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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 16: Reproductive System, Pregnancy, Growth, and Development SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address the structure and function of the reproductive system. Students explain the process of reproduction and summarize the cycle of human growth and development. Students also evaluate the cause and effects of drugs, pathogens, and congenital defects on the reproductive system.

 

Streamlining Note

In Biology TEKS B.4A, students now compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity in addition to previous expectations. The former Biology TEKS B.5B was removed, meaning students enrolled in Biology in 2018-2019 and beyond will no longer examine specialized cells. The former Biology TEKS B.11A, describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms, was also removed. Students continue to understand the concept of process regulation in animals in the context of TEKS B.10A and homeostasis at the cellular level is addressed in TEKS B.4B.

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Biology
    • B.4 – The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
      • B.4A – Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity.
      • B.4B – Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules.
    • B.5 – The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. The student is expected to:
      • B.5B – Describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and environmental factors in cell differentiation.
      • B.5C – Recognize that disruptions of the cell cycle lead to diseases such as cancer.
    • B.6 The student knows the mechanisms of genetics such as the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics. The student is expected to:
      • B.6E – Identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes.
    • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
      • B.10A – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.
      • B.10CAnalyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system. The student is expected to:
    • B.11 – The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance.

                                                               

After this Unit

Students will demonstrate practical understanding of the anatomy and physiology of all body systems through dissections and / or projects. Students will also recognize and research applications of technology in medicine.

 

According to Research

By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Both genes and environmental factors influence the rate and extent of development.
  • Patterns of human development are similar to those of other vertebrates.
  • As successive generations of an embryo's cells form by division, small differences in their immediate environments cause them to develop slightly differently, by activating or inactivating different parts of the DNA information.
  • Following fertilization, cell division produces a small cluster of cells that embeds itself in the wall of the uterus. As the embryo develops, it receives nourishment and eliminates wastes by the transfer of substances between its blood and the blood of its mother.
  • Faulty genes can cause body parts or systems to work poorly. Some genetic diseases appear only when an individual has inherited a certain faulty gene from both parents.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.

 

TxCCRS:

  • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories in science.
  • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
  • VI. Biology – A1 – Know that although all cells share basic features, cells differentiate to carry out specialized functions.
  • VI Biology – A4 – Describe the major features of mitosis and relate this process to growth and asexual reproduction.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas College and Career Readiness Standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?
 
Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.
  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
 
Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The reproductive system is responsible for producing, maintaining, and transporting the gametes to the site of fertilization.The female reproductive system is then responsible to house and nourish the fertilized egg till birth.

  • How is each female reproductive structure specifically designed to accomplish their designated function(s)?
  • How is each male reproductive structure specifically designed to accomplish their designated function(s)?
  • In what ways do the male and female reproductive systems interact in order to produce a child?

 

Multiple hormones regulate the reproductive processes.

  • In what ways do the presence or absence of specific hormones affect the functions of the female reproductive system?
  • In what ways do the presence or absence of specific hormones affect the functions of the female reproductive system?

Systems

  • Reproductive system

 

Classifications

  • Male reproductive system
  • Female reproductive system

 

Properties

  • Hormonal regulation

 

Patterns

  • Oogenesis
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Fertilization

 

Models

  • Male reproductive structures
  • Female reproductive structures
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Human development is a lifelong process of physical, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional growth and change.

  • Why is the study of normal embryological development crucial to the understanding ofthe risks of environmental and congenital defects?
  • What significant changes occur to the function of body systems during the cycle of human growth and development?

Systems

  • Reproductive system

 

Classifications

  • Pregnancy
  • Growth
  • Development

 

Patterns

  • Stages of growth and development

 

Models

  • Stages of embryological development

 

Change

  • Teratogenic pathogens
  • Teratogenic chemicals and drugs
  • Congenital defects
  • Lifespan changes
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that an embryo in utero is protected from external substances rather than understanding the interconnection of mother and child through the placenta.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may have limited understanding of the processes involved in prenatal development.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Cleavage – cellular division, especially of a fertilized egg cell – the first step in a single celled zygote becoming a multicelled organism
  • Ejaculation – forcible, suddenexpulsion of semen from the male urethra; reflex action due to sexual stimulation
  • Emission – involuntary discharge of semen from the male urethra; often occurs during sleep
  • Erection – enlarged, engorged, and rigid state of the penis
  • Fertilization – process involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote
  • Follicle – vesicle in the ovary that contains a developing egg
  • Gastrulation – phase in embryonic development in which a single layered blastula becomes a multilayered gastrula
  • Implantation – process in which a developing embryo contacts the uterine wall and remains attached to it until birth
  • Neonatal period – interval from birth to 28 days of age; time of greatest risk
  • Oogenesis – production and development of an ovum (egg cell)
  • Organogenesis – phase in embryonic development in which the three primary germ layers produce and develop into organs
  • Placentation – formation of the placenta within the uterus
  • Prenatal period – time between conception and birth; consists of three stages germinal stage, embryonic stage, and fetal stage
  • Primary germ layers – three primary layers of cells that develop through the process of gastrulation; endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
  • Senescence – loss of a cell’s power of division and growth due to age related deterioration
  • Spermatogenesis – production and development of a sperm cell

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Adolescence
  • Adulthood
  • Blastocyst
  • Childhood
  • Ectoderm
  • Embryo proper
  • Embryonic stage
  • Endoderm
  • Endometrium
  • Fetal stage
  • Gametes
  • Gastrula
  • Germinal stage
  • Infancy
  • Mesoderm
  • Morula
  • Myometrium
  • Perimetrium
  • Zygote
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency  Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
AP.1 The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:
AP.1A Demonstrate verbal and non-verbal communication in a clear, concise, and effective manner.

Demonstrate

VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • General communication skills
    • Professionalism
      • Considerate of audience
      • Appropriate to the situation
      • Correct grammar – spoken and written
      • Questioning strategies (open vs. closed ended)
      • Terms with precise meanings for discussing the human body
        • Medical terminology
          • Roots
          • Prefixes
          • Suffixes
          • Common layman’s terms
      • Cultural competence awareness – a set of behaviors, practices, attitudes, and policies that come together amongst a group to enable effective work to be done in a cross-cultural situation
        • Culture – the sum of the values, beliefs, standards, languages, thinking patterns, behavioral norms, communication styles, etc. that guide decisions and actions of a group through time
  • Verbal communication skills
    • Explicit communication skills – information conveyed through spoken words
      • Pitch
      • Tone
      • Speed of speech
      • Word pronunciation
      • Active listening
  • Non-verbal communication skills
    • Implicit communication – information and meaning conveyed without spoken words
      • Awareness of body language
    • Written communication
      • Spelling
      • Formatting
  • Common barriers to communication
    • Physical disabilities
      • Aphasia
      • Hearing loss
      • Impaired vision
    • Psychological barriers
      • Attitudes
      • Bias
      • Prejudice
      • Stereotyping
  • Examples
    • Patient medical history
    • Presentation of medical information to a healthcare professional, a patient, and your classmates
    • How different cultural groups might respond to a medical scenario
    • Information directed to a certain cultural group
    • Examples of technical and expository writing
      • Topical speech
      • Detailed lab report providing and explaining data
      • Article analysis from a professional journal
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – A1 – Use correct application of writing practices in scientific communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – C1 – Prepare and present scientific/technical information in appropriate formats for various audiences.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral, written, and visual presentations. 12D/H7
AP.1B Exhibit the ability to cooperate, contribute, and collaborate as a member of a team.

Exhibit

THE ABILITY TO COOPERATE, CONTRIBUTE, AND COLLABORATE AS A MEMBER OF A TEAM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cooperate
    • Exchange relevant information and resources in support of each other’s individual goals, rather than a shared goal
  • Contribute
    • Play a significant part in bringing about a shared goal
  • Collaborate
    • Work together to create something new in support of a shared goal
  • Traits of successful team members
    • Competence
    • Dependability
    • Honesty
    • Initiative
    • Patience
    • Responsibility
    • Self-motivation
    • Tact
    • Willingness to learn
    • Follow a chain of command
    • Decision making
    • Flexibility
    • Integrity
    • Loyalty
  • Examples
    • Collaborate on a group presentation
    • Contribute and collaborate by assigning and carrying out a set of roles within your group
    • Cooperate by sharing knowledge with others to produce individual projects
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C1 – Collaborate on joint projects.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions. 12D/H6
AP.3 The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
AP.3H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA THROUGH METHODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conclusion – an explanation of results based on data collected
  • Communicate valid conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
    • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
    • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
    • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Draw conclusions based only on the data from the investigation
  • Demonstrate various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
AP.4 The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.4B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as accredited scientific journals, institutions of higher learning, current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Extract, Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contrast of scientific information and non-scientific information
    • Scientific information refers to data gained through the scientific method using a sequence of logical steps to investigate, acquire, or expand our understanding. Scientific information can be reproduced and has been demonstrated to be consistent.
    • Non-scientific information refers to knowledge and truths about the world acquired by using techniques that do not follow the scientific method, such as traditions, personal experience, and intuition.
  • Extract scientific information from various sources
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Accredited scientific journal
      • Institution of higher learning
      • Current event
      • News report
      • Published journal articles
      • Marketing material
  • Communicate scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Video presenting findings from a scientific journal or published journal article to the public
      • Display critiquing only the scientific characteristics of two similar products gathered from marketing materials
  • Apply scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Scientific compared to non-scientific informational analysis of a situation 
      • Determination of necessary scientific information when making a decision
        • A patient being able to give informed consent
        • Better medication choice to take under certain conditions
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grades, students should know that:
    • The dissemination of scientific information is crucial to its progress. Some scientists present their findings and theories in papers that are delivered at meetings or published in scientific journals. Those papers enable scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and, of course, to stay abreast of scientific developments around the world. 1C/H12** (SFAA)
    • Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Acting in their areas of expertise, scientists can help people understand the likely causes of events and estimate their possible effects. 1C/H6ab 
AP.4D Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment.

Evaluate

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Importance of scientific articles in gaining an understanding of the impact of research
  • Recognition of the connection of scientific discoveries to technological innovations
  • Impact of scientific research and technology on ethical and legal practices
  • Impact of commonly held ethical beliefs on scientific research and vice versa
  • Understanding how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
  • Possible research topics may include:
    • Development of preventive, diagnostic, or treatment products

Evaluate

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Understanding of the environmental impact of research
  • Recognition of how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Description of how scientific research has led to scientific discoveries
  • Analysis of scientific discoveries that have impacted the environment positively and negatively
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the 12th grade, students should understand:
    • Because science is a human activity, what is valued in society influences what is valued in science. 1C/H10** (SFAA)
    • The human ability to influence the course of history comes from its capacity for generating knowledge and developing new technologies—and for communicating ideas to others. 3C/H6** (BSL)
AP.4F Research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.

Research, Describe

THE CONTRIBUTION OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contributions of various scientists to the field of anatomy and physiology

Research, Describe

THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Research on significant events in history of anatomy and physiology
  • Timeline of the significant events within a certain era
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories in science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
AP.10 The student investigates environmental factors that affect the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.10A

Identify the effects of environmental factors such as climate, pollution, radioactivity, chemicals, electromagnetic fields, pathogens, carcinogens, and drugs on body systems.

Note: There are many environmental factors capable of affecting multiple body systems. In order to aid student mastery of this concept, a few factors are specifically discussed in each of five body systems. In this unit, students are expected to identify the effects of chemicals, drugs, and pathogens on the reproductive system.

Identify

THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Chemicals and drugs
    • Reproductive system
      • Teratogens, such as thalidomide, alcohol, and isotretinoin cause birth defects
  • Pathogens
    • Reproductive system
      • Pathogens causing sexually transmitted infections including pelvic inflammatory disease
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Some drugs mimic or block the molecules involved in communication between cells and therefore affect operations of the brain and body. 6C/H5** (BSL)
AP.10B Explore measures to minimize harmful environmental factors on body systems.

Note: There are many environmental factors capable of affecting multiple body systems. In order to aid student mastery of this concept, a few measures of protection are specifically discussed in each of five body systems. In this unit, students are expected to explore measures to minimize the harmful effects of chemicals, drugs, and pathogens on the reproductive system.

Explore

MEASURES TO MINIMIZE HARMFUL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Chemicals and drugs
    • Reproductive system
      • Avoidance of teratogens
      • Access to prenatal information and care for pregnant women
  • Pathogens
    • Reproductive system
      • Use of abstinence and safer sex methods

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should understand:
    • Toxic substances, some dietary habits, and some personal behavior may be bad for one's health. Some effects show up right away, others years later. Avoiding toxic substances, such as tobacco, and changing dietary habits increase the chance of living longer. 6E/M2
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to analyze the structure and function of the reproductive system.

Analyze

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Reproductive system
    • Function
      • Manufacture and transport of gametes
      • Female system provides for prenatal development and childbirth
    • Male structures
      • Scrotum
      • Testes
      • Epididymis
      • Ductus deferens
      • Seminal vesicles
      • Prostate gland
      • Bulbourethral gland
      • Urethra
      • Penis
    • Female structures
      • Ovaries
      • Uterine tubes
      • Uterus
      • Vagina
      • Cervix
      • Clitoris
      • Vulva

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.11B

Evaluate the cause and effect of disease, trauma, and congenital defects on the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and systems.

Note: This standard spans many of the units of this course. In this unit, students will evaluate the cause and effect of congenital defects on the respiratory system. Students should also understand that, while the cause and effects of these processes begin at the cellular and tissue levels of organization, they affect the entire organism. 

Evaluate

THE CAUSE AND EFFECT Of CONGENITAL DEFECTS ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS, AND SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Congenital defects – a disease or condition that is present at birth
  • Relationship between the etiology (cause) and the signs and symptoms (effects) of a congenital defect at the applicable level(s) of structural hierarchy
  • Included examples
    • Spina bifida
    • Tetralogy of Fallot
    • Cystic fibrosis
  • Possible examples may include:
    • Determine how a lysosomal enzyme deficiency causes the effects seen in Krabbe disease
    • Describe how a peroxisome defect leads to Adrenoleukodystrophy
    • Evaluate how the symptoms of Marfan syndrome are due to deficient fibrillin production

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know:
    • Faulty genes can cause body parts or systems to work poorly. Some genetic diseases appear only when an individual has inherited a certain faulty gene from both parents. 6E/H2
AP.12 The student describes the process of reproduction and growth and development. The student is expected to:
AP.12A Explain embryological development of cells, tissues, organs, and systems.

Explain

EMBRYOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Main events occurring during embryonic period
    • Fertilization
    • Cleavage
    • Implantation
    • Placentation
    • Gastrulation
    • Organogenesis
  • Structural stages of embryological development
    • Zygote
    • Morula
    • Blastocyst
    • Embryo proper
    • Gastrula
  • Primary germ layers formed during embryological development of tissues
    • Ectoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Endoderm
  • Structures that arise from the primary germ layers
    • Ectoderm
      • Nervous system
      • Epidermis and associated structures
      • Pituitary gland
    • Mesoderm
      • Skeleton
      • Muscles
      • Circulatory system
      • Excretory system
      • Reproductive system
      • Dermis
      • Outer layers of digestive tube
    • Endoderm
      • Lining of digestive system and associated structures
      • Respiratory system
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A1 – Know that although all cells share basic features, cells differentiate to carry out specialized functions.
    • VI Biology – A4 – Describe the major features of mitosis and relate this process to growth and asexual reproduction.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • As successive generations of an embryo's cells form by division, small differences in their immediate environments cause them to develop slightly differently, by activating or inactivating different parts of the DNA information. 6B/H1
    • Both genes and environmental factors influence the rate and extent of development. 6B/H5**
    • Following fertilization, cell division produces a small cluster of cells that embeds itself in the wall of the uterus. As the embryo develops, it receives nourishment and eliminates wastes by the transfer of substances between its blood and the blood of its mother. 6B/H6**
    • Patterns of human development are similar to those of other vertebrates. 6B/H7** 
AP.12B Identify the functions of the male and female reproductive systems.

Identify

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Produce and maintain male gametes
    • Function of the sustentacular cells and seminiferous tubules in the testes
    • Spermatogenesis
  • Transport gametes and supporting fluids to the outside
    • Ductal accessory structures for transport
      • Epididymis
      • Ductus deferentia
      • Ejaculatory ducts
      • Urethra
    • Glandular accessory structures
      • Seminal vesicles
      • Prostate gland
      • Bulbourethral gland
    • Processes of erection, emission, and ejaculation
    • Structural pathways taken by the sperm and seminal fluid from formation to their exit from the body
  • Secrete male sex hormones
    • Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • Testosterone

Identify

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Produce and maintain female gametes
    • Stages of ovarian follicular development, maturation, and ovulation
      • Primordial follicle
      • Primary follicle
      • Mature antral (Graafian) follicle
      • Corpus luteum
      • Corpus albicans
    • Oogenesis
  • Transport gamete to site of fertilization
    • Structures
      • Fimbriae
      • Infundibulum
      • Uterine tube
        • Ciliary action and mucus secretion of the inner mucosal layer
        • Ciliary action and peristalsis of middle muscular layer
  • Provide a favorable environment for developing offspring
    • Structures
      • Cervix
      • Body
      • Fundus
      • Uterine wall
        • Perimetrium
        • Myometrium
        • Endometrium
      • Placenta
  • Move the offspring to the outside
    • Role of oxytocin in contractions of myometrium
  • Secrete female sex hormones
    • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • Estrogens
    • Progesterone
    • Oxytocin
  • Major events during the female reproductive cycle
    • Anterior pituitary hormones, LH, and FSH
    • Ovarian follicular events
    • Ovarian hormones, estrogens, and progesterone
    • Endometrial events

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A1 – Know that although all cells share basic features, cells differentiate to carry out specialized functions.
    • VI Biology – A4 – Describe the major features of mitosis and relate this process to growth and asexual reproduction.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • As successive generations of an embryo's cells form by division, small differences in their immediate environments cause them to develop slightly differently, by activating or inactivating different parts of the DNA information. 6B/H1
    • Following fertilization, cell division produces a small cluster of cells that embeds itself in the wall of the uterus. As the embryo develops, it receives nourishment and eliminates wastes by the transfer of substances between its blood and the blood of its mother. 6B/H6**
AP.12C Summarize the human growth and development cycle.

Summarize

THE HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT CYCLE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Prenatal period
    • Embryonic stage
      • Time period – zero to eight weeks in utero
      • Major events – fertilization through gastrulation and organogenesis
    • Fetal stage
      • Time period – nine weeks in utero till birth
      • Major events – growth and development of organs
  • Neonatal period
    • Time period – birth to end of the fourth week
    • Major events – newborn begins the processes of respiration, obtaining and digesting nutrients, excreting wastes, regulating body temperature, and adjusting cardiovascular events
  • Infancy
    • Time period – end of the fourth week until approximately two years of age
    • Major events – high growth rate, muscular and nervous system maturation, begin communication
  • Childhood
    • Time period – approximately 2 years until 12-13 years of age
    • Major events – high growth rate, primary teeth erupt then replaced by secondary teeth, bladder and bowel control established
  • Adolescence
    • Time period – 12-13 years of age until age 18
    • Major events – functionally reproductive, growth spurts in skeletal and muscular systems, increasing motor skills, intellectual abilities increase
  • Adulthood
    • Time period – 18+ years of age until age 60
    • Major events – relatively unchanged anatomically and physiologically, degenerative changes begin to occur
  • Senescence
    • Time period – 60+ years of age until death
    • Major events – degenerative changes continue, body less able to cope with demands, death results
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A1 – Know that although all cells share basic features, cells differentiate to carry out specialized functions.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Both genes and environmental factors influence the rate and extent of development. 6B/H5**
    • Patterns of human development are similar to those of other vertebrates. 6B/H7**
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/06/2019
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