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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 18: Technological Applications in Medicine SUGGESTED DURATION : 4 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address the application of technology in medicine. Students research technology’s advances and limitations in diagnosing and treating system disorders. Advances in bioengineering and transplant technology and the use of stem cells are investigated.

 

Streamlining Note

In Biology TEKS B.4A, students now compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity in addition to previous expectations. The former Biology TEKS B.11A, describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms, was removed during the streamlining process implemented in 2018-2019. Students continue to understand the concept of process regulation in animals in the context of TEKS B.10A and homeostasis at the cellular level is addressed in TEKS B.4B.

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Biology
    • B.4 – The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
      • B.4A – Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity.
      • B.4B – Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules.
    • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
      • B.10A – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.
      • B.10C – Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.
    • B.11 – The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance.                                                               

 

After this Unit

This is the capstone unit of this course.

 

According to Research

“By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Science is based on the assumption that the universe is a vast single system in which the basic rules are everywhere the same and that the things and events in the universe occur in consistent patterns that are comprehensible through careful, systematic study.
  • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth.
  • Hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available).
  • To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it. A hypothesis that cannot, in principle, be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it may not be scientifically useful.
  • Human inventiveness has brought new risks as well as improvements to human existence.
  • Technological problems and advances often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, and new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in new ways or to undertake entirely new lines of research. The very availability of new technology itself often sparks scientific advances.”

Definition of Medical Technology: Sivic, Suad et al. “Evaluation of Usage of Information Diagnostic Technology in Family and General Medicine.” Materia Socio-Medica 22.4 (2010): 212–215. PMC. Web. 27 Mar. 2018.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Ongoing technological advancements and applications in medicine have saved lives, improved quality of life, and impacted medical processes.

  • What are some widespread uses of diagnostic and therapeutic technologies currently used in medicine?
  • In what ways have the advances and limitations of these medical technologies affected the treatment of system disorders?
  • What areas of medicine will be most affected by advances in stem cell research, and why?
  • In what ways might advances in bioengineering technology influence patient care?
  • How have advances in transplant technology improved the effectiveness of transplants?

Systems

  • Medical technology

 

Classifications

  • Diagnostic
  • Therapeutic

 

Properties

  • Advances
  • Limitations

 

Patterns

  • Stem cell research
  • Bioengineering
  • Transplants
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think of bioengineering as a limited field, rather than understanding all of the disciplines that it encompasses.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may have limited understanding of the vast changes in medicine that have accompanied the inventions of medical technologies throughout history.
  • Students may have limited understanding of the actual limitations of medical technology.
  • Students may have limited understanding of what stem cells can and cannot do.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Arthroscopy – minimally invasive surgical procedure on a joint using an endoscope (arthroscope) that is inserted through a small incision
  • Bioengineering – the use of artificial tissues, organs, or organ components to replace damaged or absent parts of the body
  • Computed tomography (CT) – X-ray procedure that combines many X-ray images with the aid of a computer to generate cross-sectional views and three-dimensional images of the internal organs and structures of the body
  • Diagnosis – determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – non-invasive procedure that produces an image through the use of a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses, and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone, and other internal body structures
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) – nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body through the use of a radioactive tracer (drug)
  • Sphygmomanometer – instrument used to measure blood pressure
  • Technology – machinery and equipment developed from the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
  • Therapy – management and care of a patient to combat disease or disorder
  • Transplant – surgical procedure in which a body tissue or organ is transferred from a donor to a recipient or from one part of the body to another
  • Ultrasound – non-invasive procedure that produces an image through the use of sound waves passing through the body
  • X-ray – non-invasive procedure that produces an image by passing an electromagnetic wave through the body

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Angioplasty
  • Bioinstrumentation
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomechanics
  • Designer drug
  • Dialysis
  • Orthopedic
  • Perfusion
  • Rehabilitation
  • Stem cell
  • Stent
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
AP.3 The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
AP.3A Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(4) of this section.

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Science – the “use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process"
  • Recognize science as a dynamic body of knowledge that is always growing and changing

Understand

SCIENCE HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Current technology
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – B1 – Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations.
  • Project 2061: By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Science is based on the assumption that the universe is a vast single system in which the basic rules are everywhere the same and that the things and events in the universe occur in consistent patterns that are comprehensible through careful, systematic study. 1A/H1*
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
AP.3B

Know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.

Know

THAT HYPOTHESES MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Summarize the characteristics of a widely tested hypothesis that leads to the incorporation into a theory
    • Have durable explanatory power – the ability to effectively explain the subject matter it pertains to over a long period of time without significant deterioration in quality or value
    • Have the ability to be supported, or not supported, by observational evidence
    • Have been proven over a wide variety of conditions by multiple investigators
Note(s):
  • National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Science, Evolution, and Creationism, National Academies Press, Washington, 2008 – Definition of science - “there must be possible observational consequences that could support the idea but also ones that could refute it”.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – B1 – Design and conduct scientific investigations in which hypotheses are formulated and tested.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available). 1B/H2
    • To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it. A hypothesis that cannot, in principle, be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it may not be scientifically useful. 1B/H9** (SFAA)
AP.3C

Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science are created and new technologies emerge.

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ARE BASED ON NATURAL AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Components
    • Based on (natural) non-artificial phenomena, which involves the physical properties of matter and energy
  • May be subject to change
    • The development of new technologies
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In the long run, theories are judged by the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how useful they are in making accurate predictions. 1B/H6b*
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
AP.3D Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.

Distinguish

BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Theory – a well-established and highly reliable explanation, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
  • Hypothesis – a tentative and testable statement that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence
  • Use supporting evidence to determine whether a statement is a hypothesis or a scientific theory
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In the long run, theories are judged by the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how useful they are in making accurate predictions. 1B/H6b*
    • The human ability to influence the course of history comes from its capacity for generating knowledge and developing new technologies—and for communicating ideas to others. 3C/H6** (BSL)
AP.3G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Analyze, Evaluate, Make Inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Infer – to form an opinion, based on known facts or evidence, as to the outcome of a thought or conclusion
  • Predict – to declare or indicate in advance; foretell on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reasoning
  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations to analyze and manipulate data
    • Averaging
    • Percent change
    • Probabilities and ratios
    • Rate of change
    • Statistical analysis
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible examples of data usage may include:
      • Prediction of the possible outcome of the investigation using only related scientific evidence collected prior to the investigation
      • Proposed inference, based on researched facts and evidence, serving as the hypothesis of the investigation
      • Evaluation of the validity of scientific data sets
      • Relationships among data sets
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • I. Nature of Science – E2 – Use essential vocabulary of the discipline being studied.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A7 – Use calculators, spreadsheets, computers, etc. in data analysis.
AP.3H

Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA THROUGH METHODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conclusion – an explanation of results based on data collected
  • Communicate valid conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
    • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
    • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
    • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Draw conclusions based only on the data from the investigation
  • Demonstrate various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
AP.4 The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.4A In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Critique – a careful judgment to provide an opinion about the positive and negative aspects of something
  • Assess examples of scientific explanations and their usefulness to the field of medicine

Use

EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE, LOGICAL REASONING, AND EXPERIMENTAL AND OBSERVATIONAL TESTING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Empirical evidence – information acquired by observation or experimentation
  • Logical reasoning – the drawing of inferences or conclusions through the use of reason
  • Observational testing – members of a sample are studied without trying to affect them
  • Experimental testing – people or things are randomly assigned to groups; treatment is applied to one of the groups, while the other group does not receive treatment

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence. 1B/H4*
AP.4D Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment.

Evaluate

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Recognition of the connection of scientific discoveries to technological innovations
  • Impact of scientific research and technology on ethical and legal practices
  • Impact of commonly held ethical beliefs on scientific research and vice versa
  • Understanding how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
  • Possible research topics may include:
    • Development of preventive, diagnostic, or treatment products
    • Technology that can improve quality of life for those living with paralysis or other disabilities
    • Use of stem cells, both fetal and adult

Evaluate

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Understanding of the environmental impact of research
  • Recognition of how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Description of how scientific research has led to scientific discoveries
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the 12th grade, students should understand:
    • Because science is a human activity, what is valued in society influences what is valued in science. 1C/H10** (SFAA)
    • The human ability to influence the course of history comes from its capacity for generating knowledge and developing new technologies—and for communicating ideas to others. 3C/H6** (BSL)
AP.4F

Research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.

Research, Describe

THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Research on significant events in history of anatomy and physiology
  • Timeline of the significant events within a certain era
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories in science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
AP.6 The student differentiates the responses of the human body to internal and external forces. The student is expected to:
AP.6B Investigate and report the uses of various diagnostic and therapeutic technologies.

Investigate, Report

THE USES OF VARIOUS DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC TECHNOLOGIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Diagnostic technology – use of technology to identify a condition, disease, or disorder from the signs and symptoms
    • Sphygmomanometer
      • Identify blood pressure conditions
    • Imaging technology
      • Examples may include:
        • X-ray
          • Detects abnormalities in bone, such as
            • Fractures
            • Tumors
            • Infections
            • Deformities (such as congenital hip dysplasia)
            • Arthritis (such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis)
        • Positron emission tomography (PET)
          • Uses radioactive materials to produce radiotracers that are detected by the equipment
          • Produces 3-D images of metabolic activity
        • Ultrasound
          • Uses sound waves with higher frequencies than the human ear can detect
          • Produces images of internal organs and tissue
          • Especially valuable in obstetrics for safety reasons
        • Computed tomography (CT)
          • Multiple X-ray images from different angles are processed by a computer to produce images of internal structures
          • Give much more detail than conventional X-rays and may be done to determine the extent and exact location of damage
          • Can be used to detect fractures that are not visible on X-rays (such as some small fractures of the hip and pelvis)
        • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
          • Magnetic fields and radio waves are processed by a computer to produce images of internal structures
          • Give much more detail than conventional X-rays and may be done to determine the extent and exact location of damage
          • Can be used to detect injuries that are not visible on X-rays
          • Especially valuable for imaging muscles, ligaments, and tendons
        • Arthroscopy
          • Procedure in which a small (diameter of a pencil) fiber optic scope is inserted into a joint space
          • Allows the doctor to look inside the joint and to project the image onto a video monitor
  • Therapeutic technology – use of technology to treat a condition, disease, or disorder
    • Arthroscopy
      • Procedure in which a small (diameter of a pencil) fiber optic scope is inserted into a joint space
      • Additional medical equipment can be inserted to perform minimally invasive surgeries
    • Balloon angioplasty, stents, and coils
      • Used to restore normal blood flow

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
    • VIII. Physics – C2 – Understand forces and Newton’s laws.
    • VIII. Physics – I8 – Relate electricity and magnetism to everyday life.
  • Definition of Medical Technology: Sivic, Suad et al. “Evaluation of Usage of Information Diagnostic Technology in Family and General Medicine.” Materia Socio-Medica 22.4 (2010): 212–215. PMC. Web. 27 Mar. 2018.
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11C Research technological advances and limitations in the treatment of system disorders.

Research

TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES AND LIMITATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF SYSTEM DISORDERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Improvement in treatment of disorders due to technological advancements
  • Limitations in treatment of disorders due to technological advancements
  • Possible examples may include:
    • Bioengineering in building replacement parts
    • Use of autologous stem cell transplants
    • Heart-lung bypass during heart surgeries
    • Use of dialysis in the management of kidney disease
    • Virtual consultations
    • Limited access to new technologies
    • Increasing cost of treatment
    • Designer drug development
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should understand:
    • Human inventiveness has brought new risks as well as improvements to human existence. 3C/H5
AP.13 The student recognizes emerging technological advances in science. The student is expected to:
AP.13A Recognize advances in stem cell research such as cord blood use.

Note: The types of stem cells were mastered in a previous unit. Their technological use is recognized in this unit.

Recognize

ADVANCES IN STEM CELL RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Stem cell – can self-renew (make copies of themselves) and differentiate (develop into more specialized cells)
  • Types
    • Totipotent stem cells
      • Can give rise to every cell type in the fully formed body, including the placenta and umbilical cord
      • No longer present after dividing into the cells that generate the placenta and umbilical cord
    • Embryonic stem cells
      • Pluripotent – can give rise to every cell type in the fully formed body, except the placenta and umbilical cord
      • Exist only at the earliest stages of development
    • Tissue-specific stem cells (also referred to as somatic or adult stem cells)
      • Multipotent – can generate different cell types but only for the specific tissue or organ in which they are found
      • Appear during fetal development and remain in our bodies throughout life
    • Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells
      • Engineered in the lab by converting tissue-specific cells into cells that behave like embryonic stem cells
  • Emerging technological advances in the field of stem cell research including:
    • Study of normal human development
      • How stem cells form tissues and organs
      • How aging impacts stem cell function
    • Cell replacement – how to generate tissues to replace those damaged by disease, aging, or injury
      • Stimulate self-repair to heal damaged tissue from within or prevent further damage, such as stem cell heart patches and nerve cell regrowth
    • Cord blood use
      • Hematopoietic (blood forming) stem cell transplantation
        • Bone marrow replacement to treat blood cancers such as leukemias and lymphomas
        • Bone marrow replacement to treat disorders of the blood and immune systems
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Technological problems and advances often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, and new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in new ways or to undertake entirely new lines of research. The very availability of new technology itself often sparks scientific advances. 3A/H1*
AP.13B Recognize advances in bioengineering and transplant technology.

Recognize

ADVANCES IN BIOENGINEERING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bioengineering – biological or medical application of engineering principles or engineering equipment to design instruments, devices, and software to develop new procedures or solve clinical problems
  • Emerging technological advances in the various fields of bioengineering, possible examples may include:
    • Bioinstrumentation
      • Application of electronics and measurement techniques to develop devices used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease
    • Biomaterials
      • Development of artificial biomaterials (biologic and synthetic) used for implantation
      • Used to replace structures in the body (e.g., bones, cartilages, ligaments, tendons, meniscus, intervertebral discs, body tissues)
    • Biomechanics
      • Study of motion, material deformation, flow within the body and in devices, and transport of chemical constituents across biological and synthetic media and membranes
      • Example: the process of hemodialysis
    • Cellular, tissue, and genetic engineering
      • Utilization of principles of anatomy, biochemistry, and the mechanics of cellular and subcellular structures in order to understand disease processes and to be able to intervene at very specific sites
      • Examples
        • Creating vaccines to fight disease
        • Using genetically modified plants that produce “edible vaccines”
        • Targeting cancers with toxins
        • Utilizing soldier-cells designed to recognize and destroy diseased cells
    • Medical imaging
      • Combining knowledge of unique physical phenomenon (sound, radiation, magnetism, etc.) with high-speed electronic data processing, analysis, and display to generate an image
      • Example
        • Use of 2D and 3D ultrasound in fetal imaging
    • Orthopaedic bioengineering
      • Understanding and applying the function of bones, joints, and muscles
      • Examples
        • Development of artificial hips, knees, and other prosthetic implants
        • Analyzing the friction, lubrication, and wear characteristics of natural and artificial joints
        • Performing stress analysis of the musculoskeletal system
    • Rehabilitation engineering
      • Enhancing the capabilities and improve the quality of life for individuals with physical and cognitive impairments
      • Examples
        • Developing more natural looking and performing prosthetics
        • Developing home, workplace, and transportation modifications
        • Designing assistive technology that enhance seating and positioning, mobility, and communication

Recognize

ADVANCES IN TRANSPLANT TECHNOLOGY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Explore emerging technological advances in transplant technology, including:
    • Reducing tissue rejection reaction through improved processes in the use of immunosuppressive drugs and tissue matching techniques
    • Using bioartificial organs, such as ELAD (extracorporeal liver assist device), LVAD (left ventricular assist device), and hemodialysis as temporary supportive devices while organs are healing or while patient is waiting for a transplant
    • Using normothermic perfusion devices, such as the Organ Care System to replicate normal human body conditions as closely as possible while keeping the organs alive outside of the body
    • Enhancing healing for burn victims through the use of natural and synthetic skin substitutes, such as human amnion, TransCyte™, cultured epithelial autograft (CEA), Alloderm, and Oasis Wound Matrix®
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Technological problems and advances often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, and new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in new ways or to undertake entirely new lines of research. The very availability of new technology itself often sparks scientific advances. 3A/H1*
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
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ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/26/2019
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