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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 6 English Language Arts and Reading
TITLE : Unit 02B: Analyzing and Crafting Literary Texts: Drama and Poetry SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 Days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address analyzing and writing literary texts, specifically poetry and drama. These genres represent creative writing and narratives that include literary elements and devices. Readers read and experience poetry and drama as art forms that provide insight into diverse perspectives about the world.

Prior to this Unit

In Unit 2A, students read, analyzed, and applied author’s craft to original literary texts (fiction and literary/narrative nonfiction). Additionally, students developed new vocabulary and applied new vocabulary to their own responses, both oral and written. They have also utilized the Writing Process while crafting original texts, developed vocabulary, and practiced collaboration and discussion skills.

During this Unit

In Reading, students read, respond to/write about, and discuss multiple poems and scenes from plays while employing strategies to support comprehension such as interacting with the text through notetaking. Students analyze author’s purpose and audience, genre characteristics, and author’s craft, including literary elements and devices. Students also utilize text evidence to support their inferences. Through a transfer of reading comprehension skills, students learn how to apply author’s craft to their own practices as writers and writing products.

In Writing, students create a literary text (poem or scene of a play) and apply genre characteristics and author’s craft to their drafts. Students practice each stage of the writing process through publication and apply author’s craft learned during reading comprehension activities and assignments to their own writing products. In revising, students review their texts for focus. In editing their poetry and scenes, students apply conventional and purposeful use of spelling skills to enhance the readers’ and audience’s experience.

In Word Study, students continue to learn and build comprehension of unfamiliar grade-level academic vocabulary through authentic reading and writing practices and utilize newly acquired vocabulary in their own responses, both oral and written.

In Collaboration, students engage in discussion to develop a deeper understanding of a literary text by sharing their own analysis of a text using textual evidence and responding to the perspectives and analyses of others. Students confer with peers to help each other as writers as they engage in a writing community.

After this Unit

In Unit 3, students will explore informational texts through close reading comprehension and writing of original texts. In future units, students will analyze and craft argumentative texts and explore cross-genre connections in order to determine similarities and differences between the genres. As students write in a variety of genres throughout the units, students will develop voice and apply author’s craft to their own writing. Word study and collaboration are ongoing skills throughout all units.

Additional Notes

Although presentation is not assessed in this unit, poetry and drama provide opportunity for students to share their writing with their intended audience through oral presentation and dramatic performance. Teachers may want to consider providing this option to student writers.

When possible and applicable, choosing culturally relevant texts for classroom assignments and assessments may prove helpful in encouraging student engagement and achievement in the ELAR classroom.

As suggested by TEA, the TEKS in this unit are meant to be integrated with emphasis on the connections between listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking. There should be daily opportunities for students to discuss, read, and write. Students will continually develop their knowledge and skills with increased complexity over time.

Research

The resources cited below are relevant to this unit but also transcend into other units because they focus on best practices for empowering students to be readers and writers.

In Writers ARE Readers, authors Lester Laminack and Reba Wadsworth (2015) suggest that writing opportunities come perfectly with reading texts. They suggest that writing and reading are not mutually exclusive and have “flipsides” that propel writers to provide insight into what they read and readers to use what they read in order to write. The premise of this book is very much in line with what sixth graders should be doing in an integrated study of reading and writing and is very much applicable to all units throughout the school year.

Laminack, L. L. & Wadsworth, R. M. (2015). Writers are readers: Flipping reading instruction into writing opportunities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Ralph Fletcher (2011) has written many books about the writing workshop. In the book Mentor Author, Mentor Texts, he emphasizes the need to have students read shorter pieces so that they have time within the literacy block in order to play with and apply author’s craft to their own writing. This book in particular has suggested pieces and lessons throughout, but any short piece that is part of a district’s curriculum is appropriate.

Fletcher, R. (2011). Mentor author, mentor texts: Short texts, craft notes, and practical classroom uses. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

As the National Council of Teachers of English (2016) states in their position statements, “Writing grows out of many purposes.” In process writing, writers’ purposes develop as they consider crafting their writing toward an audience. Randy Bomer (2011) elaborates on NCTE’s position statements, “When writing for readers, we are making a particular something—a kind of text crafted in a specific way in order to achieve a purpose with respect to the people who will read it. We write to take action, to accomplish something, and knowing the purpose for which we are writing is essential for making all the shaping decisions that actually form the text” (pg. 200). In Language Arts classrooms, we point students toward audiences other than the teacher in order for students to “experience thinking about an audience, believing in a purpose, planning a text that could achieve that purpose, and designing a work process that will produce that text” instead of writing simply “to get a good enough grade” (pg. 200).

In preparing for a draft that supports the writer’s purpose and audience, writers collect a variety of information to support their eventual draft. Bomer suggests a variety of strategies for gathering and collecting around a topic such as collecting concrete facts and information on the topic, the history of the topic, descriptions from direct observation of the topic, the science of the topic, and how different people think differently about the topic and what arguments they could have about it (pg. 197). This authentic and focused inquiry and research enhances and focuses students’ purposeful writing.

Bomer, R. (2011). Building adolescent literacy in today’s English classrooms. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

National Council of Teachers of English (2016). Professional knowledge for the teaching of writing. Retrieved from http://www2.ncte.org/statement/teaching-writing/

For writers to try out writing in a particular genre for an audience, they first immerse themselves in the reading of a variety of texts of that genre, reading to understand and enjoy the author’s craft. Then, when writers prepare to craft their own original compositions in that genre of choice, they reread those examples with the “eyes of a writer”, carefully analyzing characteristics of the genre and authors’ craft to inform and support their own craft. (Ray, 2006). Ralph Fletcher (2011) points out that writers study a range of broad to very narrow and focused choices and craft such as subject or theme, structure, craft element, tone or language, and words or phrases.

Fletcher, R. (2011). Mentor author, mentor texts: Short texts, craft notes, and practice classroom uses. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Ray, K. W. (2006). Study driven: A framework for planning units of study in the writing workshop (1st ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Jeff Anderson focuses on a strategy that asks students to look at mentor sentences and texts. Through inquiry, students draw conclusions about what authors are doing well (such as capitalization, punctuation, word choice, etc.) in order to impact meaning. Mentor sentences allow students to see examples of powerful and appropriate craft as it relates to sentence construction so that they can emulate those choices in their own writing.

Anderson, J. (2007). Everyday editing: Inviting students to develop skill and craft in writer’s workshop. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.

 


Performance Assessment Bundle #1

 Genres are categories of written or performed works, characterized by similarities in structures, features, form, and content.

  • How do I identify genre?
  • How does recognizing and understanding genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a reader interpret a text?

Readers can enhance understanding of a text by examining and analyzing author’s craft.

  • How do I examine and analyze author’s craft when reading a text?
  • How do a writer’s choices in craft impact meaning?

Readers can convey their understanding through a variety of responses.

  • What types of responses can demonstrate my understanding?
  • How can I construct a response that clearly demonstrates my understanding?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Literary texts comprise the genres of literary/narrative nonfiction, fiction, poetry, and drama and are meant to tell a story or entertain in an aesthetic/artistic way.  

  • What makes literary texts unique?
  • How are the genres of literary text similar and distinctive?
  • What is the difference between literary texts and informational and argumentative texts?

Genres

  • Literary Texts

 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Poetry is a genre of literary writing that involves creating texts with a special emphasis on distinctive style and rhythm to express feelings and ideas.

  • What are the characteristics of poetry?
  • How does the type/form of a poem influence its structure and meaning?
  • How do poets relay their messages in poetry?
  • In what ways does structure affect meaning in poetry?
  • How do poets utilize graphical elements in poetry?

Genres

  • Literary texts
    • Poetry

 

Literature/literary texts lends itself to multiple interpretations, but some interpretations may be more valid based on evidence from the text.

  • What is this text really about?
  • Can my personal interpretations about the text and/or its literary elements be supported with evidence from the text?
  • What evidence from the text supports my interpretation?

Genres

  • Literary elements
  • Literary texts

 

Literature/literary texts explore universal and timeless themes, dilemmas, and challenges of human existence.

  • What truths/messages can I learn from literature/literary texts?

Genres

  • Literary elements
    • Theme
  • Literary texts

Mood is established by a writer’s use of language in a text to convey an overall atmosphere or feeling.

  • How do writers create mood?
  • How does mood impact the reader?

Purpose and Craft

  • Mood

 

Writers use literary devices to achieve specific purposes and outcomes.

  • How do literary devices create meaningful experiences for the reader?
  • How do literary devices relate to genre characteristics?
  • How do literary devices such as point of view, figurative language, etc. impact meaning in a literary work?

Purpose and Craft

  • Literary devices
  • Figurative language

 

A writer’s voice is characterized by their unique use of language, selection of detail, and tone.

  • How does a writer develop voice?
  • How do I analyze a writer’s voice?

Purpose and Craft

  • Voice

 

Annotating and notetaking allow readers to interact with a text to improve comprehension.

  • How do I take notes as I read?  What should my notes include?
  • How do I annotate as I read?  What should my annotations include?

Comprehension and Response

  • Interacting with text (e.g., annotating, notetaking, illustrating, writing, etc.)

Writers use a variety of important genre characteristics to convey meaning and support their purposes when writing a text.

  • What genre characteristics apply to the text I am reading?

Comprehension and Response

  • Genre characteristics

Readers/Listeners can verify their understanding of a text with responses that contain supporting evidence.

  • How can I use evidence from the text to support my responses? 

Comprehension and Response

  • Text evidence

Genres are categories of written or performed works, characterized by similarities in structures, features, form, and content.

  • How do I identify genre?
  • How does recognizing and understanding genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a reader interpret a text?
  • How does utilizing and reflecting on genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a writer construct a text?

Readers can enhance understanding of a text by examining and analyzing author’s craft.

  • How do I examine and analyze author’s craft when reading a text?
  • How do a writer’s choices in craft impact meaning?

 Readers use comprehension strategies to construct meaning.

  • How do I understand what I read?
  • What practices/skills help me understand texts?
  • How do I determine which strategies are best to comprehend a specific text?

 Readers can convey their understanding through a variety of responses.

  • What types of responses can demonstrate my understanding?
  • How can I construct a response that clearly demonstrates my understanding?

Effective oral language helps me express ideas, thoughts, and feelings with others and understand what others think and feel.

  • Why do I speak?
  • Why do I listen?
  • How do I effectively communicate my ideas, thoughts, and feelings?

 

Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Drama is a literary genre in which works are written in a stage play format and are intended to be performed live.

  • How do playwrights use the format and structure of drama to convey their message?
  • How do playwrights use dialogue and stage directions to show changes in plot and character?
  • How does a playwright structure a play through acts and scenes?

Genre

  • Literary texts
    • Drama

 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Literature/literary texts explore universal and timeless themes, dilemmas, and challenges of human existence.

  • What truths/messages can I learn from literature/literary texts?
  • How is theme developed in specific literary genres?

Genre

  • Literary elements
    • Theme
  • Literary texts

Writers use a variety of strategies to develop their characters.

  • How do writers develop characters within a text? 

Genre

  • Literary elements
    • Character
  • Literary texts

Writers use a variety of strategies to develop plot.

  • How do writers develop plot? 
  • What are the components of plot development?

Genre

  • Literary elements
    • Plot
  • Literary texts

Setting is a fundamental element of narrative writing and helps characterize the environment in which a story takes place. 

  • What are the elements of setting?
  • How do writers develop the setting?

Genre

  • Literary elements
    • Setting
  • Literary text

Writers use literary devices to achieve specific purposes and outcomes.

  • How do literary devices create meaningful experiences for the reader?
  • How do literary devices relate to genre characteristics?
  • How do literary devices such as point of view, figurative language, etc. impact meaning in a literary work?

Purpose and Craft

  • Literary devices 
  • Figurative language

 

Mood is established by a writer’s use of language in a text to convey an overall atmosphere or feeling.

  • How do writers create mood?
  • How does mood impact the reader?

Purpose and Craft

  • Mood

 

A writer’s voice is characterized by their unique use of language, selection of detail, and tone.

  • How does a writer develop voice?
  • How do I analyze a writer’s voice?

Purpose and Craft

  • Voice

Writers use a variety of important genre characteristics to convey meaning and support their purposes when writing a text.

  • What genre characteristics apply to the text I am reading?

Purpose and Craft

  • Genre characteristics

Readers can interact with texts in a variety of meaningful ways to enhance understanding and comprehension.

  • How can annotating and notetaking help a reader understand a text on a deeper level?
  • How can questioning a text help deepen comprehension?
  • How can others’ perspectives about a text help a reader better understand a text?
  • How can discussing a text help deepen comprehension?

 

Comprehension and Response

  • Interacting with text (e.g., annotating, notetaking, illustrating, writing, etc.
  • Meaning/Interpretation/ Analysis
  • Questioning
  • Discussing

Readers/Listeners can verify their understanding of a text with responses that contain supporting evidence.

  • How can I use evidence from the text to support my responses? 

Comprehension and Response

  • Text evidence

Discussing ideas with others can improve everyone’s understanding of a topic. 

  • How can discussing my ideas and thoughts with others enhance my understanding?
  • How can I contribute positively to discussions?

Oral Language

  • Discussing

 


Performance Assessment Bundle #3

Writing is the act of using language to communicate our thoughts, the meaning of our experiences, and our understanding of the world. 

  • Why am I writing? What is my purpose, audience, and topic?
  • How do I write clearly and effectively using the conventions of language?
  • What do I want to say? Why is it important?
  • What can others learn from my writing?

Writers can create meaning in a text by utilizing author’s craft.

  • How do I employ author’s craft in my writing?
  • How do my choices in craft impact meaning?

Genres are categories of written or performed works, characterized by similarities in structures, features, form, and content.

  • How does utilizing and reflecting on genre characteristics, features, forms, and content help a writer construct a text?

Writing is a recursive process that includes several stages and is essential to crafting focused, coherent, and well-developed compositions.

  • What are the stages of the writing process? Why are they important?
  • How do the stages of the writing process reinforce each other?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Writers think about purpose and audience when crafting texts.

  • How do purpose and audience influence author’s craft?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Writers write for an intended audience.

  • How does a writer determine the intended audience of a text?
  • In what ways do writers adjust their writing depending on the audience?

Writers convey the message (theme) of a text either directly or indirectly through language and literary elements.

  • How does author’s craft contribute to the message, or theme, of the text?
  • How do authors develop theme?

Writers use literary devices to achieve specific purposes and outcomes.

  • How does the writer/speaker use techniques to reveal their purpose?
  • How does the writer/speaker use techniques to appeal to their intended audience?
  • How do literary devices create meaningful experiences for the reader?
  • How do literary devices relate to genre characteristics?
  • How do literary devices such as point of view, figurative language, etc. impact meaning in a literary work?

Mood is established by a writer’s use of language in a text to convey an overall atmosphere or feeling.

  • How do writers create mood?

A writer’s voice is characterized by their unique use of language, selection of detail, and tone.

  • How do I develop voice in my writing?

A writer’s tone is affected by purpose, topic, and intended audience.

  • How do I establish my tone as a writer?

Writers use a variety of important genre characteristics to convey meaning and support their purposes when writing a text.

  • What genre characteristics apply to the text I am writing?

Writers use a variety of strategies to develop literary elements.

  • How do writers develop literary elements?

Writers construct literary works thorough the development of literary elements in a selected genre.

  • How does the purpose, genre, and intended audience of a literary text influence the choices a writer makes about literary elements?

Poetry is a genre of literary writing that involves creating texts, both structured and unstructured, that are constructed with literary style and technique.

  • What are the characteristics of poetry?
  • How do poets relay their messages in poetry?
  • In what ways does structure affect meaning in poetry?

Drama is a genre of literary writing that involves creating texts that are constructed with literary style and technique.

  • What are the characteristics of drama?
  • How does a playwright use staging and dialogue in drama to develop their purpose?
  • How do playwrights relay their messages in drama?

Writers choose a genre for their writing based on the purpose, topic, and intended audience of a work.

  • How do writers choose a genre for a work?
  • How does my audience, purpose, and message determine the genre of my draft?

Writers use a variety of methods to prepare to write in order to build understanding of the assigned/selected topic, purpose, and audience. 

  • How does planning and discussion help me focus and organize my thinking?
  • What important practices/methods may help me begin to compose a piece of writing?

Writing Process

  • Planning
    • Brainstorming
    • Notetaking
    • Outlining

 

Effective writers keep the purpose and intended audience at the forefront of their minds throughout the drafting process.

  • Why is it important to think about purpose and audience as I write?

Writing Process

  • Drafting
    • Development

Writers use the revision stage of the writing process to improve and refine their writing for clarity and coherence.

  • What revisions do I need to make to improve my writing?
  • What does it mean to revise for clarity?
  • What does it mean to revise for coherence?

Effective writers seek and use feedback to improve the quality of their writing.

  • How can I receive and use feedback to improve my writing?

Writing Process

  • Revising
    • Clarity
    • Coherence

Writers use the editing stage of the writing process to improve and refine their language and adherence to conventions.

  • What edits do I need to make to correct my writing?

Writing Process

  • Editing

Writers determine when their work is ready for sharing/publishing.

  • How do I know when my writing is ready to publish?

 

Writing Process

  • Publishing/Sharing

 


MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that there are static stages to crafting a text, rather than understanding that each author has their own cyclical and recursive writing processes.
  • Some students may think topic and theme are the same thing.
  • Although some students may know that writers plan before they draft, they may not understand that planning also includes identifying a writing purpose and audience.
  • Some students think that poetry must always rhyme or follow a specific pattern.
  • Some students may think that the poet and the speaker in the poem are always the same.
  • Some student may not think it is important to analyze other authors’ writing in order to develop their own craft and style.
  • Some students may think that mood and tone are the same thing.

 

Unit Vocabulary

  • Audience — the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium
  • Author’s craft — intentional and deliberate use of organizational patterns, text and graphic features, syntax, devices, and diction to create an effective written work; author’s craft may vary by genre
  • Author’s purpose — the reason an author writes about a particular topic (e.g.,  to persuade, to entertain, to inform, to explain, to analyze,  etc.); the reason an author includes particular details, features, or devices in a work 
  • Characterization — the method in which an author constructs a character by explicitly stating aspects of his/her personality and appearance (direct characterization) or by revealing aspects of a character through their actions, thoughts, speech, other characters, etc. (indirect characterization)
  • Context — the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage
  • Editing — a stage in the writing process when a written text is prepared for an audience by attending to and correcting mechanics, grammar, and spelling
  • Dialogue  —  the lines spoken between characters in fiction or a play; dialogue in a play is the main way in which plot, character, and other elements are established
  • Figurative Language — language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices
  • Genre — the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content
  • Metaphor — a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations). An extended metaphor is a metaphor in which the comparison is carried through several lines or even the entire literary work.
  • Meter — the basic rhythmic structure in verse, composed of stressed and unstressed syllables
  • Mood — the atmosphere or feeling created by the writer in a literary work or passage; mood can be expressed through imagery, word choice, setting, voice, and theme. For example, the mood evoked in Edgar Allan Poe’s work is gloomy and dark.
  • Personification — figurative language in which non-human things or abstractions are represented as having human qualities (e.g., necessity is the mother of invention)
  • Plot — the basic sequence of events in a story that includes the exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution
  • Poetic form — a distinctive poetic structure with distinguishable characteristics based on meter, lines, stanzas, and rhyme schemes such as a sonnet, blank verse, ballad, haiku, epic, lyric, etc.
  • Setting — the time and place in which a narrative occurs. Elements of setting may include the physical, psychological, cultural, or historical background against which the story takes place.
  • Stage directions — descriptions or instructions in a play that provide information about characters, dialogue, setting, and actions
  • Structural elements  — the basic form of a poem, including its visual presentation (e.g., line, stanza, or verse)
  • Theme — the central or universal idea of a literary work that often relates to morals and/or values and speaks to the human experience/ condition
  • Tone — the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing
  • Voice —an author’s unique articulation or expression of language created by stylistic elements such as syntax, diction, and figurative language

 Related Vocabulary:

  • Close Reading
  • Writing Process

TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
6.5 Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:
6.5A Establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text.

Establish

PURPOSE FOR READING ASSIGNED AND SELF-SELECTED TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Establishing a purpose for reading may include:
    • Previewing text/print features such as title, headings, graphics, etc.
    • Determining genre of text and considering previous knowledge about the genre
    • Identifying personal goals and reasons for reading a text, including personal interests and individual needs
    • Determining the focus and goals for an assigned reading task
    • Making connections between class discussions, previous readings, and reading goals
    • Reflecting on the purpose for reading and revising the purpose as needed
  • Purposes for reading may include:
    • To gain new knowledge
    • To understand or study differing perspectives on an issue
    • To learn task-related information and/or follow directions
    • To enlighten or reveal important truths
    • To enjoy or be entertained 
    • To solve problems
    • To analyze author’s craft, author’s purpose, and/or message
    • To analyze and evaluate an argument
    • To gather support or research

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • This SE focuses on the reader’s purpose for reading. Refer to 6.9A for more information about authors’ purposes for writing.
    • Refer to 6.4A for more information about self-selecting texts.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      •  II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
6.5B Generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information.

Generate

QUESTIONS ABOUT TEXT BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER READING TO DEEPEN UNDERSTANDING AND GAIN INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Questions before reading may relate to:
    • Identifying the genre, author, topic, intended audience, and context 
    • Making predictions about the text, topic, author’s purpose/message, characters, setting, events, etc.
    • Making connections using background knowledge
  • Questions during reading may relate to:
    • Monitoring comprehension and predictions
    • Making connections such as text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-society
    • Clarifying meaning or information, including unfamiliar vocabulary
    • Identifying the theme
    • Paraphrasing and summarizing key ideas
    • Analyzing author’s craft such as text structures, text/print and graphic features, literary/rhetorical devices, style, etc.
    • Analyzing genre characteristics
  • Questions after reading may relate to:
    • Determining author’s purpose
    • Determining the theme
    • Paraphrasing and summarizing key ideas
    • Making connections such as text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-society
    • Analyzing and evaluating how author’s craft conveys the purpose/message
    • Reflecting on unanswered questions or uncertainties about the text, topic, or author

Note(s):

  • To foster student ownership of metacognition, questions should be generated by the student not the teacher per the focus of this SE. However, teacher modeling may be necessary.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
6.5C Make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures.

Make, Correct, Confirm

PREDICTIONS USING TEXT FEATURES, CHARACTERISTICS OF GENRE, AND STRUCTURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making predictions may include:
    • Using background knowledge to make predictions
    • Using details and relevant evidence from the text
    • Using information available in text/print and graphic features such as titles, subtitles, endnotes, photographs, illustrations, charts, etc.
    • Using an understanding of genre characteristics
    • Using identification and understanding of text structures
  • Correcting, revising, and/or confirming predictions may include:
    • Using additional details and evidence from the text to correct, revise, and/or confirm predictions
  • Prediction — a form of inference in which the reader gathers and analyzes details in order to anticipate and foresee forthcoming events and information
  • Text/print feature — any characteristic of the text outside the main body of the text that helps convey meaning such as titles, charts, photographs, timelines, footnotes, etc.
  • Genre — the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content
  • Text structure — the way or pattern in which an author organizes ideas within a text

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.9C for more information about text/print and graphic features.
    • Refer to 6.7A-D and 6.8A-F for more information about genre-specific characteristics and text structures.
    • Refer to 6.6F for information related to making, inferences, including predictions.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A2. Use text features to form an overview of content and to locate information.
6.5E Make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society.

Make

CONNECTIONS TO PERSONAL EXPERIENCES, IDEAS IN OTHER TEXTS, AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making connections between a text and personal experiences may include:
    • Recalling personal situations, thoughts, feelings, relationships, self-identity, and experiences and comparing them with content from a text such as theme, details, events, setting, and character(s)
    • Building empathy for others represented in a text because of a shared experience 
  • Making connections between ideas and features across texts may include:
    • Comparing themes, topics, details, events, settings, characters, genre characteristics, text structures, tone, rhetorical/literary devices, etc.
  • Making connections between a text and society may include:
    • Comparing details, events, settings, characters, and thematic links to past, present, or future society
    • Analyzing connections between different levels of society such as communities, state, region, country, and world
    • Analyzing connections between different aspects of society such as economic, political, social, cultural, and environmental connections

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s): 
    • This SE emphasizes the metacognitive process of making connections. Refer to 6.6A for information related to describing personal connections. 
    • Honoring each student’s unique knowledge, language, and cultural/ethnic background is a critical part of supporting students’ ability to make connections. This is especially critical for English Language Learners.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — D. Acquire insights about oneself, others, or the world from reading diverse texts.
      • II. Reading — D1. Make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections.
6.5F Make inferences and use evidence to support understanding.

Make

INFERENCES TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making inferences may include:
    • Combining details read, heard, or viewed, including text/print or graphic features, with background knowledge in order to go beyond a literal interpretation of the text
    • Generating ideas about author’s purpose, message, author’s craft, plot, characters, topic, settings, events, tone, literary and/or rhetorical devices, word meaning, etc.
    • Considering the rhetorical situation (author, the intended audience, speaker/writer, topic, and context) when making inferences
  • Inference — a logical guess made by connecting bits of information
    • Types of inferences include:
      • Drawing conclusions — a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information and comes to a decision; the conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.
      • Generalization — a form of inference in which the reader makes a broad statement about a group of people or things based on a limited amount of information
      • Prediction — a form of inference in which the reader gathers and analyzes details in order to anticipate and foresee forthcoming events and information

Use

EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Included, but not limited to:

  • Using evidence to support understanding may include: 
    • Rereading text for key information
    • Determining the words, phrases, and sentences that best support an inference, idea, assertion, or analysis
    • Differentiating between relevant and irrelevant details
    • Citing the author and source as necessary
  • Evidence — specific details or facts that support an inference or idea

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.5C for more information about predictions.
    • Refer to 6.6C for information related to using text evidence.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A4. Make evidence-based inferences about a text’s meaning, intent, and values.
6.5G Evaluate details read to determine key ideas.

Evaluate

DETAILS READ TO DETERMINE KEY IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • • Evaluating details to determine key ideas may include:
    • Determining the explicit or implicit meaning of details
    • Distinguishing between significant and insignificant details
    • Examining the relationships between details
    • Analyzing how details support the message and the author’s purpose
    • Identifying the key ideas of the text after careful analysis
  • Evaluate — to judge or determine the significance, worth, or quality of something
  • Key ideas — important ideas throughout a work that support the central message, theme, tone, etc.

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
      • II. Reading — A3. Identify explicit and implicit textual information including main ideas and author’s purpose.
6.5H Synthesize information to create new understanding.

Synthesize

INFORMATION TO CREATE NEW UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Synthesizing information in a single text or across multiple texts may include:
    • Monitoring comprehension at various points during a text
    • Employing annotation strategies to determine author’s purpose, key ideas, theme, tone, etc.
    • Analyzing text features, text structures, and author’s craft
    • Making connections between background knowledge and details
    • Adjusting previous understandings and analysis of text as new details are revealed through the reading process
    • Creating new understandings based on careful analysis 
  • Synthesizing information from multiple texts may additionally include:
    • Identifying a purpose for reading multiple texts
    • Employing annotation strategies to note similar or contrasting purposes, ideas, tone, and theme
    • Drawing conclusions about patterns and relationships in ideas across texts
    • Creating new understandings based on analysis of multiple texts 
    • Formulating an original thesis or claim based on analysis of multiple texts and background knowledge
    • Organizing evidence from multiple texts to effectively support a controlling idea/thesis or claim
  • Synthesize — to combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole
6.6 Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:
6.6A Describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts.

Describe

PERSONAL CONNECTIONS TO A VARIETY OF SOURCES, INCLUDING SELF-SELECTED TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Describing personal connections may include:
    • Identifying relevant personal connections
    • Explaining personal connections to specific details in sources using oral/written language, illustrations, and/or other media
    • Identifying specific details and text evidence that supports personal connections
    • Explaining the significance of personal connections to understanding details in the source
  • Personal connections include:
    • Connecting to one’s own experiences
    • Connecting to other texts/sources
    • Connecting to society

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • The SE emphasizes the student’s ability to describe their connections to sources. Refer to 6.5E for information related to the metacognitive process of making connections.
    • Refer to 6.4A for more information about self-selecting texts.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — D. Acquire insights about oneself, others, or the world from reading diverse texts.
      • II. Reading — D1. Make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections.
6.6B Write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres.

Write

RESPONSES THAT DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Responses that demonstrate understanding of literary texts may include:
    • Analyzing literary elements, including plot, characterization, setting, theme, etc.
    • Analyzing author’s purpose and craft, including use of language and literary devices, tone, and style
    • Describing genre characteristics and text structure(s)
    • Paraphrasing or summarizing the text
    • Explaining inferences
    • Describing personal connections and responses to the text
    • Using relevant text evidence to support ideas in responses
  • Responses that compare and contrast ideas across a variety of sources may include: 
    • Explaining similarities and differences in themes, topics, text structures, literary/rhetorical devices, tone, style, genre characteristics, etc.
  • Written response — a written sentence, paragraph, or essay that answers a question or prompt and typically requires detail, description, and/or analysis of a text
  • Literary text — written works that are generally recognized as having artistic value. Basic forms of literary texts include prose, fiction, drama, poetry, and literary non-fiction. 

Note(s):

  • At the middle school level, literary and rhetorical analysis responses may involve isolated paragraphs of analysis as opposed to complete essays of analysis.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Notetaking and annotating may be helpful prior to writing a response. Refer to 6.6E for more information related to these skills.
    • Refer to 6.6C for more information about using text evidence to support responses.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A7. Compare and analyze how features of genre are used across texts.
6.6C Use text evidence to support an appropriate response.

Use

TEXT EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT AN APPROPRIATE RESPONSE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using text evidence to support a response may include: 
    • Understanding the focus of a self-selected or teacher-provided question, prompt, or idea
    • Re-reading relevant portions of the text including text/print and graphic features, to identify key words, phrases, and information in the text that explicitly or implicitly relate to the question, prompt, or idea
    • Annotating or taking notes to identify relevant textual evidence
    • Inferring the meaning of details in the text
    • Determining the most pertinent details from the text needed to support a response
    • Choosing to directly quote or paraphrase the evidence from the text to support a response
    • Embedding enough context around the origin of the paraphrased or directly quoted evidence to ensure clarity of thought
    • Providing original commentary that explains connections between the selected text evidence and idea/answer
  • Text evidence — paraphrased or directly quoted detail(s) from a text that supports a reader’s claim, thought, inference, or analysis about the text
  • Commentary — written/spoken explanations or interpretations that further develop an idea

Note(s):

  • This SE supports using text evidence for both oral and written responses for a variety of purposes.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.6B for more information on writing responses that demonstrate understanding of text.
6.6D Paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order.

Paraphrase

TEXTS IN WAYS THAT MAINTAIN MEANING AND LOGICAL ORDER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Paraphrasing may include:  
    • Identifying key ideas in a section of text and/or a whole text
    • Considering the context surrounding a section of text to ensure ideas are interpreted correctly
    • Differentiating between significant and less significant details
    • Restating ideas from a text using one’s own words while maintaining the author’s intended message
  • Paraphrase — restate the meaning of something in different words. Paraphrasing alters the exact wording of the source and transmits its ideas or information without evaluation or interpretation.

Summarize

TEXTS IN WAYS THAT MAINTAIN MEANING AND LOGICAL ORDER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Summarizing may include:  
    • Determining key information, ideas, or details from a section of text or whole text
    • Differentiating between significant and less significant details
    • Identifying the overall text structure
    • Synthesizing and describing key ideas from the beginning, middle, and end of the text to maintain logical order
    • Emphasizing the author’s intended message, controlling/thesis, or claim
    • Incorporating applicable vocabulary as necessary, including language associated with the text structure
  • Summarize — to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Note(s):

  • The terms paraphrase and summarize should not be used interchangeably. Please note that paraphrasing may involve giving attribution to the source.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A4. Make evidence-based inferences about a text’s meaning, intent, and values.
6.6E Interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating.

Interact

WITH SOURCES IN MEANINGFUL WAYS

Including, but not limited to: 

  • Interacting with sources in meaningful ways may include: 
    • Notetaking and organizing thoughts, ideas, and questions
    • Annotating and commenting on the text to identify and explain key ideas, record connections, and ask questions
    • Freewriting to document understandings, reactions, and personal connections to a text
    • Illustrating images to demonstrate understanding
    • Capturing notes and ideas in journals, graphic organizers, sticky notes, digital devices, etc.
  • Notetaking — the study skill of outlining or summarizing the ideas of a lecture, a book, or another source of information to aid in the retention of ideas 
  • Annotating — marking a text with notes and/or comments 
  • Freewriting — writing openly and continuously without restriction or focus on the conventional rules of language 

Note(s): 

  • This SE highlights the importance of interacting with sources to create meaning and to support deeper reading.
  • Grade Level(s): 
    • This SE may provide scaffolding for students in writing responses to sources. Refer to 6.6B for more information on writing responses to texts.
6.6G Discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text.

Discuss, Write 

ABOUT THE EXPLICIT OR IMPLICIT MEANINGS OF TEXT 

Including, but not limited to: 

  • Determining explicit meanings many include:
    • Identifying key ideas and supporting details stated in the text
    • Identifying the meaning of key terms or vocabulary in the text
    • Synthesizing meaning from various parts of the text
  • Determining implicit meanings may include: 
    • Identifying and considering the rhetorical situation of the text (author’s purpose, topic, intended audience, context), including the author’s background, historically relevant information, and societal implications of the text
    • Considering the relationship between theme and specific details to infer meaning
    • Considering an author’s tone and use of literary/rhetorical devices to infer meaning
  • Explicit meaning — an idea that is clearly stated, unambiguous, and leaves little room for interpretation  
  • Implicit meaning — an idea that must be inferred through an analysis of details, actions, tone, dialogue, body language, visuals, etc. 

Note(s): 

  • Text evidence/support is particularly useful when discussing implicit meanings in order to justify interpretations.
  • TxCCRS: 
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A4. Make evidence-based inferences about a text’s meaning, intent, and values.
6.6H

Respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice.

Respond

IN WRITING WITH APPROPRIATE REGISTER, VOCABULARY, TONE, AND VOICE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Considerations before responding in writing with an appropriate style may include:
    • Identifying the purpose, intended audience, context, and topic of the response
    • Assessing the audience’s knowledge and interest level in the topic
  • Determining an appropriate style for a specific register of an oral or written response may include:
    • Choosing appropriate and necessary vocabulary and diction, including use of formal vs. informal word choice (use of slang, contractions, etc.), and pronunciation
    • Establishing a tone through content and delivery that accurately communicates the writer/speaker’s attitude towards the topic/audience
    • Establishing a compelling voice by engaging the reader/viewer with unique and meaningful content and delivery
  • Register — refers to a specific style of speaking and writing such as formal, casual, consultative, intimate, frozen, etc. that is based on the social setting of the communication
  • Tone — the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in writing
  • Voice —an author’s unique articulation or expression of language created by stylistic elements such as syntax, diction, and figurative language

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • This SE could be applied to any of the interdependent response skills identified in 6.6A-I.
    • Refer to 6.1C for more information about speaking and presentation skills.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — D. Acquire insights about oneself, others, or the world from reading diverse texts.
      • II. Reading — D1. Make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections.
6.7 Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:
6.7A Infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence.

Infer

MULTIPLE THEMES WITHIN AND ACROSS TEXTS USING TEXT EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inferring thematic development may include:
    • Identifying the genre (fiction, drama, poetry, or literary nonfiction) and purpose of the text to determine characteristics that may reveal theme such as characterization, plot events, setting, tone, dialogue, stage directions, figurative language, graphical elements, literary devices, etc.
    • Annotating genre characteristics and key ideas for thematic implications and connections
    • Going beyond the literal meaning to determine the deeper, underlying, or nuanced meaning of actions, dialogue, descriptions of characters and plot, figurative language, literary devices, and other genre characteristics
    • Making text-to-text, text-to-self, and/or text-to-society connections with the character(s), plot events, and other elements of the work
    • Recognizing the difference in theme and topic in literary works
    • Describing how the author has used elements of the text to create and convey thematic lesson(s), message(s), or idea(s)
    • Comparing similarities and differences in themes within and across a variety of texts, including how universal themes and cultural/historical influences are depicted within texts of the same genre and across different genres
    • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences about theme(s)
  • Theme — the central or universal idea of a literary work that often relates to morals and/or values and speaks to the human experience/ condition
  • Text evidence — paraphrased or directly quoted detail(s) from a text that supports a reader’s claim, thought, inference, or analysis about the text

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.11A-C for information related to genre characteristics in literary texts.
    • Refer to 6.5F for information related to making inferences.
    • Refer to 6.6C for information related to using text evidence.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A7. Compare and analyze how features of genre are used across texts.
      • II. Reading — A8. Identify, analyze, and evaluate similarities and differences in how multiple texts present information, argue a position, or relate a theme.
6.7B Analyze how the characters' internal and external responses develop the plot.

Analyze

HOW THE CHARACTERS’ INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL RESPONSES DEVELOP THE PLOT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyzing how author’s develop characters may include: 
    • Identifying the genre and purpose of the work to determine elements that may reveal characterization such as plot events, setting, tone, dialogue, stage directions, figurative language, literary devices, etc.
    • Annotating for genre characteristics and key ideas that have implications and connections to characterization
    • Identifying characters’ internal responses such as emotions, motivations (intellectual, emotional, physical, social, etc.), and thoughts through an analysis of characters’ external responses such as speech, actions, interactions, successes, failures, etc.successes, failures, etc.
    • Determining if a character is dynamic or static and/or round or flat as well as if they are a protagonist or antagonist
    • Considering the implications of characters’ internal and/or external conflict(s)
    • Examining how the characters change throughout the story and how their internal and external responses affect plot development
    • Going beyond the literal meaning to determine the deeper, underlying, or nuanced meaning of the actions, dialogue, and descriptions of characters
    • Making text-to-text, text-to-self, and/or text-to-society connections with the character(s)
    • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences about characterization
  • Internal response of a character — a response demonstrated though inner thoughts and feelings
  • External responses of a character — a response demonstrated by the character through speech or actions
  • Character — a person or thing who plays a role in a book, play, or movie; characters may be static (unchanging throughout the work) or dynamic (undergoing a change or transition through the story) and flat (one dimension, underdeveloped) or round (complex and well-developed)
  • Characterization — the method in which an author constructs a character by explicitly stating aspects of his/her personality and appearance (direct characterization) or by revealing aspects of a character through their actions, thoughts, speech, other characters, etc. (indirect characterization)
  • Protagonist — the main character in a narrative who is at the center of the story
  • Antagonist — the character who opposes the protagonist or the goals of the protagonist
  • Plot — the basic sequence of events in a story that includes the exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A7. Compare and analyze how features of genre are used across texts.
6.7C Analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and non-linear elements such as flashback.

Analyze

PLOT ELEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyzing plot development may include:
    • Identifying the genre of the work, author’s purpose, and intended audience
    • Identifying and analyzing the basic plot elements of exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution and how each plot point is connected and interdependent as well as their significance to the narrative
    • Identifying and analyzing non-linear plot structures such as flashbacks as well as their significance to the narrative
    • Making, revising, and confirming predictions about plot points
    • Making connections between plot development and literary elements such as setting, characterization, literary devices, etc.
    • Drawing conclusions about how the plot events establish or reinforce theme and character
    • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences about plot
  • Plot — the basic sequence of events in a story that includes the exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution
  • Exposition — the element of plot structure that provides important details in the beginning of the story to introduce the setting, characters, background information, and details or hints about the conflict(s)
  • Setting — the time and place in which a narrative occurs. Elements of setting may include the physical, psychological, cultural, or historical background against which the story takes place.
  • Conflict— in literature, the opposition of persons or forces that brings about dramatic action central to the plot of a story. Conflict may be internal, as a psychological conflict within a character, or external (e.g., man versus man, man versus nature, or man versus society).
  • Rising action — the element of plot structure that develops the conflict through a series of events to build interest and/or suspense and leads up to the climax
  • Climax — the highest point in the plot where the problem/conflict reaches its peak
  • Falling action — the element of plot structure that takes place after the climax and begins to resolve the conflict(s) of the story before the resolution
  • Resolution — the conclusion or final outcome of a story that in some capacity resolves all problems and conflicts; however, not all stories have clear resolutions
  • Flashback — a brief interruption in the plot that describes an earlier event or time in order to provide clarity, background, and context about an event currently taking place in the narrative

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A7. Compare and analyze how features of genre are used across texts.
6.7D Analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development.

Analyze

HOW THE SETTING INFLUENCES CHARACTER AND PLOT DEVELOPMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyzing setting may include:
    • Identifying the genre and purpose of the work to determine elements that may reveal setting such as plot events, characterization, dialogue, stage directions, figurative language, diction, literary devices, etc.
    • Annotating for literary elements and genre characteristics that have implications and connections to setting such as diction (colloquialisms, dated language, etc.) and characterization  that may reveal setting details
    • Identifying and analyzing details about the setting
      • Time period: age, year, lapsed/elapsed time, etc.
      • Location: country, region, state, city, etc.
      • Culture: arts, food, social mores/values of racial, religious, and/or social groups, etc.
      • Historical background/context: sociopolitical climate, power dynamics, majority/minority roles, equity issues, technology access, values, beliefs, norms, etc.
      • Environment: weather patterns, geology, geography, etc.
      • Mood: atmosphere, feeling of a place or time, etc.
    • Researching, as necessary, the setting, including cultural characteristics and historical events such as major movements, customs, traditions, food, values, beliefs, politics, etc. related to the setting
    • Analyzing how literary elements such as characterization, plot, and theme interact with setting and influence each other, specifically how the cultural and historical context of setting shapes a character’s personality, attitude, motivation, values, relationships, beliefs, conflicts, actions, etc. and informs plot action
    • Identifying shifts in setting
    • Going beyond the literal meaning to determine the deeper, underlying, or nuanced meaning of details, including analyzing character thoughts, dialogue, and actions to identify details about the setting(s)
    • Making text-to-text, text-to-self, and/or text-to-society connections with the character(s)
    • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences about setting
  • Setting — the time and place in which a narrative occurs. Elements of setting may include the physical, psychological, cultural, or historical background against which the story takes place.
  • Characterization — the method in which an author constructs a character by explicitly stating aspects of his/her personality and appearance (direct characterization) or by revealing aspects of a character through their actions, thoughts, speech, other characters, etc. (indirect characterization)
  • Plot — the basic sequence of events in a story that includes the exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A7. Compare and analyze how features of genre are used across texts.
    • II. Reading — C. Read and analyze literary and other texts from a variety of cultural and historical contexts.
      • II. Reading — C2. Analyze the relationships between works of literature and the historical periods and cultural contexts in which they were written.
6.8 Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:
6.8A Demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths.

Demonstrate

KNOWLEDGE OF LITERARY GENRES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Demonstrating knowledge of literary genres may include:
    • Reading from a variety of literary genres
    • Identifying the genre, author, intended audience, and purpose of the work
    • Identifying and annotating the work for genre characteristics of drama or poetry
    • Identifying characteristics of fiction subgenres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, etc.
    • Identifying and analyzing literary and stylistic elements such as setting, plot, characterization, theme, figurative language, diction, literary devices, syntax, etc.
    • Analyzing the interrelationships among literary devices, literary elements, and author’s purpose
    • Making connections throughout the work to identify details related to theme and interpretive response tasks
    • Explaining connections between author’s craft, author’s purpose, and message/theme 
    • Identifying recurring or distinctive themes, characters, and author’s craft across literary works
    • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences about genre characteristics
  • Summarizing and paraphrasing the text may include:
    • Distinguishing between significant and less significant ideas
    • Explaining the author’s ideas by putting them into other words 
  • Literary text — written works that are generally recognized as having artistic value. Basic forms of literary text include prose fiction, drama, poetry, and literary nonfiction.

Note(s):

  • This SE lists several specific subgenres of literary works. Because of the phrase “such as”, the list is intended to serve as possible examples not requirements. However, it is prudent for students to have a working knowledge of the distinguishing characteristics of each.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • This SE requires students to distinguish different subgenres of literary works by their unique characteristics. While literary nonfiction is not explicitly addressed in the TEKS, it is a common literary genre and therefore has been included in specificity for this SE.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — C. Read and analyze literary and other texts from a variety of cultural and historical contexts.
      • II. Reading — C3. Examine the influence of myths, oral traditions, and Classical literature on subsequent works over time.
6.8B Analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms.

Analyze

THE EFFECT OF METER AND STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Previewing and reading strategies to use prior, during, and after analyzing a poem may include: 
    • Identifying the genre, author, intended audience, and purpose of the work
    • Identifying and annotating the poem for genre characteristics, literary elements, and stylistic elements such as graphical elements, meter, rhyme, speaker/narrator, figurative language, diction, literary devices, etc.
    • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Analyzing meter in poetry may include:
    • Recognizing the rhythm pattern of a poem based on particular line length and number of syllables
    • Identifying and analyzing the effects of metrics by counting the syllables in a line to determine if the meter is regular or irregular and identify the type of meter such as iambic (one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable), trochaic (one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable), anapestic (two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable), etc.
    • Determining if the rhythm and metrics are indicative of a type/form of poem such as a sonnet
  • Analyzing poetic structure in poetry may include:
    • Analyzing structural elements such as lines, line breaks, stanzas, refrains, quatrains, couplets, etc. and how they contribute to meaning and tone in the poem
  • Analyzing forms of poetry may include:
    • Reading and analyzing distinctive poetic features and techniques across a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnet, ballad, epic, lyric, free verse, etc.) 
  • Analyzing additional poetry skills not specified in the current grade level but were previously addressed and reappear in future grade levels, including:
    • Analyzing the rhyme scheme by identifying words that rhyme (if any), determining if the rhyme pattern is regular, and labeling the scheme accordingly (ABAB, AABB, ABABB, AABBA, etc.)
    • Analyzing how the poem’s sound and rhyme scheme contribute to the overall meaning of a poem
    • Analyzing how the poem’s metrics and rhyme scheme contribute to tone (for example, if a poem is heavily iambic and rhyming like a nursery rhyme, this may indicate a playful or humorous tone)
  • Poetry — literary works focused on the expression of feelings and ideas through a distinctive style that is often rhythmical and may have elements such as meter, rhyme, and stanzas
  • Meter — the basic rhythmic structure in verse, composed of stressed and unstressed syllables
  • Structural elements — the basic form of a poem, including its visual presentation (e.g., line, stanza, or verse)
  • Poetic form— a distinctive poetic structure with distinguishable characteristics based on meter, lines, stanzas, and rhyme schemes such as a sonnet, blank verse, ballad, haiku, epic, lyric, etc.

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.9A-F for information related to author’s purpose and craft.
    • Refer to 6.11A for related composition skills.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A7. Compare and analyze how features of genre are used across texts.
6.8C Analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging.

Analyze

HOW PLAYWRIGHTS DEVELOP CHARACTERS THROUGH DIALOGUE AND STAGING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Previewing and reading strategies to use prior, during, and after analyzing a drama may include: 
    • Identifying the genre, author, intended audience, and purpose of the work
    • Identifying and annotating the work for genre characteristics and literary elements such as characterization, plot, stage directions, acts, dialogue, dramatic conventions, figurative language, diction, literary devices, etc.
    • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Analyzing dramatic structure in drama may include:
    • Reading stage directions to determine details about setting, actions, character, etc.
    • Interpreting dialogue to determine details about characters’ traits, opinions, actions, and intentions as well as plot and theme  
    • Determining how scenes and acts work together with other elements of drama such as character, dialogue, and stage directions to develop dramatic action
    • Explaining how acts and scenes work to together to construct the plot and develop characterization and theme 
  • Drama — literary works written in a stage play format which includes dialogue and stage directions that is intended to be performed 
  • Dialogue — the lines spoken between characters in fiction or a play; dialogue in a play is the main way in which plot, character, and other elements are established
  • Stage directions — descriptions or instructions in a play that provide information about characters, dialogue, setting, and actions

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.7A-D for information related to literary elements.
    • Refer to 6.9A-F for information related to author’s purpose and craft.
6.9 Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:
6.9A Explain the author's purpose and message within a text.

Explain

THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE AND MESSAGE WITHIN A TEXT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying the genre and mode of discourse by looking for genre characteristics and audio/visual elements (if present) in order to determine the general purpose associated with the genre
  • Identifying details about the work’s rhetorical situation (author, topic, intended audience, context/occasion) that may reveal key information about the author’s purpose and message
  • Identifying the style and tone of the work and how these elements may reveal the author’s purpose and message
  • Identifying the author’s stated or implied purpose (e.g., to inform, persuade, entertain, describe, explain, analyze, etc.)
  • Identifying the author’s message (theme) by closely reading, annotating, and analyzing key ideas, supporting details, text structure(s), and the author’s use of language
  • Explaining both the author’s purpose and message in a clear statement (e.g., John Doe wrote the article, “Title,” in order to argue that school uniforms benefit students. Jane Doe wrote the personal narrative “Title,” to explain the positive impact her grandmother had on her upbringing.)
  • Making inferences about the author’s purpose for including specific details, paragraphs, sections of text, text/print and graphic features, literary or rhetorical devices, etc.
  • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Author’s purpose — the reason an author writes about a particular topic (e.g., to persuade, to entertain, to inform, to explain, to analyze, etc.); the reason an author includes particular details, features, or devices in a work 

Note(s):

  • While this SE focuses on determining the author’s purpose and message while reading (or viewing), this SE also applies to writing. Students should utilize the knowledge and skills gained from analyzing different authors and texts to their own writing and performances. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
      • II. Reading — A3. Identify explicit and implicit textual information including main ideas and author’s purpose.
6.9B Analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose.

Analyze

HOW THE USE OF TEXT STRUCTURE CONTRIBUTES TO THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying the genre and mode of discourse by looking for genre characteristics and audio/visual elements (if present) in order to determine text structure(s)/organization(s) associated with the genre
  • Identifying details about the work’s rhetorical situation (author, topic, intended audience, context/occasion) that may reveal key information about the text structure(s)/organization(s)
  • Identifying the author’s stated or implied purpose (e.g., to inform, persuade, entertain, describe, explain, analyze, etc.) and considering how the purpose may influence text structure(s)/organization(s) used
  • Identifying the author’s message (theme) by closely reading, annotating, and analyzing key ideas, supporting details, text structure(s)/organization(s), and the author’s use of language
  • Examining word choice, including transitions that may indicate the text structure(s)/organizational pattern(s)
  • Determining text structures/organizational patterns within the text such as cause/effect, problem and solution, compare/contrast, description, order of importance, chronological, etc.; if the text is literary or fictional, linear and non-linear narrative plot structures may be appropriate to identify
  • Making inferences about how specific text structure(s)/organizational pattern(s) influence and reinforce key ideas and the author’s purpose throughout the text as well as create coherence throughout the text
  • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Text structure — the way or pattern in which an author organizes ideas within a text
  • Organizational pattern — the pattern an author constructs as he or she organizes his or her ideas and provides supporting details. Examples of commonly used patterns are cause and effect, problem and solution, description, and order of importance.
  • Author’s purpose — the reason an author writes about a particular topic (e.g., to persuade, to entertain, to inform, to explain to analyze, etc.); the reason an author includes particular details, features, or devices in a work 

Note(s):

  • While this SE focuses on determining the connection between text structure and author’s purpose while reading (or viewing), this SE also applies to writing. Students should utilize the knowledge and skills gained from studying different authors and texts to their own products and performances.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.8Diii for more information related to organizational patterns.
    • Refer to 6.9A for information related to author’s purpose and message.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
6.9C Analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes.

Analyze 

THE AUTHOR’S USE OF PRINT AND GRAPHIC FEATURES TO ACHIEVE SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Previewing or scanning the text for use of text/print and graphic features
  • Identifying the type of text/print and/or graphic feature(s)
  • Determining the function, meaning, and purpose of the feature(s) (e.g., to clarify, to summarize, to aid in visualization, to provided additional information, to explain a process, to organize/group ideas, to emphasize ideas, to support ideas, to evoke an emotional response, etc.)
  • Integrating the meaning of the text/print and/or graphic feature(s) with the meaning of the text as a whole or with a section of text and referring back to the features as needed to support comprehension
  • Explaining how the text/print and/or graphic features reinforce the author’s purpose and theme
  • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Text/print features — any characteristic of the text outside the main body of the text that helps convey meaning
      • Examples may include: titles, headings, bolded, italicized, or highlighted text, subtitles/subheadings, captions, bullets, pull quotes, footnotes, endnotes, citations, sidebars, hyperlinks, pop-ups, etc.
  • Graphic feature — picture or other image within a text
      • Examples include: diagrams, illustrations/drawings, photographs, maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, infographics, embedded multimedia, icons, etc.

Note(s):

  • While this SE focuses on determining the purpose of text/print and graphic features while reading (or viewing), this SE also applies to writing. Students should utilize the knowledge and skills gained from studying different authors and texts to their own products and performances.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.8Dii for information related to text/print and graphic features.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
      • II. Reading — A2. Use text features to form an overview of content and to locate information.
6.9D Describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes.

Describe

HOW THE AUTHOR’S USE OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE ACHIEVES SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying and considering the rhetorical situation of the text (author, topic, intended audience, context/occasion) as well as genre characteristics that may reveal key information about how the author may use language in the text to achieve specific purposes
  • Determining the author’s purpose and theme and revising as necessary when reading and analyzing a text
  • Annotating and identifying the text to identify the author’s unique use of figurative language such as metaphors, personification, imagery, similes, sound devices, etc.
  • Identifying the meaning of the language and its function in the text to create an intended response in the audience (appealing to reader emotions and experience) and to develop details related to genre characteristics such as plot, character, setting, etc.
  • Identifying the impact and influence of the language on the author’s purpose and theme as well as the audience’s understanding of the text, tone, and mood
  • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Figurative language — language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices
  • Metaphor — a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations). An extended metaphor is a metaphor in which the comparison is carried through several lines or even the entire literary work.
  • Personification — figurative language in which non-human things or abstractions are represented as having human qualities (e.g., necessity is the mother of invention)

Note(s):

  • While this SE focuses on examining the author’s use of language in texts, this SE also applies to writing. Students should utilize the knowledge and skills gained from studying different authors and texts to their own products and performances.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • This SE addresses figurative language such as metaphor and personification, all of which are considered literary devices. Refer to 6.9E for more information on other literary devices.
    • This SE focuses on the author’s use of figurative language. Refer to 6.9F for more specific information on additional skills regarding analyzing author’s language to reveal mood and voice.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
      • II. Reading — A6. Identify and analyze the author’s use of rhetorical and literary devices to create meaning and affect the reader.
6.9E Identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose.

Identify

THE USE OF LITERARY DEVICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying and considering the rhetorical situation of the text (author, topic, intended audience, context/occasion) as well as genre characteristics that may help determine the type of literary devices likely to be found in the text
  • Determining the author’s purpose and message then revising as necessary when reading and analyzing a text
  • Annotating the text to identify literary devices, including:
    • Types of point of view include:
      • First-person POV: text is written from the author or narrator’s/character’s perspective; uses pronouns “I”, “me”, “we”, and/or “us”
      • Second-person POV: text is written/directed at an audience; uses the pronoun “you”
      • Third-person POV: text is written from an outside perspective and attempts to be objective in nonfiction writing or provide a broad narration in storytelling; uses pronouns “he”, “she”, “them”, “they”
      • Third-person limited: story is written from a single character’s perspective; uses pronouns “he”, “she”, “them”, “they”
      • Third-person omniscient: story is written from an “all knowing” perspective with an understanding of all characters; uses pronouns “he”, “she”, “them”, “they”
    • Other literary devices such as imagery, figurative language, metaphor, personification, etc.
  • Identifying the meaning of the device and its function in the text to develop an intended response in the audience (appealing to reader emotions and experience) and to develop details related to genre characteristics such as plot, character, setting, etc.
  • Identifying the impact and influence of the literary device on the author’s purpose and message as well as the audience’s understanding of the text, tone, and mood
  • Using well-chosen evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences
  • Literary device — a specific convention or structure—such as imagery, irony, or foreshadowing—that is employed by the author to produce a given effect.
  • Point of view — the perspective from which the events in the story are told

Note(s):      

  • While this SE focuses on examining the author’s use of language in texts, this SE also applies to writing. Students should utilize the knowledge and skills gained from studying different authors and texts to their own products and performances.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • This SE addresses literary devices but only lists omniscient and limited point of view as examples. Refer to 6.9D for more information on other literary devices, including figurative language, metaphor, personification, etc.
    • This SE focuses on the author’s use of literary devices. Refer to 6.9F for specific information on how language and literary devices contribute to mood and voice.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A6. Identify and analyze the author’s use of rhetorical and literary devices to create meaning and affect the reader.
6.9F Analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood and voice.

Analyze

HOW THE AUTHOR’S USE OF LANGUAGE CONTRIBUTES TO MOOD AND VOICE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying and considering the rhetorical situation of the text (author, topic, intended audience, context/occasion) as well as genre characteristics that may help determine the type of language likely be found in the text
  • Determining the author’s purpose and theme and revising as necessary when reading and analyzing a text
  • Identifying the author’s unique use of language, including figurative language, literary or rhetorical devices, and word choice
    (diction) and determine how language contributes to mood, voice, and meaning in the text
      • Examples of mood may include: dark, light, optimistic, pessimistic, gloomy, cheery, fearful, stressing, chaotic, etc.
      • Examples of voice may include: youthful, witty, blunt, whimsical, reflective, ironic, sarcastic, humorous, condescending, poetic, etc.
  • Explaining how mood and voice reinforce the author’s message and purpose
  • Identifying how the author’s language functions in the text to develop an intended response in the audience (appealing to reader emotions and experience) and to develop or emphasize details related to genre characteristics such as tone, plot, character, setting, theme, etc. as well as pacing and rhythm
  • Using well-chosen text evidence from the text to support conclusions and inferences 
  • Mood — the atmosphere or feeling created by the writer in a literary work or passage; mood can be expressed through imagery, word choice, setting, voice, and theme. For example, the mood evoked in Edgar Allan Poe’s work is gloomy and dark.
  • Voice — an author’s unique articulation or expression of language created by stylistic elements such as syntax, diction, and figurative language
  • Tone — the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing

Note(s):

  • While this SE focuses on how the author’s use of language contributes to mood and voice, this SE also applies to writing. Students should utilize the knowledge and skills gained from studying different authors and texts to their own products and performances.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • This SE focuses on the author’s use of language. Refer to 6.9D for information related to how the author’s use of language achieves specific purposes.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A6. Identify and analyze the author’s use of rhetorical and literary devices to create meaning and affect the reader.
6.10 Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:
6.10A Plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests.

Plan

FIRST DRAFT BY SELECTING A GENRE FOR A PARTICULAR TOPIC, PURPOSE, AND AUDIENCE USING A RANGE OF STRATEGIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Planning a first draft may include:
    • Annotating the prompt (if provided) or identifying a self-selected or teacher-selected topic
    • Identifying the purpose for writing: to inform, persuade, entertain, describe, analyze, etc.
    • Determining the occasion in which the writing will be read or viewed 
    • Identifying the audience intended for the writing and assessing the audience’s knowledge and interest level in the topic 
    • Determining which genre is appropriate to the topic, purpose, and audience by evaluating the characteristics of a variety of genres
    • Understanding how to utilize the genre characteristics of the appropriate genre
    • Notetaking background knowledge and questions about the chosen topic and brainstorming ideas about personal interests in the topic
    • Reading, annotating, and analyzing texts that relate to a prompt or topics of interest
    • Discussing potential ideas with classmates/peers by asking and answering questions
    • Developing an engaging theme relevant to the chosen topic
    • Organizing notes into a graphic organizer, map/web, or outline by categorizing ideas and details about the selected topic and determining the best sequence to present them in the draft
    • Drafting and revising the theme throughout the planning process 
  • Topic — a specific subject, idea, or issue that is the focus of a discussion, essay, article, or other work
  • Purpose — the intended goal of a piece of writing; the reason a person writes
  • Audience — the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium
  • Genre — the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Note(s):

  • Although planning (or prewriting) is often referred to as the first step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
      • I. Writing — A2. Generate ideas, gather information, and manage evidence relevant to the topic and purpose.
6.10B Develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

Develop

DRAFTS INTO A FOCUSED, STRUCTURED, AND COHERENT PIECE OF WRITING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Developing drafts into structured, focused, coherent writing may include:
    • Revising the working outline, graphic organizer, map/web from the planning stage based on readings, thinking, conversations, notes, and experimenting with the sequence of the organization to support the writing purpose and to appeal to the intended audience 
    • Writing a draft that follows the pre-planned outline, graphic organizer, or map/web
    • Using a text structure(s) throughout the draft that is appropriate to the genre, audience, and purpose of the prompt
    • Determining and using an appropriate tone, voice, and diction for the work
    • Utilizing genre characteristics during writing, including literary/rhetorical devices
    • Emulating aspects of other authors’ craft in the same genre
    • Including text evidence, ideas, or details that are strongly related and contribute to the theme
    • Maintaining focus on the topic to create cohesion of ideas
    • Elaborating on specific parts of the text to support the author’s purpose and the audience’s visualization and understanding
    • Using appeals and engaging hooks that will influence the intended audience throughout the draft
    • Choosing words that are precise and support the author’s purpose and voice as well as assist the audience in visualizing and understanding the ideas presented
    • Experimenting with sentence structure to support rhythm, flow, author’s purpose, and the audience’s visualization and understanding
    • Experimenting with conventions to draw the reader’s attention to the text, support author’s purpose, and enhance the audience’s understanding
    • Continuing discussion with a community of writers
  • External coherence — organization of the major components of a written composition—introduction, body, conclusion, or, in the case of a multi-paragraph essay, the paragraphs—in a logical sequence so that they flow easily and progress from one idea to another while still holding true to the central idea of the composition
  • Internal coherence — a logical organization and fluid progression of ideas and/or sentences. A piece of writing with internal coherence does not contradict itself.

Note(s):

  • Although drafting is often referred to as the second step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Reading and writing are reciprocal processes. As writers develop drafts, they draw ideas from texts they have read and may apply the craft and techniques of other authors in their own writing. Refer to 6.9A-G for more information about author’s purpose and craft.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A3. Evaluate relevance, quality, sufficiency, and depth of preliminary ideas and information; organize material generated; and formulate a thesis or purpose statement.
6.10B.i

organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

Develop

drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

Organizing

WITH PURPOSEFUL STRUCTURE

 Including, but not limited to:

  • Organizing a draft with purposeful structure may include:
    • Choosing an appropriate text structure(s) for the author’s purpose, genre, context/occasion, and the audience’s knowledge and interest levels
      • Examples of text structures include: chronological order, sequential order, order of importance, cause-and-effect, compare and contrast, problem/solution, and description
    • Using meaningful transition words/phrases and sentence-to-sentence connections to enhance the flow of the work and create cohesiveness
      • Examples of transitions that add include: and, furthermore, in addition to
      • Examples of transitions that compare include: also, likewise, as well
      • Examples of transitions that contrast include: but, however, alternatively
      • Examples of transitions that prove include: consequently, thus, therefore
      • Examples of transitions that show relationships in time include: first, second, third, finally, then
      • Examples of transitions that give an example include: for example, for instance
      • Examples of transitions that summarize or conclude include: finally, in conclusion
      • Examples of transitions that emphasize include: in fact, always, without a doubt, definitely, obviously
    • Including and building upon ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to creating a focused, controlled work
    • Choosing words that are purposeful and precise and support the overall meaning (or purpose) of the work
    • Ensuring there is coherence within and across paragraphs by establishing clear connections and logical order between ideas
    • Shifting the order of paragraphs, sentences, and information during the writing process to improve clarity and coherence
    • Writing detailed body paragraphs and meaningful concluding paragraphs when appropriate
  • Organization of a paper — the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.
  • Text structure — the way or pattern in which an author organizes ideas within a text
  • Transitional words/phrases — words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.
  • Coherent — logically ordered, with consistent relations of parts to the whole (e.g., a coherent essay)

Note(s):

  • Text structures are highly dependent on the chosen genre, and not all text structures work with all genres.
  • The length of any draft is determined by various factors such as purpose, genre, assignment, time constraints, student ability, publishing space/format, etc. Students should be writing drafts of varying lengths.
6.10B.ii

developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

Develop

drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

Developing

AN ENGAGING IDEA REFLECTING DEPTH OF THOUGHT WITH SPECIFIC DETAILS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Strategies for developing and supporting engaging idea (controlling idea/thesis/claim/theme) may include:
    • Deepening knowledge of specific details related to the topic through various methods such as reflective writing/notetaking, discussions, background reading/research, interviewing, etc.
    • Reflecting on personal, social, and/or universal implications of the topic and considering multiple perspectives on topic details to revise the working engaging idea as necessary
    • Creating, narrowing, and modifying supporting ideas that maintain a focused and coherent connection to the topic, purpose, and working engaging idea
    • Ensuring all development of ideas correspond with specified genre characteristics
  • Details — ideas included or intentionally omitted by an author that contribute to his or her purpose

Note(s):

  • As students develop their ideas throughout their draft, it is important to maintain a purposeful organization as addressed in 6.10Bi.
6.10C Revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety.

Revise

DRAFTS FOR CLARITY, DEVELOPMENT, ORGANIZATION, STYLE, WORD CHOICE, AND SENTENCE VARIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Revising drafts may include:
    • Reviewing task or purpose of the writing assignment and ensuring all content requirements have been met and applicable genre characteristics employed
  • Revising the draft for clarity by:
    • Assessing internal and external coherence by identifying areas lacking in sufficient detail and precision and adding relevant details to improve clarity
    • Checking for unclear references such as pronoun/antecedent agreement and adding nouns as necessary to improve clarity
  • Evaluating the draft for strong development of ideas by:
    • Ensuring that the draft is developed with specific, well-chosen examples and commentary that support the key ideas and fulfill the writing task
    • Modifying details to clarify meaning and ideas
    • Deleting extraneous, unrelated, or repetitive details/ information that detract from the topic and thesis
    • Adding details to develop or explain underdeveloped key ideas, evidence, or commentary
    • Reordering and combining details, sentences, and paragraphs to enhance readability, flow, and coherence
    • Reviewing closing/concluding sentence(s) for emphasis of the overall message or thesis
  • Evaluating the draft for strong organization by:
    • Examining the chosen text structure(s) of the paper to determine if it matches the writing task and if ideas flow, are clear, and are effectively supported with details
    • Improving transitions between ideas in sentences and paragraphs to enhance flow and coherence
  • Evaluating the draft’s stylistic features by:
    • Ensuring language is appropriately formal or informal
    • Avoiding use of the passive voice and favoring an active voice when possible and appropriate
    • Ensuring a consistent point of view, voice, tone, and perspective is maintained throughout the text
    • Reviewing the use of literary/rhetorical devices and figurative language to enhance text effectiveness
    • Improving word choice by incorporating precise words that create visual images and including sensory details that enhance meaning and are appropriate for the purpose and audience
    • Replacing over-used, vague, or ambiguous word choice with more appropriate and precise synonyms
    • Avoiding slang, euphemisms, or biased language as appropriate
    • Using words that best reflect the tone of the writing
    • Using varied syntax/sentence structures that are purposeful, controlled, and enhance the effectiveness of the piece
    • Rearranging syntax to emphasize an important idea or tone as necessary
  • Revising — a stage in the writing process when a text is examined holistically and changes are made to improve the focus, content, organization, sentence structure, and word choice in order to clarify the intended message, create flow, and more successfully engage the audience
  • Clarity — the quality of being clear; easy to see, hear, or understand
  • Development — the depth of thought provided in a work as a whole by incorporating strong details, supportive examples, and thorough commentary
  • Text structure — the way or pattern in which an author organizes ideas within a text
  • Style — the unique characteristics that describe a writer’s use of language; diction, syntax, sentence fluency, figurative language, and voice all contribute to a writer’s style
  • Word choice — the author’s thoughtful use of precise vocabulary to fully convey meaning to the reader

Note(s):

  • Revising is different from editing. Revision improves the content of the draft whereas editing corrects the grammar and mechanics.
  • Revising is an important part of the writing process. Many times students will feel like they are “done” after their first draft. Encourage students to continue re-reading their drafts through the eyes of their audience to find areas for improvement.
  • Although revising is often referred to as the third step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A4. Review feedback and revise each draft by organizing it more logically and fluidly, refining key ideas, and using language more precisely and effectively.
6.10D Edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

Edit

DRAFTS USING STANDARD ENGLISH CONVENTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Editing drafts using standard English conventions may include:
    • Checking for and correcting sentence structure
    • Checking for and correcting verb tense and subject-verb agreement
    • Checking for and correcting parts of speech and usage
    • Checking for and correcting capitalization
    • Checking for and correcting punctuation
    • Checking for and correcting spelling
    • Assessing whether choices in conventions and structures support the intended message and purpose
  • Other considerations for editing may include:
    • Studying mentor texts (texts used for study and imitation) for the use of standard English conventions and authors’ choices in conventions
    • Employing both standard English conventions and non-standard choices in spelling, grammar, and punctuation to craft a written message that affects the reader for a specific purpose
    • Using unconventional choices intentionally to affect the reader may include:
      • Using fragment sentences to draw the readers’ attention to a specific point, to create a dramatic pause, to create a rhythm in the syntax, etc.
      • Using unconventional grammar, spelling, and slang to convey regional dialects or speech patterns common in specific communities
      • Using run-on sentences to vary sentence structure, affect rhythm, or craft lyrical prose
  • Conventions — standard rules of grammar and language, including written mechanics such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and paragraphs and written/oral usage such as word order, subject-verb agreement, and sentence structure
  • Mechanics — in writing, the use of standard rules of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and usage as opposed to expressive or artistic considerations.
  • Editing — a stage in the writing process when a written text is prepared for an audience by attending to and correcting mechanics, grammar, and spelling.

Note(s):

  • Editing is different from revising. Editing corrects the mechanics; whereas, revising improves the content of the draft.
  • Although editing is often referred to as the fourth step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • It may be overwhelming for some students to edit an entire draft at one time, so editing periodically during the process of writing will lessen the burden at the end.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.10Di-ix for information on the specific grade-level expectations for language conventions. Students should also be responsible for previously learned conventions.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A5. Edit writing for audience, purpose, context, and style, assuring that it conforms to Standard American English, when appropriate.
6.10D.ix correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too.

Edit

 

drafts using standard English conventions, including:

 

CORRECT SPELLING

 

Including, but not limited to:

 

  • Editing for correct spelling may include:
    • Proofreading and using peer editing to ensure drafts are free of spelling errors
    • Using online or physical resources such as a dictionary to identify misspelled words and determine the proper spelling of words
    • Identifying commonly misspelled or confused words and homophones to ensure all words in draft are used and spelled correctly
      • Examples include: its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/ they’re, to/two/too, here/hear, one/won, your/you’re, capital/capitol, quiet/quite/quit, principal/principle
    • Applying knowledge of roots, prefixes, and suffixes to determine correct spelling
6.10E Publish written work for appropriate audiences.

Publish

WRITTEN WORK FOR APPROPRIATE AUDIENCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Publishing written work may include:
    • Finalizing an error-free draft after completing multiple revisions/drafts of a work based on self and peer editing/feedback that incorporates appropriate genre characteristics and style guide requirements to meet the needs of an audience’s interest level, knowledge, and attention span
    • Choosing a platform/format to publish a work based on the genre, purpose, occasion/context, and audience of the work such as
      • Informal sharing or presentation with classmates, teacher, or other audience
      • Speech or multimodal digital presentation in a classroom or other venue such as a shared school place or public space 
      • Submitting an original literary text to an organization, publication/magazine/newspaper, or contest
      • Posting a podcast, blog, vlog, digital portfolio/story, or other audio/visual presentations online or through an app
      • Presenting or distributing a visual display of communication such as a photo essay in a specified venue/gallery
    • Ensuring all submission guidelines, format, and style requirements are met for the chosen publication format
  • Audience — the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Note(s):

  • Planning for publication roots the writing process in authentic purposes for authentic audiences and influences each stage of the writing process.
  • Students may consider their own interests and strengths for their publication style depending on the parameters of the assignment or task.
  • This is the last step in the writing process and focuses on making written or composed works accessible and attractive to the chosen audience. This includes making a handwritten work legible with good penmanship and a typed work properly formatted.
6.11 Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:
6.11A

Compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft.

Compose

LITERARY TEXTS USING GENRE CHARACTERISTICS AND CRAFT

Included, but not limited to:

  • Engaging in the writing process to collect ideas and develop them into an engaging work of drama and poetry
  • Applying characteristics and techniques employed by the authors of mentor texts in order to develop original informational texts that demonstrate strong reading-writing connections
  • Applying genre characteristics and craft techniques that are common to all literary texts, including:
    • Imagery, word choice, figurative language, and literary devices to create vivid, expressive details and voice that enhances mood, establishes a tone, and/or develops a theme
    • Various points of view depending on author’s choice and purpose
  • Applying genre characteristics and craft specific to works of drama, including:
    • Developing a plot, including a strong conflict and resolution as well as other plot elements such as flashbacks with scenes that progress the story and develop characterization throughout the narrative
    • Creating interesting and believable characters
    • Establishing well-defined setting(s) that contribute to characterization and plot and may have historical and cultural significance
    • Developing a clear theme through various literary elements such as characterization, plot, setting, mood, tone, point of view, and use of language
    • Incorporating meaningful dialogue that deepens characterization and/or moves the plot forward
  • Applying genre characteristics and craft specific to unique forms of fiction, such as:
    • For drama (stage plays), using a character list, dialogue, stage directions, acts, scenes, setting, props, etc. in a format aligned with the publishing standards for drama
  • Applying genre characteristics and craft specific to poetry, including:
    • Using poetic elements such as rhyme scheme meter, etc.
    • Using graphical elements such as line length, punctuation, capitalization, word position, spacing, and stanzas, etc.
    • Making structural decisions regarding lines, stanzas, and verses
    • Utilizing a variety of poetic forms such lyric, narrative, free verse, sonnets, ballads, etc. and their corresponding characteristics and elements
  • Literary text — written works that are generally recognized as having artistic value. Basic forms of literary text include prose fiction, drama, poetry, and literary nonfiction.
  • Fiction — literary works written in prose based on imaginative ideas and storytelling not presented as fact
  • Poetry — literary works focused on the expression of feelings and ideas through a distinctive style that is often rhythmical and may have elements such as meter, rhyme, and stanzas
  • Author’s craft — intentional and deliberate use of organizational patterns, text and graphic features, syntax, devices, and diction to create an effective written work; author’s craft may vary by genre

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.10A-E for more information related to the writing process.
    • Refer to 6.7A-D and 6.8A-C for more information related to analyzing characteristics of literary genres.
    • Refer to 6.9A-F for information related to author’s purpose and craft.
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
6.1 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:
6.1A Listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately.

Listen

ACTIVELY TO INTERPRET A MESSAGE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Listening actively may include:
    • Practicing attentive body language and/or facial expressions, such as nodding, tilting head, leaning forward slightly, making eye contact, and focusing attention on the speaker rather than environmental factors
    • Considering the rhetorical situation of the communication (speaker’s background, topic, intended audience, context)
    • Annotating, taking notes or following along on provided handouts, visual aids, or other support materials
    • Following directions, answering questions, and participating/engaging with the speaker and presentation as needed or requested
    • Interpreting the speaker’s message by examining details, examples, illustrations, and tone
    • Analyzing the speaker’s nonverbal language by examining elements such as facial expressions, movement, appearance, eye contact, gestures, and posture
    • Using context clues to understand new or unfamiliar vocabulary

Ask

CLARIFYING QUESTIONS

  • Asking clarifying questions may include:
    • Asking questions to gather more information and clarify ideas
    • Asking for explanations of unfamiliar concepts or vocabulary
    • Asking for evidence or resources that support the message and details shared
    • Questioning the validity of the message, details, or viewpoints shared by the speaker or audience 

Respond

APPROPRIATELY

  • Responding appropriately may include:
    • Commenting to add information, make connections, communicate understanding, and challenge claims
    • Engaging the speaker using appropriate timing
    • Responding in a polite tone
    • Staying on topic
    • Respecting multiple perspectives and points of view
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Speaking — A. Understand the elements of both formal and informal communication in group discussions, one-on-one situations, and presentations.
      • II. Speaking — A1. Participate actively, effectively, and respectfully in one-on-one oral communication as well as in group discussions.
    • IV. Listening — A. Apply listening skills in a variety of settings and contexts.
      • V. Listening — A1. Use a variety of active listening strategies to enhance comprehension.
      • IV. Listening — A2. Listen critically and respond appropriately.
6.1B Follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps.

Follow, Give

INSTRUCTIONS THAT INCLUDE MULTIPLE ACTIONS STEPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Clarifying/providing purpose, expectations, required resources/materials, and procedures for written and oral tasks and processes
  • Clarifying/providing specific and appropriate vocabulary
  • Ordering steps and directives in a logical manner
  • Providing advice and tips for success, productivity, and skill improvement
  • Speaking, listening, and collaborating in whole class, small group, and one-on-one contexts
  • Answering, anticipating, and asking questions related to areas of misunderstanding and curiosity
  • Negotiating problems and logical inconsistencies with instructions
  • Reading, annotating, and listening for complete instructions, including the purpose of the activity or task, materials and resources needed, criteria for evaluation, and expectations for participation 
  • Executing a task, performance, or procedure based on multi-step directions
6.1D Participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

Participate

IN STUDENT-LED DISCUSSIONS BY ELICITING AND CONSIDERING SUGGESTIONS FROM OTHER GROUP MEMBERS, TAKING NOTES, AND IDENTIFYING POINTS OF AGREEMENT AND DISAGREEMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Participating in effective student-led discussions may include:
    • Following explicit and implicit instructions to solve a problem, explore a concept, or analyze a work
    • Establishing and maintaining structures, roles, norms, etc. that ensure equal contributions from each group member
    • Leading, facilitating, or engaging in a discussion that is initiated and driven by students
    • Pre-writing, annotating, and/or brainstorming independently prior to collaboration to ensure all group members are informed of the discussion topic
    • Contributing relevant information or research related to the topic
    • Modifying ideas or perspectives as more evidence is presented
    • Redirecting group members who stray off-topic or elaborate on tangential, unrelated ideas
    • Practicing active listening
    • Refraining from dominating the discussion with excessive responding
    • Maintaining respect for group members’ thoughts and opinions and being open to multiple viewpoints
    • Maintaining a positive and welcoming demeanor
  • Eliciting or considering suggestions from other group members may include:
    • Being open and respectful to multiple viewpoints
    • Providing additional relevant details, explanations, and/or research about an idea discussed by oneself or another group member
    • Acknowledging, evaluating, and researching opposing arguments
    • Distinguishing relevant evidence and support from unsubstantiated support
    • Providing and accepting both positive and constructive feedback such as positive observations, compliments, and ideas about improvements or weaknesses
  • Taking notes may include:
    • Identifying, paraphrasing, or summarizing key ideas of the discussion
    • Identifying questions for research related to the topic
  • Identifying points of agreement and disagreement may include:
    • Identifying and categorizing similarities and differences in ideas between group members
    • Using evidence to further explain or support a point of agreement or disagreement
  • Student-led discussions — students lead and engage in extensive conversations about a text or a given topic

Note(s):

  • Structured collaboration involves a systematic approach with pre-established ground rules for contributing as well as responding to the contributions of others.
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Speaking — A. Understand the elements of both formal and informal communication in group discussions, one-on-one situations, and presentations.
      • II. Speaking — A1. Participate actively, effectively, and respectfully in one-on-one oral communication as well as in group discussions.
    • IV. Listening — A. Apply listening skills in a variety of settings and contexts.
      • IV. Listening — A2. Listen critically and respond appropriately.
6.2 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:
6.2A Use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech.

Use

PRINT OR DIGITAL RESOURCES TO DETERMINE THE MEANING, SYLLABICATION, PRONUNCIATION, WORD ORIGIN, AND PART OF SPEECH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using print (e.g., book) or digital (e.g., website, app) resources may include:
    • Using resources such as dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, etc.
    • Using guide words and/or knowledge of alphabetical order to locate words in print resources
    • Using search features to find words in digital resources
    • Analyzing an entry in a resource
    • Analyzing any accompanying visual or image in a resource that is related to the definition/meaning of a word
  • Determining word meaning using resources may include:
    • Reading and understanding the given definition, including breaking it into parts if necessary
    • Determining the applicable word meaning when multiple definitions are provided by considering the context in which the word is used
    • Breaking vocabulary into prefixes, suffixes, and roots to determine overall word meaning as necessary
    • Relating new vocabulary to synonyms or antonyms to aid in meaning
  • Determining word syllabication and pronunciation may include:
    • Identifying the number of syllables identified in the resource
    • Identifying the phonetic symbols included in each syllable
    • Identifying the placement of accented syllables in the word
    • Applying the sounds of the phonetic symbols and the accented syllable to correctly pronounce the word
  • Determining word origin may include:
    • Analyzing any provided details about word origin
    • Identifying Latin or Greek roots, prefixes, and suffixes and their meanings
  • Determining part of speech may include:
    • Identifying the word’s placement in the sentence
    • Determining the grammatical function of the word in the sentence
    • Looking for visual clues, such as capitalization (for proper nouns)
    • Identifying the part of speech abbreviation next to the word in the entry
    • Distinguishing between multiple definitions and parts of speech for the same word to determine the definition that is appropriate for the context in which the word was found
  • Syllabication — the process of dividing words into syllables
  • Pronunciation — the way in which a word is spoken
  • Word origin — the initial place(s) and historical era(s) a word was derived and developed
  • Part of speech — a category assigned to a word based on its syntactic function; the 8 primary parts of speech include noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, preposition, interjection

Use

PRINT OR DIGITAL RESOURCES TO DETERMINE THE MEANING, SYLLABICATION, PRONUNCIATION, WORD ORIGIN, AND PART OF SPEECH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using print (e.g., book) or digital (e.g., website, app) resources may include:
    • Using resources such as dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, etc.
    • Using guide words and/or knowledge of alphabetical order to locate words in print resources
    • Using search features to find words in digital resources
    • Analyzing an entry in a resource
    • Analyzing any accompanying visual or image in a resource that is related to the definition/meaning of a word
  • Determining word meaning using resources may include:
    • Reading and understanding the given definition, including breaking it into parts if necessary
    • Determining the applicable word meaning when multiple definitions are provided by considering the context in which the word is used
    • Breaking vocabulary into prefixes, suffixes, and roots to determine overall word meaning as necessary
    • Relating new vocabulary to synonyms or antonyms to aid in meaning
  • Determining word syllabication and pronunciation may include:
    • Identifying the number of syllables identified in the resource
    • Identifying the phonetic symbols included in each syllable
    • Identifying the placement of accented syllables in the word
    • Applying the sounds of the phonetic symbols and the accented syllable to correctly pronounce the word
  • Determining word origin may include:
    • Analyzing any provided details about word origin
    • Identifying Latin or Greek roots, prefixes, and suffixes and their meanings
  • Determining part of speech may include:
    • Identifying the word’s placement in the sentence
    • Determining the grammatical function of the word in the sentence
    • Looking for visual clues, such as capitalization (for proper nouns)
    • Identifying the part of speech abbreviation next to the word in the entry
    • Distinguishing between multiple definitions and parts of speech for the same word to determine the definition that is appropriate for the context in which the word was found
  • Syllabication — the process of dividing words into syllables
  • Pronunciation — the way in which a word is spoken
  • Word origin — the initial place(s) and historical era(s) a word was derived and developed
  • Part of speech — a category assigned to a word based on its syntactic function; the 8 primary parts of speech include noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, preposition, interjection

Note(s):

  • Grade Levels):
    • Refer to 6.2C for more information about Latin and Greek roots.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — B. Apply a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases..
      • II. Reading — B3. Use reference guides to confirm the meanings of new words or concepts.
6.2B Use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words.

Use

CONTEXT SUCH AS DEFINITION, ANALOGY, AND EXAMPLES TO CLARIFY THE MEANING OF WORDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using context to determine word meaning may include:
    • Identifying unfamiliar words and locating key phrases surrounding the words that clarify meaning
    • Using context clues within the sentence or larger section of text to determine the meaning of a word
    • Identifying any surrounding text features, structures, or devices that may indicate word meaning such as definitions or defining language, analogies, examples of an idea or object, etc.
    • Examining the placement and function of a word in a sentence to identify its part of speech 
    • Breaking vocabulary into prefixes, suffixes, and roots to determine each word part’s meaning
    • Confirming the word meaning with a dictionary or thesaurus as necessary
    • Restating ambiguous or unfamiliar words using familiar wording
     
  • Context — the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

 

Note(s):

  • A dictionary or thesaurus can help students determine word meaning; however, students should consider definitions and synonyms in conjunction with contextual meaning.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — B. Apply a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases..
      • Reading — B1. Identify new words and concepts acquired through study of their relationships to other words and concepts.
6.2C Determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as mis/mit, bene, man, vac, scrib/script, and jur/jus.

Determine

THE MEANING AND USAGE OF GRADE-LEVEL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS DERIVED FROM GREEK AND LATIN ROOTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determining the meaning and usage of words may include:
    • Breaking vocabulary into prefixes, suffixes, and roots to determine each part’s meaning
    • Utilizing print or digital resources such as a dictionary or thesaurus to define roots and affixes
    • Examining the placement and function of a word in a sentence to identify its part of speech 
    • Combining the meaning of individual parts to determine the overall meaning
    • Using context clues to infer or confirm word meaning
    • Determining and attributing meanings of Greek or Latin roots when applicable
  • Examples of Greek and Latin roots may include:
    • mis/mit (send)
      • missile, dismiss, mission, emit, submit, etc.
    • bene (good, well)
      • benefit, benefactor, benevolent, beneficiary, etc.
    • man/manu (hand)
      • manuscript, manager, manicure, mandate, etc.
    • vac (empty)
      • vacuum, evacuate, vacate, vacation, etc.
    • scrib/script (write)
      • describe, inscribe, scribble, manuscript, postscript, prescription, etc.
    • jur/jus (law/justice)
      • jury, perjury, jurisdiction, justice, justify, just, etc.
  • Academic English words — 1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study 2. words used during instruction, exams, and in textbooks. These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Note(s):            

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.2B for more information about using context to clarify word meaning.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — B. Apply a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases.
      • Reading — B2. Apply knowledge of roots and affixes to infer the meanings of new words.
6.3 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to:
6.3A Adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

Adjust

FLUENCY WHEN READING GRADE-LEVEL TEXT BASED ON THE READING PURPOSE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Adjusting fluency to reading purpose may include:
    • Identifying the purpose for reading a text (e.g., reading a selection for enjoyment, to perform the text, to identify or find important details, to note critical concepts, etc.), audience, and genre characteristics
    • Reading with rate, accuracy, phrasing, and expression appropriate for the genre, purpose, and audience and adjusting as necessary
  • Fluency — the ability to read text at an appropriate rate, and with accuracy, expression, and appropriate phrasing; not hurried reading
  • Rate — the number of words read per minute
  • Accuracy — reading words without errors
  • Phrasing — reading with appropriate pauses by chunking the text into meaningful parts/phrases
  • Expression — emphasizing words and sentences through changes in tone of voice while reading

Note(s):

  • The goal of fluency is the time (not speed) needed to ensure comprehension.
  • Fluency may be practiced and assessed using independent-level texts that are easy to read and understand at 95% accuracy or above (no more than 1 in 20 words are difficult for the reader).
  • Fluency may be modeled or guided using instructional-level texts that are manageable to read and understand at 90-95% accuracy (no more than 1 in 10 words are difficult for the reader).
6.4 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to:
6.4A Self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

Self-select

TEXT

Including, but not limited  to:

  • Determining personal interest areas, goals, and purposes for reading
  • Using online tools, sites, and search engines to find texts that meet criteria for student interests and goals
  • Discussing reading interests with others (e.g. peers, teachers, librarians) to guide text selection
  • Previewing texts for individual reading interests, goals, and accessibility and choosing texts that meet these criteria
  • Determining if the text is a good fit for an individual’s reading ability and maturity
  • Choosing a text after researching possibilities based on personal criteria such as interest, ability, and purpose

Self-select

TEXT

Including, but not limited  to:

  • Determining personal interest areas, goals, and purposes for reading
  • Using online tools, sites, and search engines to find texts that meet criteria for student interests and goals
  • Discussing reading interests with others (e.g. peers, teachers, librarians) to guide text selection
  • Previewing texts for individual reading interests, goals, and accessibility and choosing texts that meet these criteria
  • Determining if the text is a good fit for an individual’s reading ability and maturity
  • Choosing a text after researching possibilities based on personal criteria such as interest, ability, and purpose

Read

INDEPENDENTLY FOR A SUSTAINED PERIOD OF TIME

Including, but not limited to:

  • Outlining questions one has about the text or author prior to reading
  • Reading for a pre-determined period of time without interruption
  • Maintaining focus on the text while reading and ignoring distractions from environmental factor
  • Building stamina through extended and regular independent reading
  • Taking notes independently as needed to document ideas, observations, reflections, questions, etc. with response journals, reading logs, or conversations
  • Reflecting (in writing, orally, or mentally) on the text before, during, and after reading to determine answers to questions one had prior to reading, to identify lingering or new questions, and/or to explore concluding thoughts on the text and author

Note(s):

  • Students may read challenging texts as long as decoding does not unduly interrupt comprehension. Reading above ability level can be intellectually stimulating or can cause frustration and result in lack of comprehension of topic unless student has prior background knowledge or innate interest in the topic.
  • The purpose of self-selected, sustained reading is for enjoyment, exposure, and to build fluency and stamina. Reading self-selected texts is effective if students are given the opportunity to read selections relevant to them. Students are more likely to commit to the practice if they have background knowledge and/or interests in what they are reading.
  • Literary, informational, and argumentative texts are all equally important in the scope of literacy, and students should have the opportunities to explore a variety of genres.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — C. Read and analyze literary and other texts from a variety of cultural and historical contexts.
      • II. Reading — C1. Read widely, including complete texts from American, British, and world literatures.
6.5 Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:
6.5D Create mental images to deepen understanding.

Create

MENTAL IMAGES TO DEEPEN UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating mental images may include:
    • Using background knowledge
    • Focusing on active verbs, vivid adjectives, concrete nouns, and extended descriptions, including figurative language
    • Pausing to visualize sections of text
    • Connecting ideas within the text to personal experience and/or other texts
    • Monitoring comprehension
    • Modifying mental images based on new information and details
    • Using mental images to infer deeper meaning about the text
  • Mental images — visualizing physical details from a text such as actions, characters, scenes, events, and setting
6.5I Monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

Monitor

COMPREHENSION

Make

ADJUSTMENTS WHEN UNDERSTANDING BREAKS DOWN

Including, but not limited to:

  • Monitoring comprehension and making adjustments may include:
    • Re-reading a portion of the text silently or aloud
    • Using background knowledge to connect to the text
    • Asking questions before, during, and after reading
    • Annotating the text with commentary and questions that identify significant features of the text, meaningful connections, and key ideas
    • Recognizing unfamiliar or ambiguous vocabulary and using context and/or resources to verify meaning
    • Searching the text for evidence to support ideas and inferences
    • Paraphrasing and summarizing sections of text or the whole text

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Listening — A. Apply listening skills in a variety of settings and contexts.
      • V. Listening — A1. Use a variety of active listening strategies to enhance comprehension.
6.6 Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:
6.6F Respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

Respond

USING NEWLY ACQUIRED VOCABULARY AS APPROPRIATE

Including, but not limited to: 

  • Acquiring new vocabulary may include:
    • Recognizing unfamiliar and/or multiple-meaning words in sources being read, heard, or viewed 
    • Identifying relationships between familiar and unfamiliar words 
    • Using context and/or resources to determine word meaning 
  • Responding may include:
    • Reading and analyzing sources using new understanding of vocabulary to improve comprehension
    • Using vocabulary in verbal responses, discussions, and presentations
    • Incorporating vocabulary in formal and informal written responses such as sentences, paragraphs, essays, notetaking documents, graphic organizers, etc.
  • Newly acquired vocabulary may include:
    • Content/academic vocabulary
    • Text/source-specific vocabulary
    • High-utility vocabulary

Note(s): 

  • English Language Learners will especially benefit from opportunities to respond orally using newly acquired vocabulary. These opportunities should take into account a student’s stage of language development with an emphasis on developing social, academic, and content vocabulary.
  • Grade Level(s): 
    • Refer to 6.2A-C for more information about the foundational skills in acquiring new vocabulary.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 05/29/2019
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