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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 6 English Language Arts and Reading
TITLE : Unit 01: Building Foundational Reading and Writing Processes SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 Days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address basic skills required for effective reading, writing, and discussion with a special emphasis on comprehension and response. The unit aims to reinforce the habits that support literate lives. Genre of text selections are not the focus of this unit; therefore, specific genre characteristics and author’s craft pertaining to a specific genre are not meant to be taught. Instead, the focus is placed on reading, writing, and discussion skills that are applicable to any genre and reading/writing purpose in order to establish foundational literacy practices to be employed throughout the year.

Prior to this Unit

Students have had varied literacy experiences inside and outside the classroom. These literacy histories and experiences have influenced their reading/writing habits and routines as well as how they see themselves and identify as readers and writers.

During this Unit

In Reading, students choose texts according to their interests and purposes for reading. Students read a self-selected text(s) and practice a variety of internal reading strategies such as annotating/notetaking, asking questions, creating mental images, making predictions, making connections, making inferences, and identifying the difference between paraphrasing and summarizing in order to understand text(s). Students use written responses and discussion to demonstrate their understanding of a text(s). Students also reflect on their habits and routines which may include preferred environments for reading, preferred genres, and internal and external strategies to support stamina, engagement, and comprehension.

In Writing, students review the initial stages of the writing process with a focus on planning (brainstorming, notetaking, and outlining) and drafting (development and focus).

In Collaboration, students actively listen, discuss, and make connections with their peers on the topic of their reading and writing habits in and outside school.

After this Unit

In future units, students will read, analyze, and study texts of various genres. Students will study authors’ purposes and craft and apply craft to their own compositions for their own authentic purposes.

Additional Notes

This unit is intended to be taught through the lens of any genre with a focus on general comprehension and response strategies and skills rather than on specific genre characteristics or author’s craft pertaining to those characteristics. While genre may be part of the general conversation about purpose and message, it is not the focus of the unit. Instead, the unit emphasis is on reading, writing, and discussion skills that are applicable to any genre. This unit lays the foundation for literacy practices to be employed during most forthcoming reading and writing activities. 

Although not explicitly taught, students continue to use strategies for acquiring and using new vocabulary.

As suggested by TEA, the TEKS in this unit are meant to be integrated with emphasis on the connections between listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking. There should be daily opportunities for students to discuss, read, and write. Students will continually develop their knowledge and skills with increased complexity over time.

Research

The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)’s “Professional Knowledge for the Teaching of Writing” (2016) stresses the connections between reader and writer: thinking and talking to make meaning and compose. “Writing is embedded in complex social relationships and their appropriate languages. Writing happens in the midst of a web of relationships.” Relationships between the writer and the reader as well as with the writer’s community affect the writing process (pg. 2). Related to the idea of writing as a social process, NCTE also makes clear that “Writing has a complex relationship to talk” and “Writers often talk in order to rehearse the language and content that will go into what they write, and conversation provides an impetus or occasion for writing” (pg. 8). To support reading and writing as social processes, teachers must help create a safe environment that supports clear communication where writers write both for self to support their thinking and for authentic audiences in a variety of genres.

National Council of Teachers of English (2016). Professional Knowledge for the Teaching of Writing. Retrieved from http://www2.ncte.org/statement/teaching-writing/

In his book, Building Adolescent Literacy in Today’s English Classrooms, Randy Bomer (2011) expands on the research behind NCTE Professional Knowledge by providing ideas for how teachers can create a learning community that supports authentic reading and writing processes in school. He suggests that “the best possible beginning to a school year just might involve finding out about students as literate people, while also building a relationship with a listening attitude” (pg. 21). As teachers come to understand their students as readers and writers, so do students come to see their own and their peers’ out-of-school reading and writing habits and routines as connected to and supportive of the reading and writing that happens in school. Bomer says, “In a literacy classroom like an English class, one way to do that is by receiving students’ existing literacies—beginning the conversation with extended and explicit acknowledgement that most of the things we’re going to learn in this class are just expansions on things they already do all the time because they want to” (pg. 25). He provides examples such as keeping diaries or sketch books, writing and listening to song lyrics, composing and interpreting communication on social media or texting, reading magazines or comics or in street art such as graffiti or murals (pgs. 20-40) as types of literacy routines that many students are already engaging in that we can draw from and connect to as we read and write in school.

Bomer, R. (2011). Building Adolescent Literacy in Today’s English Classrooms. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.


Performance Assessment Bundle #1

Reading is the act of interpreting written communication in order to deepen our understanding about the world and learn about the thoughts and experiences of others as well as ourselves.

  • Why read?
  • Why is it important to read a variety of texts?
  • How do the conventions of language help me understand what I am reading?
  • How does reading impact my thoughts and perspectives?
  • What can I do to become a better reader?

 Readers use comprehension strategies to construct meaning.

  • How do I understand what I read?
  • What practices/skills help me understand texts?
  • How do I determine which strategies are best to comprehend a specific text?

 Readers can convey their understanding through a variety of responses.

  • What types of responses can demonstrate my understanding?
  • How can I construct a response that clearly demonstrates my understanding?

 Readers can enhance understanding of a text by examining and analyzing author’s craft.

  • How do I examine and analyze author’s craft when reading a text?
  • How do a writer’s choices in craft impact meaning?

 

Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Readers can interact with texts in a variety of meaningful ways to enhance understanding and comprehension.

  • What does it mean to “interact with a text”?
  • How can annotating and notetaking help a reader understand a text on a deeper level?
  • How can questioning a text help deepen comprehension?

New meaning and adapted understanding can result from interacting with a text.

  • How does my understanding about a text change as I continue to interact with it?

Comprehension and Response

  • Interacting with text (e.g., annotating, notetaking, illustrating, writing, etc.
  • Meaning/Interpretation/ Analysis
  • Questioning
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

 Readers make inferences about the implicit meanings in texts/oral communication.

  • How do I infer the implied, non-literal meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or detail?
  • How do I make predictions about a text/oral communication?

Comprehension and Response

  • Making inferences

Critical readers monitor their own thinking to support their understanding.

  • What are my strategies/processes for understanding a text/communication?
  • How can I monitor my own understanding and comprehension while reading/listening?

Critical readers reread texts or parts of texts as necessary to improve understanding.

  • How can multiple readings of the same text enhance a reader’s understanding?

Comprehension and Response

  • Monitoring comprehension

Annotating and notetaking allow readers to interact with a text to improve comprehension.

  • How do I take notes as I read? What should my notes include?
  • How do I annotate as I read? What should my annotations include?

 

Comprehension and Response

  • Interacting with text (e.g., annotating, notetaking, illustrating, writing, etc.

Reflecting about a text creates new understandings about oneself, other perspectives, and the world.

  • What does this text or detail mean to me? 
  • How does this text or detail enhance knowledge of myself, other perspectives, and/or and the world?

 

Comprehension and Response

  • Reflecting

Readers can verify their understanding of a text with responses that contain supporting evidence.

  • How can I use evidence from the text to support my responses?
  • How does paraphrasing and directly quoting the text help me respond to a text?

Comprehension and Response

  • Text evidence

Writers write for a variety of purposes and audiences.

  • Why do writers write?

Purpose and Craft

  • Author’s purpose

Writers write for an intended audience.

  • How does a writer/reader determine the intended audience of a text?
  • In what ways do writers adjust their writing depending on the audience?

Purpose and Craft

  • Audience

A writer’s message and purpose is influenced by cultural and historical contexts.

  • How is my message and purpose influenced by cultural and historical contexts?
  • When reading, what is significant about the context in which the text was written?
  • When writing, what is significant about the context in which I am writing?

Purpose and Craft

  • Context

Writers convey the message (theme, central/controlling idea, thesis, or claim) of a text either directly or indirectly through a variety of strategies, including language and literary/rhetorical devices. 

  • How does author’s craft contribute to the message of a text?
  • How do authors develop the message of a text?

Purpose and Craft

  • Message (theme, controlling idea/thesis, or claim)

Performance Assessment Bundle #2

Reading and writing are reciprocal processes that reinforce one another and strengthen skills necessary for each.

  • What is the relationship between reading and writing?
  • How does reading help me write?
  • How does writing help me read?

Reading is the act of interpreting written communication in order to deepen our understanding about the world and learn about the thoughts and experiences of others as well as ourselves.

  • Why read?
  • What can I do to become a better reader?

Effective oral language helps me express ideas, thoughts, and feelings with others and understand what others think and feel.

  • Why do I speak?
  • Why do I listen?
  • How do I effectively communicate my ideas, thoughts, and feelings?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Reading is a social process between the writer and the reader(s).

  • How does talking/speaking support my reading?
  • How does writing support my reading?

Reading & Writing

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Active listening requires mental concentration and physical alertness in order to understand and respond to another person.

  • What does it mean to actively listen?
  • What are the components of active listening?
  • How can active listening help me learn?
  • How can I show that I am actively listening?

 

Oral Language

  • Active listening

Discussing ideas with others can improve everyone’s understanding of a topic. 

  • How can discussing my ideas and thoughts with others enhance my understanding?
  • How can I contribute positively to discussions?

 

Oral Language

  • Discussing

A productive collaborative community includes essential components of effective communication: active listening, discussing, and the ability to give and follow oral instructions.

  • How can I collaborate with others to achieve goals?
  • How can I share my ideas with others during collaboration?
  • What does successful collaboration look like?  What does it sound like?

 

Oral Language

  • Collaborating
  • Active listening
  • Oral response
  • Discussing

 


Performance Assessment Bundle #3

Reading and writing are reciprocal processes that reinforce one another and strengthen skills necessary for each.

  • What is the relationship between reading and writing?
  • How does reading help me write?
  • How does writing help me read?

Writing is the act of using language to communicate our thoughts, the meaning of our experiences, and our understanding of the world. 

  • Why am I writing? What is my purpose, audience, topic?
  • How do I write clearly and effectively using the conventions of language?
  • What do I want to say? Why is it important?
  • What can others learn from my writing?

Effective oral language helps me express ideas, thoughts, and feelings with others and understand what others think and feel.

  • Why do I speak?
  • Why do I listen?
  • How do I effectively communicate my ideas, thoughts, and feelings?

 

Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Reading is a social process between the writer and the reader(s).

  • How does talking/speaking support my reading?
  • How does writing support my reading?

 

Reading & Writing

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Active listening requires mental concentration and physical alertness in order to understand and respond to another person.

  • What does it mean to actively listen?
  • What are the components of active listening?
  • How can active listening help me learn?
  • How can I show that I am actively listening?

 

 

 Writing

Discussing ideas with others can improve everyone’s understanding of a topic. 

  • How can discussing my ideas and thoughts with others enhance my understanding?
  • How can I contribute positively to discussions?

 

Oral Language

  • Discussing

A productive collaborative community includes essential components of effective communication: active listening, discussing, and the ability to give and follow oral instructions.

  • How can I collaborate with others to achieve goals?
  • How can I share my ideas with others during collaboration?
  • What does successful collaboration look like?  What does it sound like?

 

Oral Language

  • Active listening
  • Collaborating
  • Discussing
  • Oral Response

 


Performance Assessment Bundle #4

Writing is the act of using language to communicate our thoughts, the meaning of our experiences, and our understanding of the world. 

  • Why am I writing? What is my purpose, audience, topic?
  • How do I write clearly and effectively using the conventions of language?
  • What do I want to say? Why is it important?
  • What can others learn from my writing?

Writing is a recursive process that includes several stages and is essential to crafting focused, coherent, and well-developed compositions.

  • What are the stages of the writing process? Why are they important?
  • How do the stages of the writing process reinforce each other?

Writers make deliberate choices regarding content, language, and style to craft texts for specific purposes, audiences, and contexts.

  • What is author’s craft?
  • What influences a writer’s choices regarding content, language, and style?

 

Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Writers use a variety of methods to prepare to write in order to build understanding of the assigned/selected topic, purpose, and audience. 

  • Why am I writing? What is my purpose and topic? Who is my intended audience?
  • Why are discussing and reading about a topic prior to writing important in the planning process?
  • How does planning and discussion help me focus and organize my thinking?
  • What important practices/methods may help me begin to compose a piece of writing?

Writers outline the key ideas and sections of their text prior to drafting in order to determine the best sequencing of information as well as the best details to include in the composition.

  • How do I identify details to include in my composition?
  • How do I choose on the text structure/organization of my text?

 

Writing Process

  • Planning
    • Brainstorming
    • Notetaking
    • Outlining
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Effective writers develop their ideas with thorough detail throughout the drafting process. 

  • How do I develop and refine my ideas?
  • How can I ensure my text has the potential to resonate with the intended audience?
  • How do authors develop ideas throughout a text?

Writers use a variety of methods as they write/draft in order to communicate their message clearly.

  • How do I maintain focus when writing?
  • How do I ensure coherence when writing?

 

Writing Process

  • Drafting
    • Development
    • Focus

Writers think about purpose and audience when crafting texts.

  • How do purpose and audience influence author’s craft?

Purpose and Craft

  • Author’s purpose

A writer’s message and purpose is influenced by cultural and historical contexts.

  • How is my message and purpose influenced by cultural and historical contexts?
  • When reading, what is significant about the context in which the text was written?
  • When writing, what is significant about the context in which I am writing?

 

Purpose and Craft

  • Context

Writers convey the message (theme, central/controlling idea, thesis, or claim) of a text either directly or indirectly through a variety of strategies, including language and literary/rhetorical devices. 

  • How does author’s craft contribute to the message of a text?
  • How do authors develop the message of a text?

 

Purpose and Craft

  • Message (controlling idea/thesis, claim, theme)

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Some students may think there is one way to be a “good” reader or writer rather than understanding that personalized habits and routines support their identities as readers and writers.
  • Some students may not think that their out-of-school literacy experiences develop them as readers and writers.

 

Unit Vocabulary

  • Accuracy — reading words without errors
  • Fluency —  the ability to read text at an appropriate rate, and with accuracy, expression, and appropriate phrasing; not hurried reading
  • Inference — a logical guess made by connecting bits of information
  • Mental images — visualizing physical details from a text such as actions, characters, scenes, events, and setting
  • Paraphrase — restate the meaning of something in different words. Paraphrasing alters the exact wording of the source and transmits its ideas or information without evaluation or interpretation.
  • Prediction — a form of inference in which the reader gathers and analyzes details in order to anticipate and foresee forthcoming events and information
  • Summarize — to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

 Related Vocabulary:

  • Engagement
  • Habits
  • Stamina
  • Strategies
  • Literacy
  • Preferences
  • Routines
System Resources

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
6.1 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:
6.1A Listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately.

Listen

ACTIVELY TO INTERPRET A MESSAGE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Listening actively may include:
    • Practicing attentive body language and/or facial expressions, such as nodding, tilting head, leaning forward slightly, making eye contact, and focusing attention on the speaker rather than environmental factors
    • Considering the rhetorical situation of the communication (speaker’s background, topic, intended audience, context)
    • Annotating, taking notes or following along on provided handouts, visual aids, or other support materials
    • Following directions, answering questions, and participating/engaging with the speaker and presentation as needed or requested
    • Interpreting the speaker’s message by examining details, examples, illustrations, and tone
    • Analyzing the speaker’s nonverbal language by examining elements such as facial expressions, movement, appearance, eye contact, gestures, and posture
    • Using context clues to understand new or unfamiliar vocabulary

Ask

CLARIFYING QUESTIONS

  • Asking clarifying questions may include:
    • Asking questions to gather more information and clarify ideas
    • Asking for explanations of unfamiliar concepts or vocabulary
    • Asking for evidence or resources that support the message and details shared
    • Questioning the validity of the message, details, or viewpoints shared by the speaker or audience 

Respond

APPROPRIATELY

  • Responding appropriately may include:
    • Commenting to add information, make connections, communicate understanding, and challenge claims
    • Engaging the speaker using appropriate timing
    • Responding in a polite tone
    • Staying on topic
    • Respecting multiple perspectives and points of view
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Speaking — A. Understand the elements of both formal and informal communication in group discussions, one-on-one situations, and presentations.
      • II. Speaking — A1. Participate actively, effectively, and respectfully in one-on-one oral communication as well as in group discussions.
    • IV. Listening — A. Apply listening skills in a variety of settings and contexts.
      • V. Listening — A1. Use a variety of active listening strategies to enhance comprehension.
      • IV. Listening — A2. Listen critically and respond appropriately.
6.1B Follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps.

Follow, Give

INSTRUCTIONS THAT INCLUDE MULTIPLE ACTIONS STEPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Clarifying/providing purpose, expectations, required resources/materials, and procedures for written and oral tasks and processes
  • Clarifying/providing specific and appropriate vocabulary
  • Ordering steps and directives in a logical manner
  • Providing advice and tips for success, productivity, and skill improvement
  • Speaking, listening, and collaborating in whole class, small group, and one-on-one contexts
  • Answering, anticipating, and asking questions related to areas of misunderstanding and curiosity
  • Negotiating problems and logical inconsistencies with instructions
  • Reading, annotating, and listening for complete instructions, including the purpose of the activity or task, materials and resources needed, criteria for evaluation, and expectations for participation 
  • Executing a task, performance, or procedure based on multi-step directions
6.1D Participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

Participate

IN STUDENT-LED DISCUSSIONS BY ELICITING AND CONSIDERING SUGGESTIONS FROM OTHER GROUP MEMBERS, TAKING NOTES, AND IDENTIFYING POINTS OF AGREEMENT AND DISAGREEMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Participating in effective student-led discussions may include:
    • Following explicit and implicit instructions to solve a problem or explore a concept
    • Providing structures, roles, norms, etc. that ensure equal contributions from each group member
    • Leading, facilitating, or engaging in a discussion that is initiated and driven by students
    • Pre-writing, annotating, and/or brainstorming independently prior to collaboration to ensure all group members are informed of the discussion topic
    • Contributing relevant information or research related to the topic
    • Modifying ideas or perspectives as more evidence is presented
    • Redirecting group members who stray off-topic or elaborate on tangential, unrelated ideas
    • Practicing active listening
    • Refraining from dominating the discussion with excessive responding
    • Maintaining respect for group members’ thoughts and opinions and being open to multiple viewpoints
    • Maintaining a positive and welcoming demeanor
  • Eliciting or considering suggestions from other group members may include:
    • Being open and respectful to multiple viewpoints
    • Providing additional relevant details, explanations, and/or research about an idea discussed by oneself or another group member
    • Acknowledging, evaluating, and researching opposing arguments
    • Providing and accepting both positive and constructive feedback such as positive observations, compliments, and ideas about improvements or weaknesses
  • Taking notes may include:
    • Identifying, paraphrasing, or summarizing key ideas of the discussion
  • Identifying points of agreement and disagreement may include:
    • Identifying and categorizing similarities and differences in ideas between group members
    • Using evidence to further explain or support a point of agreement of disagreement
  • Student-led discussions — students lead and engage in extensive conversations about a text or a given topic

Note(s):

  • Structured collaboration involves a systematic approach with pre-established ground rules for contributing as well as responding to the contributions of others.
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Speaking — A. Understand the elements of both formal and informal communication in group discussions, one-on-one situations, and presentations.
      • II. Speaking — A1. Participate actively, effectively, and respectfully in one-on-one oral communication as well as in group discussions.
    • IV. Listening — A. Apply listening skills in a variety of settings and contexts.
      • IV. Listening — A2. Listen critically and respond appropriately.
6.2 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:
6.2A Use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech.

Use

PRINT OR DIGITAL RESOURCES TO DETERMINE THE MEANING, SYLLABICATION, PRONUNCIATION, WORD ORIGIN, AND PART OF SPEECH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using print (e.g., book) or digital (e.g., website, app) resources may include:
    • Using resources such as dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, etc.
    • Using guide words and/or knowledge of alphabetical order to locate words in print resources
    • Using search features to find words in digital resources
    • Analyzing an entry in a resource
    • Analyzing any accompanying visual or image in a resource that is related to the definition/meaning of a word
  • Determining word meaning using resources may include:
    • Reading and understanding the given definition, including breaking it into parts if necessary
    • Determining the applicable word meaning when multiple definitions are provided by considering the context in which the word is used
    • Breaking vocabulary into prefixes, suffixes, and roots to determine overall word meaning as necessary
    • Relating new vocabulary to synonyms or antonyms to aid in meaning
  • Determining word syllabication and pronunciation may include:
    • Identifying the number of syllables identified in the resource
    • Identifying the phonetic symbols included in each syllable
    • Identifying the placement of accented syllables in the word
    • Applying the sounds of the phonetic symbols and the accented syllable to correctly pronounce the word
  • Determining word origin may include:
    • Analyzing any provided details about word origin
    • Identifying Latin or Greek roots, prefixes, and suffixes and their meanings
  • Determining part of speech may include:
    • Identifying the word’s placement in the sentence
    • Determining the grammatical function of the word in the sentence
    • Looking for visual clues, such as capitalization (for proper nouns)
    • Identifying the part of speech abbreviation next to the word in the entry
    • Distinguishing between multiple definitions and parts of speech for the same word to determine the definition that is appropriate for the context in which the word was found
  • Syllabication — the process of dividing words into syllables
  • Pronunciation — the way in which a word is spoken
  • Word origin — the initial place(s) and historical era(s) a word was derived and developed
  • Part of speech — a category assigned to a word based on its syntactic function; the 8 primary parts of speech include noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, preposition, interjection

Note(s):

  • Grade Levels):
    • Refer to 6.2C for more information about Latin and Greek roots.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — B. Apply a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases..
      • II. Reading — B3. Use reference guides to confirm the meanings of new words or concepts.
6.2B

Use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words.

Use

CONTEXT TO CLARIFY THE MEANING OF WORDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using context to determine word meaning may include:
    • Identifying unfamiliar words and locating key phrases surrounding the words that clarify meaning
    • Using context clues within the sentence or larger section of text to determine the meaning of a word
    • Identifying any surrounding text features that may indicate word meaning
    • Examining the placement and function of a word in a sentence to identify its part of speech 
    • Breaking vocabulary into prefixes, suffixes, and roots to determine each part’s meaning
    • Confirming the word meaning with a dictionary or thesaurus as necessary
    • Restating ambiguous or unfamiliar words using familiar wording
  • Context — the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

 

 

Note(s):

  • A dictionary or thesaurus can help students determine word meaning; however, students should consider definitions and synonyms in conjunction with contextual meaning.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — B. Apply a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases..
      • Reading — B1. Identify new words and concepts acquired through study of their relationships to other words and concepts.
6.3 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to:
6.3A Adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

Adjust

FLUENCY WHEN READING GRADE-LEVEL TEXT BASED ON THE READING PURPOSE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Adjusting fluency to reading purpose may include:
    • Identifying the purpose for reading a text (e.g., reading a selection for enjoyment, to perform the text, to identify or find important details, to note critical concepts, etc.) and the audience
    • Reading with rate, accuracy, phrasing, and expression appropriate for the genre, purpose, and audience and adjusting as necessary
  • Fluency — the ability to read text at an appropriate rate, and with accuracy, expression, and appropriate phrasing; not hurried reading
  • Rate — the number of words read per minute
  • Accuracy — reading words without errors
  • Phrasing — reading with appropriate pauses by chunking the text into meaningful parts/phrases
  • Expression — emphasizing words and sentences through changes in tone of voice while reading

Note(s):

  • The goal of fluency is the time (not speed) needed to ensure comprehension.
6.4 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to:
6.4A Self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

Self-select

TEXT

Including, but not limited  to:

  • Determining personal interest areas, goals, and purposes for reading
  • Using online tools, sites, and search engines to find texts that meet criteria for student interests and goals
  • Discussing reading interests with others (e.g. peers, teachers, librarians) to guide text selection
  • Previewing texts for individual reading interests, goals, and accessibility and choosing texts that meet these criteria
  • Determining if the text is a good fit for an individual’s reading ability and maturity
  • Choosing a text after researching possibilities based on personal criteria such as interest, ability, and purpose

Read

INDEPENDENTLY FOR A SUSTAINED PERIOD OF TIME

Including, but not limited to:

  • Outlining questions one has about the text or author prior to reading
  • Reading for a pre-determined period of time without interruption
  • Maintaining focus on the text while reading and ignoring distractions from environmental factor
  • Building stamina through extended and regular independent reading
  • Taking notes independently as needed to document ideas, observations, reflections, questions, etc. with response journals, reading logs, or conversations
  • Reflecting (in writing, orally, or mentally) on the text before, during, and after reading to determine answers to questions one had prior to reading, to identify lingering or new questions, and/or to explore concluding thoughts on the text and author

Note(s):

  • Students may read challenging texts as long as decoding does not unduly interrupt comprehension. Reading above ability level can be intellectually stimulating or can cause frustration and result in lack of comprehension of topic unless student has prior background knowledge or innate interest in the topic.
  • The purpose of self-selected, sustained reading is for enjoyment, exposure, and to build fluency and stamina. Reading self-selected texts is effective if students are given the opportunity to read selections relevant to them. Students are more likely to commit to the practice if they have background knowledge and/or interests in what they are reading.
  • Literary, informational, and argumentative texts are all equally important in the scope of literacy, and students should have the opportunities to explore a variety of genres.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — C. Read and analyze literary and other texts from a variety of cultural and historical contexts.
      • II. Reading — C1. Read widely, including complete texts from American, British, and world literatures.
6.5 Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:
6.5A Establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text.

Establish

PURPOSE FOR READING ASSIGNED AND SELF-SELECTED TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Establishing a purpose for reading may include:
    • Previewing text/print features such as title, headings, graphics, etc.
    • Determining genre of text and considering previous knowledge about the genre
    • Identifying personal goals and reasons for reading a text, including personal interests and individual needs
    • Determining the focus and goals for an assigned reading task
    • Making connections between class discussions, previous readings, and reading goals
    • Reflecting on the purpose for reading and revising the purpose as needed
  • Purposes for reading may include:
    • To gain new knowledge
    • To understand or study differing perspectives on an issue
    • To learn task-related information and/or follow directions
    • To enlighten or reveal important truths
    • To enjoy or be entertained 
    • To solve problems
    • To analyze author’s craft, author’s purpose, and/or message
    • To analyze and evaluate an argument
    • To gather support or research

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • This SE focuses on the reader’s purpose for reading. Refer to 6.9A for more information about authors’ purposes for writing.
    • Refer to 6.4A for more information about self-selecting texts.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      •  II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
6.5B Generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information.

Generate

QUESTIONS ABOUT TEXT BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER READING TO DEEPEN UNDERSTANDING AND GAIN INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Questions before reading may relate to:
    • Identifying the genre, author, topic, intended audience, and context 
    • Making predictions about the text, topic, author’s purpose/message, characters, setting, events, etc.
    • Making connections using background knowledge
  • Questions during reading may relate to:
    • Monitoring comprehension and predictions
    • Making connections such as text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-society
    • Clarifying meaning or information, including unfamiliar vocabularyParaphrasing and summarizing key idea
  • Questions after reading may relate to:
    • Making connections such as text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-society
    • Reflecting on unanswered questions or uncertainties about the text, topic, or author

Note(s):

  • To foster student ownership of metacognition, questions should be generated by the student not the teacher per the focus of this SE. However, teacher modeling may be necessary.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A1. Use effective reading strategies to determine a written work’s purpose and intended audience.
6.5C

Make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures.

Make, Correct, Confirm

PREDICTIONS

Included, but not limited to:

  • Making predictions may include:
    • Using background knowledge to make predictions
    • Using details and evidence from the text
  • Correcting, revising, and/or confirming predictions may include:
    • Using additional details and evidence from the text to correct, revise, and/or confirm predictions.
  • Prediction — a form of inference in which the reader gathers and analyzes details in order to anticipate and foresee forthcoming events and information

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.6F for information related to making, inferences, including predictions.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A2. Use text features to form an overview of content and to locate information.
6.5D Create mental images to deepen understanding.

Create

MENTAL IMAGES TO DEEPEN UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating mental images may include:
    • Using background knowledge
    • Focusing on active verbs, vivid adjectives, concrete nouns, and extended descriptions, including figurative language
    • Pausing to visualize sections of text
    • Connecting ideas within the text to personal experience and/or other texts
    • Monitoring comprehension
    • Modifying mental images based on new information and details
    • Using mental images to infer deeper meaning about the text
  • Mental images — visualizing physical details from a text such as actions, characters, scenes, events, and setting
6.5E Make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society.

Make

CONNECTIONS TO PERSONAL EXPERIENCES, IDEAS IN OTHER TEXTS, AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making connections between a text and personal experiences may include:
    • Recalling personal situations, thoughts, feelings, relationships, self-identity, and experiences and comparing them with content from a text such as theme, details, events, setting, and character(s)
    • Building empathy for others represented in a text because of a shared experience 
  • Making connections between ideas and features across texts may include:
    • Comparing themes, topics, details, events, settings, characters, genre characteristics, text structures, tone, rhetorical/literary devices, etc.
  • Making connections between a text and society may include:
    • Comparing details, events, settings, characters, and thematic links to past, present, or future society
    • Analyzing connections between different levels of society such as communities, state, region, country, and world
    • Analyzing connections between different aspects of society such as economic, political, social, cultural, and environmental connections

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s): 
    • This SE emphasizes the metacognitive process of making connections. Refer to 6.6A for information related to describing personal connections. 
    • Honoring each student’s unique knowledge, language, and cultural/ethnic background is a critical part of supporting students’ ability to make connections. This is especially critical for English Language Learners.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — D. Acquire insights about oneself, others, or the world from reading diverse texts.
      • II. Reading — D1. Make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections.
6.5F Make inferences and use evidence to support understanding.

Make

INFERENCES TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making inferences may include:
    • Combining details read, heard, or viewed, including text/print or graphic features, with background knowledge in order to go beyond a literal interpretation of the text
    • Generating inferences about author’s purpose, message, topic, word meaning, etc.
    • Considering the rhetorical situation (author, the intended audience, speaker/writer, topic, and context) when making inferences
  • Inference — a logical guess made by connecting bits of information
    • Types of inferences include:
      • Drawing conclusions — a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information and comes to a decision; the conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.
      • Generalization — a form of inference in which the reader makes a broad statement about a group of people or things based on a limited amount of information
      • Prediction — a form of inference in which the reader gathers and analyzes details in order to anticipate and foresee forthcoming events and information

Use

EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Included, but not limited to:

  • Using evidence to support understanding may include: 
    • Rereading text for key information
    • Determining the words, phrases, and sentences that best support an inference, idea, assertion, or analysis
    • Differentiating between relevant and irrelevant details
    • Citing the author and source as necessary
  • Evidence — specific details or facts that support an inference or idea

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.5C for more information about predictions.
    • Refer to 6.6C for information related to using text evidence.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A4. Make evidence-based inferences about a text’s meaning, intent, and values.
6.5I Monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

Monitor

COMPREHENSION

Make

ADJUSTMENTS WHEN UNDERSTANDING BREAKS DOWN

Including, but not limited to:

  • Monitoring comprehension and making adjustments may include:
    • Re-reading a portion of the text silently or aloud
    • Using background knowledge to connect to the text
    • Asking questions before, during, and after reading
    • Annotating the text with commentary and questions that identify significant features of the text, meaningful connections, and key ideas
    • Recognizing unfamiliar or ambiguous vocabulary and using context and/or resources to verify meaning
    • Searching the text for evidence to support ideas and inferences
    • Paraphrasing and summarizing sections of text or the whole text

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Listening — A. Apply listening skills in a variety of settings and contexts.
      • V. Listening — A1. Use a variety of active listening strategies to enhance comprehension.
6.6 Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:
6.6A Describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts.

Describe

PERSONAL CONNECTIONS TO A VARIETY OF SOURCES, INCLUDING SELF-SELECTED TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Describing personal connections may include:
    • Identifying relevant personal connections
    • Explaining personal connections to specific details in sources using oral/written language, illustrations, and/or other media
    • Identifying specific details and text evidence that supports personal connections
    • Explaining the significance of personal connections to understanding details in the source
  • Personal connections include:
    • Connecting to one’s own experiences
    • Connecting to other texts/sources
    • Connecting to society

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • The SE emphasizes the student’s ability to describe their connections to sources. Refer to 6.5E for information related to the metacognitive process of making connections.
    • Refer to 6.4A for more information about self-selecting texts.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — D. Acquire insights about oneself, others, or the world from reading diverse texts.
      • II. Reading — D1. Make text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections.
6.6B

Write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres.

Write

RESPONSES THAT DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Responses that demonstrate understanding of literary texts may include:
    • Explaining inferences
    • Describing personal connections and responses to the text
    • Using relevant text evidence to support ideas in responses
  • Responses that demonstrate understanding of informational texts may include:
    • Explaining inferences
    • Describing personal connections and responses to the text
    • Using relevant text evidence to support ideas in responses
  • Responses that demonstrate understanding of argumentative texts may include: 
    • Explaining inferences
    • Describing personal connections and responses/reactions to the text
    • Using relevant text evidence to support ideas in responses.
  • Written response — a written sentence, paragraph, or essay that answers a question or prompt and typically requires detail, description, and/or analysis of a text

 Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s):
    • Notetaking and annotating may be helpful prior to writing a response. Refer to 6.6E for more information related to these skills.
    • Refer to 6.6C for more information about using text evidence to support responses.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A7. Compare and analyze how features of genre are used across texts.
6.6C Use text evidence to support an appropriate response.

Use

TEXT EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT AN APPROPRIATE RESPONSE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using text evidence to support a response may include: 
    • Understanding the focus of a self-selected or teacher-provided question, prompt, or idea
    • Re-reading relevant portions of the text, including text/print and graphic features, to identify key words, phrases, and information in the text that explicitly or implicitly relate to the question, prompt, or idea
    • Annotating or taking notes to identify relevant textual evidence
    • Inferring the meaning of details in the text
    • Determining the most pertinent details from the text needed to support a response
    • Choosing to directly quote or paraphrase the evidence from the text to support a response
    • Embedding enough context around the origin of the paraphrased or directly quoted evidence to ensure clarity of thought
    • Providing original commentary that explains connections between the selected text evidence and idea/answer
  • Text evidence — paraphrased or directly quoted detail(s) from a text that supports a reader’s claim, thought, inference, or analysis about the text
  • Commentary — written/spoken explanations or interpretations that further develop an idea

Note(s):

  • This SE supports using text evidence for both oral and written responses for a variety of purposes.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Refer to 6.6B for more information on writing responses that demonstrate understanding of text.
6.6D Paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order.

Paraphrase

TEXTS IN WAYS THAT MAINTAIN MEANING AND LOGICAL ORDER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Paraphrasing may include:  
    • Identifying key ideas in a section of text and/or a whole text
    • Considering the context surrounding a section of text to ensure ideas are interpreted correctly
    • Differentiating between significant and less significant details
    • Restating ideas from a text using one’s own words while maintaining the author’s intended message
  • Paraphrase — restate the meaning of something in different words. Paraphrasing alters the exact wording of the source and transmits its ideas or information without evaluation or interpretation.

Summarize

TEXTS IN WAYS THAT MAINTAIN MEANING AND LOGICAL ORDER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Summarizing may include:  
    • Determining key information, ideas, or details from a section of text or whole text
    • Differentiating between significant and less significant details
    • Identifying the overall text structure
    • Synthesizing and describing key ideas from the beginning, middle, and end of the text to maintain logical order
    • Emphasizing the author’s intended message, controlling/thesis, or claim
    • Incorporating applicable vocabulary as necessary, including language associated with the text structure
  • Summarize — to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Note(s):

  • The terms paraphrase and summarize should not be used interchangeably. Please note that paraphrasing may involve giving attribution to the source.
  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Reading — A. Identify, analyze, and evaluate information within and across texts of varying lengths and genres.
      • II. Reading — A4. Make evidence-based inferences about a text’s meaning, intent, and values.
6.6E Interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating.

Interact

WITH SOURCES IN MEANINGFUL WAYS

Including, but not limited to: 

  • Interacting with sources in meaningful ways may include: 
    • Notetaking and organizing thoughts, ideas, and questions
    • Annotating and commenting on the text to identify and explain key ideas, record connections, and ask questions
    • Freewriting to document understandings, reactions, and personal connections to a text
    • Illustrating images to demonstrate understanding
    • Capturing notes and ideas in journals, graphic organizers, sticky notes, digital devices, etc.
  • Notetaking — the study skill of outlining or summarizing the ideas of a lecture, a book, or another source of information to aid in the retention of ideas 
  • Annotating — marking a text with notes and/or comments 
  • Freewriting — writing openly and continuously without restriction or focus on the conventional rules of language 

Note(s): 

  • This SE highlights the importance of interacting with sources to create meaning and to support deeper reading.
  • Grade Level(s): 
    • This SE may provide scaffolding for students in writing responses to sources. Refer to 6.6B for more information on writing responses to texts.
6.10 Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:
6.10A Plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests.

Plan

FIRST DRAFT BY SELECTING A GENRE FOR A PARTICULAR TOPIC, PURPOSE, AND AUDIENCE USING A RANGE OF STRATEGIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Planning a first draft may include:
    • Annotating the prompt (if provided) or identifying a self-selected or teacher-selected topic
    • Identifying the purpose for writing: to inform, persuade, entertain, describe, analyze, etc.
    • Determining the occasion in which the writing will be read or viewed 
    • Identifying the audience intended for the writing and determining the audience’s knowledge and interest level in the topic 
    • Determining which genre is appropriate to the topic, purpose, and audience by evaluating the characteristics of a variety of genres
    • Understanding how to utilize the genre characteristics of the appropriate genre for the writing purpose
    • Notetaking background knowledge and questions about the chosen topic and brainstorming ideas about personal interests in the topic
    • Reading, annotating, and analyzing texts that relate to a prompt or chosen topics
    • Discussing potential ideas with classmates/peers by asking and answering questions
    • Developing an engaging controlling idea/thesis, claim, or theme relevant to the chosen topic
    • Organizing notes into a graphic organizer, map/web, or outline by categorizing ideas and details about the selected topic and determining the best sequence to present them in the draft
    • Drafting and revising the controlling idea/thesis, claim, or theme throughout the planning process 
  • Topic — a specific subject, idea, or issue that is the focus of a discussion, essay, article, or other work
  • Purpose — the intended goal of a piece of writing; the reason a person writes
  • Audience — the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium
  • Genre — the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Note(s):

  • Although planning (or prewriting) is often referred to as the first step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A1. Determine effective approaches, genres, rhetorical techniques, and media that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.
      • I. Writing — A2. Generate ideas, gather information, and manage evidence relevant to the topic and purpose.
6.10B Develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

Develop

DRAFTS INTO A FOCUSED, STRUCTURED, AND COHERENT PIECE OF WRITING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Developing drafts into structured, focused, coherent writing may include:
    • Revising the working outline, graphic organizer, map/web from the planning stage based on readings, thinking, conversations, notes, and experimenting with the sequence of the organization to support the writing purpose and to appeal to the intended audience 
    • Writing a draft that follows the pre-planned outline, graphic organizer, or map/web
    • Using a text structure(s) throughout the draft that is appropriate to the genre, audience, and purpose of the prompt, including a strong introduction, detailed body, and meaningful conclusion when necessary
    • Including text evidence, ideas, or details that are strongly related and contribute to the controlling idea/thesis, claim, or theme
    • Maintaining focus on the topic to create cohesion of ideas
    • Elaborating on specific parts of the text to support the author’s purpose and the audience’s visualization and understanding
    • Continuing discussion with a community of writers

Note(s):

  • Although drafting is often referred to as the second step in the writing process, students may return to this step anytime throughout the process due to the recursive nature of the writing process.
  • Grade Level(s):
    • Reading and writing are reciprocal processes. As writers develop drafts, they draw ideas from texts they have read and may apply the craft and techniques of other authors in their own writing. Refer to 6.9A-G for more information about author’s purpose and craft.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Writing — A. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author’s purpose.
      • I. Writing — A3. Evaluate relevance, quality, sufficiency, and depth of preliminary ideas and information; organize material generated; and formulate a thesis or purpose statement.
6.10B.ii developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

Develop

drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

Developing

AN ENGAGING IDEA REFLECTING DEPTH OF THOUGHT WITH SPECIFIC FACTS AND DETAILS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Strategies for developing and supporting engaging idea (controlling idea/thesis/claim/theme) may include:
    • Deepening knowledge of specific details related to the topic through various methods such as reflective writing/notetaking, discussions, background reading/research, interviewing, etc.
    • Reflecting on personal, social, and/or universal implications of the topic and considering multiple perspectives on topic details to revise the working engaging idea as necessary
    • Creating, narrowing, and modifying supporting ideas that maintain a focused and coherent connection to the topic, purpose, and working engaging idea
    • Connecting prior knowledge, facts, and details to develop each supporting idea
    • Developing explanations of supporting details that move beyond a literal meaning
    • Selecting and utilizing specific and relevant examples, facts, analogies, and/or anecdotes to illustrate each supporting idea
    • Providing meaningful and insightful commentary for each supporting idea and any examples, facts, etc. discussed therein
    • Ensuring all development of ideas correspond with specified genre characteristics
  • Facts — truths that are verifiable
  • Details — ideas included or intentionally omitted by an author that contribute to his or her purpose
  • Examples — instances or explanations that demonstrate, further clarify, or prove the accuracy of a statement or idea and may include a series of facts, interpretations, personal anecdotes, or hypothetical situations
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 05/15/2019
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