in the hyphenated word if only one is proper (ex. mid-September);  and no letter of a hyphenated word if it creates a common noun (ex: ex-principal, sugar-free)
  • Proper noun — a part of speech that identifies a specific person, place, organization, or title and begins with a capital letter
  • Abbreviation — a shortened form of words or phrases that usually requires a period at the end (exceptions include directions and metric measurements) and are pronounced like the original word the abbreviation represents
  • Initials — the first letter of a name or word followed by a period that is pronounced by the individual letters
  • Acronyms — a type of abbreviation formed from the first letter of multiple words that does not require periods after each letter and is pronounced as a new word phonetically or by its individual letters (called initialisms)
6.10E Publish written work for appropriate audiences.

Publish

WRITTEN WORK FOR APPROPRIATE AUDIENCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Publishing written work may include:
    • Finalizing an error-free draft after completing multiple revisions/drafts of a work based on self and peer editing/feedback that incorporates appropriate genre characteristics and style guide requirements to meet the needs of an audience’s interest level, knowledge, and attention span
    • Choosing a platform/format to publish a work based on the genre, purpose, occasion/context, and audience of the work such as
      • Traditional research paper or classroom essay assignment
      • Informal sharing or presentation with classmates, teacher, or other audience
      • Speech or multimodal digital presentation in a classroom or other venue such as a shared school place or public space 
      • Submitting an informational text to an organization, publication/magazine/newspaper, or contest
      • Posting a podcast, blog, vlog, digital portfolio/story, or other audio/visual presentations online or through an app
      • Presenting or distributing a visual display of communication such as a photo essay in a specified venue/gallery
    • Ensuring all submission guidelines, format, and style requirements are met for the chosen publication format
  • Audience — the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Note(s):

  • Planning for publication roots the writing process in authentic purposes for authentic audiences and influences each stage of the writing process.
  • Students may consider their own interests and strengths for their publication style depending on the parameters of the assignment or task.
  • This is the last step in the writing process and focuses on making written or composed works accessible and attractive to the chosen audience. This includes making a handwritten work legible with good penmanship and a typed work properly formatted.
6.11 Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:
6.11B Compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea orthesis statement and genre characteristics and craft.

Compose

INFORMATIONAL TEXTS USING A CLEAR CONTROLLING IDEA OR THESIS STATEMENT AND GENRE CHARACTERISTICS AND CRAFT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Engaging in the writing process to collect ideas and develop them into an informational text, including multi-paragraph essays
  • Applying characteristics and techniques employed by the authors of mentor texts in order to develop original informational texts that demonstrate strong reading-writing connections
  • Applying genre characteristics and craft techniques for informational texts such as multi-paragraph essays, reports, research, journalism, blogs/vlogs, speeches, etc. that inform, explain, describe, or define a topic, including: 
    • Choosing a style (informal vs. formal, word choice, voice, syntax, use of language) appropriate for the intended audience, topic, purpose, and setting/context of the text
    • Using third-person point of view (typically) but may be written in first-person or second-person as well
    • Establishing a clear controlling idea/thesis
    • Creating an effective introduction that establishes the controlling idea/thesis
    • Creating focused and coherent body paragraphs that develop ideas clearly and contain compelling and accurate facts, details, statistics, empirical data, anecdotal evidence, examples, and relevant research that support the controlling idea/thesis
    • Using text/print and graphic features that support the purpose and thesis/controlling idea 
    • Utilizing logical organizational pattern(s) that suit the audience and purpose of the essay such as compare/contrast, problem/solution, chronological order, etc.
    • Incorporating transitions and strong sentence-to-sentence connections to enhance the flow of the text
    • Choosing words, phrases, and details that create an unbiased, objective, and neutral tone in order to maintain an informative, not persuasive, purpose
    • Utilizing precise academic or technical language as necessary to ensure clarity
    • Understanding the effect the informative text will have on the reader/recipient and ensuring diction and style reflect the writer’s intent
    • Creating a concluding paragraph that provides closure to the essay and reinforces the thesis
  • Informational text a text that presents information in order to explain, clarify, and/or educate
  • Author’s craft — intentional and deliberate use of organizational patterns, text and graphic features, syntax, devices, and diction to create an effective written work; author’s craft may vary by genre

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.9A-E for more information related to the writing process.
    • Refer to 6.8Di-iii for more information related to analyzing characteristics of informational texts.
    • Refer to 6.9A-C for information related to author’s purpose and craft.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A3. Evaluate relevance, quality, sufficiency, and depth of preliminary ideas and information; organize material generated; and formulate a thesis or purpose statement.
6.12 Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:
6.12A Generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry.

Generate

STUDENT-SELECTED AND TEACHER-GUIDED QUESTIONS FOR FORMAL AND INFORMAL INQUIRY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determining the topic and central focus of the inquiry
  • Setting goals for the outcome of the inquiry
  • Using previous knowledge and experience to generate questions
  • Researching information as needed to develop questions
  • Avoiding repetitious questions
  • Utilizing open-ended questions to elicit multiple responses from multiple perspectives while avoiding “yes or no” questions
  • Aligning questions with the goals and purpose of the inquiry
  • Organizing questions so that the information explored deepens understanding of topic
  • Seeking the guidance of peers and teachers/supervisors as necessary to determine appropriate questioning for a topic
  • Developing questions that are suited for an in-depth, formal inquiry to support a fact-based investigation such as questions seeking hard evidence, interview questions, polls, surveys, etc.
  • Developing questions that are suited for a more casual, less formal inquiry meant to identify generalized information and answers such as conversational questions, topical searches, informal surveys, etc.
  • Student-selected questions may be based on self-chosen topics, personal interests and reflections, academic curiosities, social/cultural dynamics or concerns, etc.
  • Teacher-guided questions may steer students towards specific topics, assignment goals, skill focus, differing points of view, etc.
  • Forms of inquiry may include:
    • Structured inquiry – teacher controls the topic and the research question(s); students follow the lead of the teacher as the whole class engages in the inquiry process together
    • Controlled inquiry – teacher chooses the topic and research question(s) and identifies the resources that will be used; students gather information to answer the research question(s) from the selected resources
    • Guided inquiry – students are given an overarching topic and questions are generated together; students select the resources they will use and gather information about the research question(s) from their resources
    • Open inquiry – students generate their own topic and research question(s), select resources, customize a plan, and gather information on the research question(s) from their resources
  • Inquiry — an act of searching for information or knowledge about a particular subject or topic

Note(s):

  • Inquiry encourages students to question, conduct research, and make discoveries for authentic reasons.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Consider how students generating questions about a specific text before, during, and after reading in 6.5B differs from generating questions for inquiry.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A2. Generate ideas, gather information, and manage evidence relevant to the topic and purpose.
    • V. Research — A. Formulate topic and questions..
      • V. Research — A1. Articulate and investigate research questions.
6.12B Develop and revise a plan.

Develop

A RESEARCH PLAN

Including, but not limited to:

  • Planning the steps needed to accomplish research goals may include:
    • Brainstorming and choosing topics (unless one is provided) appropriate for the purpose and audience
    • Brainstorming ideas and questions to develop a working major research question and thesis about the topic
    • Identifying tools for saving, storing, and organizing sources and source material appropriate for the research purpose such as research logs, note cards, online research tools/bookmarks, annotated bibliography, etc.
    • Conducting preliminary research and choosing primary and secondary sources about the topic and working thesis
    • Notetaking, recording, writing, outlining, etc. significant details, relevant information, and quotes from sources to answer research questions and providing original commentary to ensure understanding of information gathered
  • Creating a general timeline and assigning due dates for each step of the plan as well as checkpoints to evaluate progress
  • Identifying and anticipating possible obstacles in the research plan such as limited sources on a topic, personal time commitments, etc.

Revise

A RESEARCH PLAN

Including, but not limited to:

  • Reviewing and critically analyzing each step of the research plan to ensure it meets the goals and purposes of the research/ assignment
  • Evaluating claims and ideas as new information is learned and adjusting the research question as needed
  • Revisiting the timeline and making sure goals will be reached within the parameters of the assignment
  • Evaluating and adjusting research tools/methods as needed
  • Maintaining a willingness to change course, rewrite, and revise as needed as research progresses 
  • Research plan — a timeline created around the research process that identifies the initial steps needed to find accurate, significant, and relevant sources to support the topic of inquiry or working thesis, intermediary steps of reevaluating the research question and revising the thesis based on source analysis, and the final steps of drafting (or equivalent preparation), revising, editing, and presenting results in an appropriate mode of delivery (written, oral, or multimodal)

Note(s):

  • Developing and following a research plan is a recursive process.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A2. Generate ideas, gather information, and manage evidence relevant to the topic and purpose.
    • V. Research — A. Formulate topic and questions..
      • V. Research — A2. Explore and refine a research topic.
6.12C Refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions.

Refine

THE MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION, IF NECESSARY, GUIDED BY THE ANSWERS TO A SECONDARY SET OF QUESTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Evaluating the research question using established criteria for effective research questions such as ensuring that the question:
    • Addresses the central focus, purpose, and goals of the inquiry
    • Is viable and has a favorable or reasonable chance of success
    • Has potential to deepen understanding of the topic
    • Addresses the ambiguities, contradictions, or unexplained components of a topic
    • Maintains some originality and is not too derivative of well-established information in the public realm
    • Comprises a thorough examination of a topic, lends itself to investigating multiple viewpoints and perspectives, and is not simply a “yes or no” question
  • Ensuring the question is suitable for the assignment, topic, and audience
  • Determining the type of information and sources needed to answer the research question
  • Reevaluating the research question after considering newly acquired background information, context, and the results of preliminary data collection
  • Compiling a secondary list of questions resulting from preliminary research
  • Refining the details of the research question after thorough analysis of sources and after establishing answers to secondary questions as necessary
  • Deciding to narrow or broaden (if applicable) the research question based on information gathered
  • Revising the research question based on peer and/or instructor feedback
  • Major research question — a clear, significant, relevant, and researchable question that is informed by preliminary research from various sources

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A2. Generate ideas, gather information, and manage evidence relevant to the topic and purpose.
    • V. Research — A. Formulate topic and questions.
      • V. Research — A2. Explore and refine a research topic.
6.12D Identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources.

Identify, Gather

RELEVANT INFORMATION FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying and gathering relevant information from sources may include:
    • Determining the type of sources needed, including a variety of primary and secondary sources that represent opposing sides/differing perspectives and modalities
    • Brainstorming key words and phrases that should be used to search for sources
    • After preliminary research, evaluating the key words and phrases that will yield the most relevant results in ongoing searches for sources
    • Determining a valid connection between the source and the major research question and the purpose of the research 
    • Annotating and evaluating relevant details within the sources to determine key ideas that relate to the major research question and/or thesis
    • Identifying the date of the chosen sources publication by looking for copyright, publishing date, and “last updated” statements in online sources in order to determine if the source provides current information on the subject 
    • Eliminating unnecessary and unusable sources
    • Developing tools for saving, storing, and organizing sources and notes such as research logs, note cards, browser bookmarks, annotated bibliography, Works Cited page, etc.
  • A variety of sources may include works that represent:
      • Print (books, magazines, periodicals, reference texts)
      • Online sources (websites, blogs, articles)
      • Audio sources
      • Video sources
      • Graphics and images
      • Live interviews and expert testimony
      • Experiments and observations

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.5A-I for more information related to metacognitive comprehension strategies.
    • Refer to 6.12E for more information on primary and secondary sources and 6.12Hi-ii for more information on identifying reliable sources.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A2. Generate ideas, gather information, and manage evidence relevant to the topic and purpose.
    • V. Research — B. Locate, evaluate, and select information from a variety of sources.
      • V. Research — B1. Explore and collect a range of potential sources.
6.12E Differentiate between primary and secondary sources.

Differentiate

BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Differentiating between a primary and secondary source may include:
    • Identifying/determining the origin of the source such as the date and location of publication/creation
    • Identifying the author of the source
    • Evaluating the author’s background and relationship to the subject of the source
    • Identifying how the source has previously been used or studied
    • Understanding that primary sources are original records created by someone with first-hand experience
      • Examples of a primary source may include: letters, speeches, diaries, surveys, fieldwork, personal interviews, images, statistics, original documents, etc.
    • Understanding that secondary sources are a step removed from the experience and generally reference primary sources
      • Examples may include: textbook, newspaper articles, a reporter, magazine articles, reviews, evaluation of a person or speech, second-hand information, etc.
  • Identifying whether the source is a primary or secondary source by asking whether the author/creator of the source had a direct experience with the subject of the source
  • Primary source — a source from the time in which an event being studied occurred and created by someone who was present at the event
  • Secondary source — a source that is a step removed from the original accounts of an event or experience        

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Research — B. Locate, evaluate, and select information from a variety of sources.
      • B2. Distinguish between and among primary and secondary sources.
6.12F Synthesize information from a variety of sources.

Synthesize

INFORMATION FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguishing relevant information from irrelevant information that supports the research focus and purpose
  • Paraphrasing and summarizing pertinent information from sources
  • Combining original thought with information from multiple sources to create and support a thesis or position
  • Identifying connections and information between sources that support a particular idea, thesis, or position
  • Creating new understandings based on analysis of multiple texts
  • Organizing information that supports a thesis or position by annotating, taking notes, and documenting ideas and evidence
  • Using evidence from multiple sources to support a thesis or position
  • A variety of sources may include works that represent:
      • Print (books, magazines, periodicals, reference texts)
      • Online sources (websites, blogs, articles, databasae, etc.)
      • Audio sources
      • Video sources
      • Graphics and images
      • Live interviews
      • Experiments and observations
  • Synthesize — to combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.5A-I for more information related to metacognitive comprehension strategies.
    • Refer to 6.6A-G for more information related to responding to a variety of sources.
  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Research — C. Design and produce an effective produce.
      • V. Research — C1. Integrate and organize material effectively.
6.12G Differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials.

Differentiate

BETWEEN PARAPHRASING AND PLAGIARISM WHEN USING SOURCE MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Understanding that paraphrasing is restating ideas in a source using one’s own words while still maintaining the original meaning
    • Paraphrasing may include:
      • Identifying key ideas in a section of text and/or a whole text
      • Considering the context surrounding a section of text to ensure the idea(s) is interpreted correctly
  • Understanding that plagiarism is taking an author’s words or ideas and using them as one’s own
  • Distinguishing between one’s own ideas/words and those that are borrowed from sources as paraphrases or direct quotes
  • Embedding the author’s name and/or source title into the sentences containing paraphrased or directly quoted material to attribute content origin and avoid plagiarism
  • Using quotation marks to indicate directly quoted material from a source
  • Including a properly formatted (per identified style guide) parenthetical citation at the end of paraphrased or directly quoted material to attribute content origin and avoid plagiarism
  • Paraphrase — to restate the meaning of something in different words. Paraphrasing alters the exact wording of the source and transmits its ideas or information without evaluation or interpretation.
  • Plagiarize — to present the ideas or word of another as one’s own without crediting the source

Note(s):

  • Students must understand that when information is borrowed from a source, it must be given credit through embedded acknowledgement in the text and/or a citation and corresponding bibliography and/or Works Cited page entry to avoid plagiarism.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.6D for more information on paraphrasing.
    • Refer to 6.12I for more information on academic citations.
6.12H Examine sources for:

Examine

SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Evaluating sources for credibility may include:
    • Evaluating the author’s authority on the subject being researched such as education, knowledge, experience, and other credentials
    • Evaluating the origin (or publication) of the information
      • Information that may relate to a source’s authority includes: the publisher, type of source, affiliations the source may have, credentials of the source, etc.
    • Determining the author’s purpose, intended audience, and historical context of the source
    • Evaluating the source for relevance and importance of information
      • Characteristics that relate to a source’s relevance include: the relationship between the source’s details with the topic, intended audience, and purpose of the research 
    • Evaluating a source for currency of information by confirming that a source utilizes current examples and evidence and does not rely on out-of-date information
      • Information that may relate to a source’s currency include: dates of original publication, revisions, and updates as well as the events and examples referenced throughout the work
    • Evaluating the formality and professionalism of the source such as syntax, grammar, and reliable citations to attribute the origin of paraphrased and directly quoted material
    • Determining if the source has been peer reviewed or utilized in other research
    • Evaluating the source for an objective tone by analyzing diction and selection of detail 
    • Determining if the source relies too heavily on emotional appeals
    • Determining potential bias in printed resources and online databases and opting for sources from reputable organizations, journals, universities, and publishers
    • Identifying author bias or prejudice such as political, ideological, cultural, religious, and/or institutional leanings by analyzing one-sided evidence and diction
    • Evaluating the source for logical soundness by analyzing if the author’s claims are supported by strong evidence and rationales as well as reputable sources of information
    • Verifying accuracy of information by cross-referencing facts and claims with other sources
    • Identifying various examples of faulty reasoning and logical fallacies such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, stereotyping, etc.
    • Identifying emotionally charged language and contradictions as possible indicators of faulty reasoning and logical fallacies
    • Seeking evidence and explanation to prove that the author’s reasoning is faulty 
    • Analyzing the author’s motive in using faulty reasoning and logical fallacies and how their use relates to the author’s central claim and purpose 
    • Analyzing possible connections between the author’s use of faulty reasoning and bias
    • Evaluating the credibility of the source based on the author’s use of faulty reasoning
6.12H.i reliability, credibility, and bias; and

Examine

sources for:

RELIABILITY, CREDIBILITY, AND BIAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Reliable source — a credible or believable source. Some questions to evaluate credibility might be: Is the author a respected authority on the subject? Does the author support opinions with strong argumentation and reasoning? How current is the information?
  • Credibility — the quality of having reliable and trustworthy characteristics which may be influenced by an author having expertise on a topic, using unbiased and accurate reasoning, evidence, and sources to support ideas, and providing current and up-to-date information
  • Bias — a particular inclination, feeling, or opinion about a subject that is often preconceived or unreasoned
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
6.1 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:
6.1A Listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately.

Listen

ACTIVELY TO INTERPRET A MESSAGE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Listening actively may include:
    • Practicing attentive body language and/or facial expressions, such as nodding, tilting head, leaning forward slightly, making eye contact, and focusing attention on the speaker rather than environmental factors
    • Considering the rhetorical situation of the communication (speaker’s background, topic, intended audience, context)
    • Annotating, taking notes or following along on provided handouts, visual aids, or other support materials
    • Following directions, answering questions, and participating/engaging with the speaker and presentation as needed or requested
    • Interpreting the speaker’s message by examining details, examples, illustrations, and tone
    • Analyzing the speaker’s nonverbal language by examining elements such as facial expressions, movement, appearance, eye contact, gestures, and posture
    • Using context clues to understand new or unfamiliar vocabulary

Ask

CLARIFYING QUESTIONS

  • Asking clarifying questions may include:
    • Asking questions to gather more information and clarify ideas
    • Asking for explanations of unfamiliar concepts or vocabulary
    • Asking for evidence or resources that support the message and details shared
    • Questioning the validity of the message, details, or viewpoints shared by the speaker or audience 

Respond

APPROPRIATELY

  • Responding appropriately may include:
    • Commenting to add information, make connections, communicate understanding, and challenge claims
    • Engaging the speaker using appropriate timing
    • Responding in a polite tone
    • Staying on topic
    • Respecting multiple perspectives and points of view
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Speaking — A. Understand the elements of both formal and informal communication in group discussions, one-on-one situations, and presentations.
      • II. Speaking — A1. Participate actively, effectively, and respectfully in one-on-one oral communication as well as in group discussions.
    • IV. Listening — A. Apply listening skills in a variety of settings and contexts.
      • V. Listening — A1. Use a variety of active listening strategies to enhance comprehension.
      • IV. Listening — A2. Listen critically and respond appropriately.
6.1B Follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps.

Follow, Give

INSTRUCTIONS THAT INCLUDE MULTIPLE ACTIONS STEPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Clarifying/providing purpose, expectations, required resources/materials, and procedures for written and oral tasks and processes
  • Clarifying/providing specific and appropriate vocabulary
  • Ordering steps and directives in a logical manner
  • Providing advice and tips for success, productivity, and skill improvement
  • Speaking, listening, and collaborating in whole class, small group, and one-on-one contexts
  • Answering, anticipating, and asking questions related to areas of misunderstanding and curiosity
  • Negotiating problems and logical inconsistencies with instructions
  • Reading, annotating, and listening for complete instructions, including the purpose of the activity or task, materials and resources needed, criteria for evaluation, and expectations for participation 
  • Executing a task, performance, or procedure based on multi-step directions
6.1D Participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

Participate

IN STUDENT-LED DISCUSSIONS BY ELICITING AND CONSIDERING SUGGESTIONS FROM OTHER GROUP MEMBERS, TAKING NOTES, AND IDENTIFYING POINTS OF AGREEMENT AND DISAGREEMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Participating in effective student-led discussions may include:
    • Following explicit and implicit instructions to solve a problem, explore a concept, or analyze a work
    • Establishing and maintaining structures, roles, norms, etc. that ensure equal contributions from each group member
    • Leading, facilitating, or engaging in a discussion that is initiated and driven by students
    • Pre-writing, annotating, and/or brainstorming independently prior to collaboration to ensure all group members are informed of the discussion topic
    • Contributing relevant information or research related to the topic
    • Modifying ideas or perspectives as more evidence is presented
    • Redirecting group members who stray off-topic or elaborate on tangential, unrelated ideas
    • Practicing active listening
    • Refraining from dominating the discussion with excessive responding
    • Maintaining respect for group members’ thoughts and opinions and being open to multiple viewpoints
    • Maintaining a positive and welcoming demeanor
  • Eliciting or considering suggestions from other group members may include:
    • Being open and respectful to multiple viewpoints
    • Providing additional relevant details, explanations, and/or research about an idea discussed by oneself or another group member
    • Acknowledging, evaluating, and researching opposing arguments
    • Distinguishing relevant evidence and support from unsubstantiated support
    • Providing and accepting both positive and constructive feedback such as positive observations, compliments, and ideas about improvements or weaknesses
  • Taking notes may include:
    • Identifying, paraphrasing, or summarizing key ideas of the discussion
    • Identifying questions for research related to the topic
  • Identifying points of agreement and disagreement may include:
    • Identifying and categorizing similarities and differences in ideas between group members
    • Using evidence to further explain or support a point of agreement or disagreement
  • Student-led discussions — students lead and engage in extensive conversations about a text or a given topic

Note(s):

  • Structured collaboration involves a systematic approach with pre-established ground rules for contributing as well as responding to the contributions of others.
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Speaking — A. Understand the elements of both formal and informal communication in group discussions, one-on-one situations, and presentations.
      • II. Speaking — A1. Participate actively, effectively, and respectfully in one-on-one oral communication as well as in group discussions.
    • IV. Listening — A. Apply listening skills in a variety of settings and contexts.
      • IV. Listening — A2. Listen critically and respond appropriately.
6.2 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:
6.2A Use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech.

Use

PRINT OR DIGITAL RESOURCES TO DETERMINE THE MEANING, SYLLABICATION, PRONUNCIATION, WORD ORIGIN, AND PART OF SPEECH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using print (e.g., book) or digital (e.g., website, app) resources may include:
    • Using resources such as dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, etc.
    • Using guide words and/or knowledge of alphabetical order to locate words in print resources
    • Using search features to find words in digital resources
    • Analyzing an entry in a resource
    • Analyzing any accompanying visual or image in a resource that is related to the definition/meaning of a word
  • Determining word meaning using resources may include:
    • Reading and understanding the given definition, including breaking it into parts if necessary
    • Determining the applicable word meaning when multiple definitions are provided by considering the context in which the word is used
    • Breaking vocabulary into prefixes, suffixes, and roots to determine overall word meaning as necessary
    • Relating new vocabulary to synonyms or antonyms to aid in meaning
  • Determining word syllabication and pronunciation may include:
    • Identifying the number of syllables identified in the resource
    • Identifying the phonetic symbols included in each syllable
    • Identifying the placement of accented syllables in the word
    • Applying the sounds of the phonetic symbols and the accented syllable to correctly pronounce the word
  • Determining word origin may include:
    • Analyzing any provided details about word origin
    • Identifying Latin or Greek roots, prefixes, and suffixes and their meanings
  • Determining part of speech may include:
    • Identifying the word’s placement in the sentence
    • Determining the grammatical function of the word in the sentence
    • Looking for visual clues, such as capitalization (for proper nouns)
    • Identifying the part of speech abbreviation next to the word in the entry
    • Distinguishing between multiple definitions and parts of speech for the same word to determine the definition that is appropriate for the context in which the word was found
  • Syllabication — the process of dividing words into syllables
  • Pronunciation — the way in which a word is spoken
  • Word origin — the initial place(s) and historical era(s) a word was derived and developed
  • Part of speech — a category assigned to a word based on its syntactic function; the 8 primary parts of speech include noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, preposition, interjection

Note(s):

  • Grade Levels):
    • Refer to 6.2C for more information about Latin and Greek roots.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — B. Apply a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases..
      • II. Reading — B3. Use reference guides to confirm the meanings of new words or concepts.
6.2B Use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words.

Use

CONTEXT SUCH AS DEFINITION, ANALOGY, AND EXAMPLES TO CLARIFY THE MEANING OF WORDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using context to determine word meaning may include:
    • Identifying unfamiliar words and locating key phrases surrounding the words that clarify meaning
    • Using context clues within the sentence or larger section of text to determine the meaning of a word
    • Identifying any surrounding text features, structures, or devices that may indicate word meaning such as definitions or defining language, analogies, examples of an idea or object, etc.
    • Examining the placement and function of a word in a sentence to identify its part of speech 
    • Breaking vocabulary into prefixes, suffixes, and roots to determine each word part’s meaning
    • Confirming the word meaning with a dictionary or thesaurus as necessary
    • Restating ambiguous or unfamiliar words using familiar wording
     
  • Context — the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

 

Note(s):

  • A dictionary or thesaurus can help students determine word meaning; however, students should consider definitions and synonyms in conjunction with contextual meaning.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — B. Apply a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases..
      • Reading — B1. Identify new words and concepts acquired through study of their relationships to other words and concepts.
6.2C Determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as mis/mit, bene, man, vac, scrib/script, and jur/jus.

Determine

THE MEANING AND USAGE OF GRADE-LEVEL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS DERIVED FROM GREEK AND LATIN ROOTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determining the meaning and usage of words may include:
    • Breaking vocabulary into prefixes, suffixes, and roots to determine each part’s meaning
    • Utilizing print or digital resources such as a dictionary or thesaurus to define roots and affixes
    • Examining the placement and function of a word in a sentence to identify its part of speech 
    • Combining the meaning of individual parts to determine the overall meaning
    • Using context clues to infer or confirm word meaning
    • Determining and attributing meanings of Greek or Latin roots when applicable
  • Examples of Greek and Latin roots may include:
    • mis/mit (send)
      • missile, dismiss, mission, emit, submit, etc.
    • bene (good, well)
      • benefit, benefactor, benevolent, beneficiary, etc.
    • man/manu (hand)
      • manuscript, manager, manicure, mandate, etc.
    • vac (empty)
      • vacuum, evacuate, vacate, vacation, etc.
    • scrib/script (write)
      • describe, inscribe, scribble, manuscript, postscript, prescription, etc.
    • jur/jus (law/justice)
      • jury, perjury, jurisdiction, justice, justify, just, etc.
  • Academic English words — 1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study 2. words used during instruction, exams, and in textbooks. These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Note(s):            

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.2B for more information about using context to clarify word meaning.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — B. Apply a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases.
      • Reading — B2. Apply knowledge of roots and affixes to infer the meanings of new words.
6.3 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to:
6.3A Adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

Adjust

FLUENCY WHEN READING GRADE-LEVEL TEXT BASED ON THE READING PURPOSE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Adjusting fluency to reading purpose may include:
    • Identifying the purpose for reading a text (e.g., reading a selection for enjoyment, to perform the text, to identify or find important details, to note critical concepts, etc.), audience, and genre characteristics
    • Reading with rate, accuracy, phrasing, and expression appropriate for the genre, purpose, and audience and adjusting as necessary
  • Fluency — the ability to read text at an appropriate rate, and with accuracy, expression, and appropriate phrasing; not hurried reading
  • Rate — the number of words read per minute
  • Accuracy — reading words without errors
  • Phrasing — reading with appropriate pauses by chunking the text into meaningful parts/phrases
  • Expression — emphasizing words and sentences through changes in tone of voice while reading

Note(s):

  • The goal of fluency is the time (not speed) needed to ensure comprehension.
  • Fluency may be practiced and assessed using independent-level texts that are easy to read and understand at 95% accuracy or above (no more than 1 in 20 words are difficult for the reader).
  • Fluency may be modeled or guided using instructional-level texts that are manageable to read and understand at 90-95% accuracy (no more than 1 in 10 words are difficult for the reader).
6.4 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to:
6.4A Self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

Self-select

TEXT

Including, but not limited  to:

  • Determining personal interest areas, goals, and purposes for reading
  • Using online tools, sites, and search engines to find texts that meet criteria for student interests and goals
  • Discussing reading interests with others (e.g. peers, teachers, librarians) to guide text selection
  • Previewing texts for individual reading interests, goals, and accessibility and choosing texts that meet these criteria
  • Determining if the text is a good fit for an individual’s reading ability and maturity
  • Choosing a text after researching possibilities based on personal criteria such as interest, ability, and purpose

Read

INDEPENDENTLY FOR A SUSTAINED PERIOD OF TIME

Including, but not limited to:

  • Outlining questions one has about the text or author prior to reading
  • Reading for a pre-determined period of time without interruption
  • Maintaining focus on the text while reading and ignoring distractions from environmental factor
  • Building stamina through extended and regular independent reading
  • Taking notes independently as needed to document ideas, observations, reflections, questions, etc. with response journals, reading logs, or conversations
  • Reflecting (in writing, orally, or mentally) on the text before, during, and after reading to determine answers to questions one had prior to reading, to identify lingering or new questions, and/or to explore concluding thoughts on the text and author

Note(s):

  • Students may read challenging texts as long as decoding does not unduly interrupt comprehension. Reading above ability level can be intellectually stimulating or can cause frustration and result in lack of comprehension of topic unless student has prior background knowledge or innate interest in the topic.
  • The purpose of self-selected, sustained reading is for enjoyment, exposure, and to build fluency and stamina. Reading self-selected texts is effective if students are given the opportunity to read selections relevant to them. Students are more likely to commit to the practice if they have background knowledge and/or interests in what they are reading.
  • Literary, informational, and argumentative texts are all equally important in the scope of literacy, and students should have the opportunities to explore a variety of genres.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — C. Read and analyze literary and other texts from a variety of cultural and historical contexts.
      • II. Reading — C1. Read widely, including complete texts from American, British, and world literatures.
6.5 Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:
6.5D Create mental images to deepen understanding.

Create

MENTAL IMAGES TO DEEPEN UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating mental images may include:
    • Using background knowledge
    • Focusing on active verbs, vivid adjectives, concrete nouns, and extended descriptions, including figurative language
    • Pausing to visualize sections of text
    • Connecting ideas within the text to personal experience and/or other texts
    • Monitoring comprehension
    • Modifying mental images based on new information and details
    • Using mental images to infer deeper meaning about the text
  • Mental images — visualizing physical details from a text such as actions, characters, scenes, events, and setting
6.5I Monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

Monitor

COMPREHENSION

Make

ADJUSTMENTS WHEN UNDERSTANDING BREAKS DOWN

Including, but not limited to:

  • Monitoring comprehension and making adjustments may include:
    • Re-reading a portion of the text silently or aloud
    • Using background knowledge to connect to the text
    • Asking questions before, during, and after reading
    • Annotating the text with commentary and questions that identify significant features of the text, meaningful connections, and key ideas
    • Recognizing unfamiliar or ambiguous vocabulary and using context and/or resources to verify meaning
    • Searching the text for evidence to support ideas and inferences
    • Paraphrasing and summarizing sections of text or the whole text

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Listening — A. Apply listening skills in a variety of settings and contexts.
      • V. Listening — A1. Use a variety of active listening strategies to enhance comprehension.
6.6 Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:
6.6F Respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

Respond

USING NEWLY ACQUIRED VOCABULARY AS APPROPRIATE

Including, but not limited to: 

  • Acquiring new vocabulary may include:
    • Recognizing unfamiliar and/or multiple-meaning words in sources being read, heard, or viewed 
    • Identifying relationships between familiar and unfamiliar words 
    • Using context and/or resources to determine word meaning 
  • Responding may include:
    • Reading and analyzing sources using new understanding of vocabulary to improve comprehension
    • Using vocabulary in verbal responses, discussions, and presentations
    • Incorporating vocabulary in formal and informal written responses such as sentences, paragraphs, essays, notetaking documents, graphic organizers, etc.
  • Newly acquired vocabulary may include:
    • Content/academic vocabulary
    • Text/source-specific vocabulary
    • High-utility vocabulary

Note(s): 

  • English Language Learners will especially benefit from opportunities to respond orally using newly acquired vocabulary. These opportunities should take into account a student’s stage of language development with an emphasis on developing social, academic, and content vocabulary.
  • Grade Level(s): 
    • Refer to 6.2A-C for more information about the foundational skills in acquiring new vocabulary.
6.10 Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:
6.10D Edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

Edit

DRAFTS USING STANDARD ENGLISH CONVENTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Editing drafts using standard English conventions may include:
    • Checking for and correcting sentence structure
    • Checking for and correcting verb tense and subject-verb agreement
    • Checking for and correcting parts of speech and usage
    • Checking for and correcting capitalization
    • Checking for and correcting punctuation
    • Checking for and correcting spelling
    • Assessing whether choices in conventions and structures support the intended message and purpose
  • Other considerations for editing may include:
    • Studying mentor texts (texts used for study and imitation) for the use of standard English conventions and authors’ choices in conventions
    • Employing both standard English conventions and non-standard choices in spelling, grammar, and punctuation to craft a written message that affects the reader for a specific purpose
    • Using unconventional choices intentionally to affect the reader may include:
      • Using fragment sentences to draw the readers’ attention to a specific point, to create a dramatic pause, to create a rhythm in the syntax, etc.
      • Using unconventional grammar, spelling, and slang to convey regional dialects or speech patterns common in specific communities
      • Using run-on sentences to vary sentence structure, affect rhythm, or craft lyrical prose
  • Conventions — standard rules of grammar and language, including written mechanics such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and paragraphs and written/oral usage such as word order, subject-verb agreement, and sentence structure
  • Mechanics — in writing, the use of standard rules of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and usage as opposed to expressive or artistic considerations.
  • Editing — a stage in the writing process when a written text is prepared for an audience by attending to and correcting mechanics, grammar, and spelling.

Note(s):

  • Editing is different from revising. Editing corrects the mechanics; whereas, revising improves the content of the draft.
  • Although editing is often referred to as the fourth step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • It may be overwhelming for some students to edit an entire draft at one time, so editing periodically during the process of writing will lessen the burden at the end.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.10Di-ix for information on the specific grade-level expectations for language conventions. Students should also be responsible for previously learned conventions.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A5. Edit writing for audience, purpose, context, and style, assuring that it conforms to Standard American English, when appropriate.
6.10D.ix correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too.

Edit

 

drafts using standard English conventions, including:

 

CORRECT SPELLING

 

Including, but not limited to:

 

  • Editing for correct spelling may include:
    • Proofreading and using peer editing to ensure drafts are free of spelling errors
    • Using online or physical resources such as a dictionary to identify misspelled words and determine the proper spelling of words
    • Identifying commonly misspelled or confused words and homophones to ensure all words in draft are used and spelled correctly
      • Examples include: its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/ they’re, to/two/too, here/hear, one/won, your/you’re, capital/capitol, quiet/quite/quit, principal/principle
    • Applying knowledge of roots, prefixes, and suffixes to determine correct spelling
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 05/30/2019
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