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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 17: Demonstrating Practical Understanding of Anatomy and Physiology SUGGESTED DURATION : 4 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address demonstrations to evaluate practical understanding of anatomy and physiology. Students work in teams to collect, organize, and communicate information gained during the investigation of biological specimens, images, and models. 

 

Streamlining Note

In Biology TEKS B.4A, students now compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity in addition to previous expectations. Students no longer compare the structure of biomolecules in Biology TEKS B.9A but continue to compare the functions. The former Biology TEKS B.11A, describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms, was removed during the streamlining process implemented in 2018-2019. Students continue to understand the concept of process regulation in animals in the context of TEKS B.10A.

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Biology
    • B.4 – The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
      • B.4A – Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity.
    • B.9 – The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:
      • B.9A – Compare the functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
    • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
      • B.10A – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.
      • B.10C – Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.

                                                               

After this Unit

Students will use their understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the human body to investigate, research, and analyze technological applications in medicine and their use in diagnostics and treatments of disorders of the human body.

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions.
  • The immune system functions to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within.
  • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.
  • Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral, written, and visual presentations.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.

 

TxCCRS:

  • I. Nature of Science – C1 – Collaborate on joint projects.
  • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
  • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
  • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas College and Career Readiness Standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The practical application of anatomy and physiology terms and concepts on a three dimensional specimen is necessary to fully understand the complexity of the human body.

  • How does dissection help to better visualize and understand the anatomical structures?
  • In what ways are the locations of organs crucial to understanding their functional interrelationships to each other?
  • To what extent do natural variations exist in the body structures?

Systems

  • Nervous system
  • Muscular system
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Respiratory system
  • Digestive system
  • Urinary system
  • Endocrine
  • Reproductive system

 

Classifications

  • Organs
  • Tissues

 

Properties

  • Relative location

 

Patterns

  • System interrelationships

 

Models

  • Biological specimen(s)

 

Change

  • Natural structural variations
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that watching a dissection is adequate rather than understanding that hands-on dissection enhances learning and comprehension of the human body structure.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may have limited understanding of the proper way to dissect a specimen in order to analyze the physical and functional relationships of the organs.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Autopsy – type of dissection used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans
  • Cadaver – a deceased body (also called corpse (singular) in medical, literary, and legal usage, or when intended for dissection)
  • Dissection – study of the anatomical structures of a deceased animal
  • Necropsy – type of dissection used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in animals

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Aorta (ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta)
  • Esophagus
  • Gall bladder
  • Kidney
  • Large intestine (ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid flexure, rectum)
  • Larynx
  • Liver
  • Lungs
  • Mesentery
  • Pancreas
  • Primary bronchi
  • Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ilium)
  • Spleen
  • Stomach
  • Superior and inferior vena cavae
  • Trachea
  • Urethra
  • Uretur
  • Urinary bladder
  • Additional blood vessels at teacher discretion based on visibility in specimen
  • Superficial anterior and posterior muscles at teacher discretion based on visibility in specimin
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

Show this message:

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency  Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
AP.1 The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:
AP.1A Demonstrate verbal and non-verbal communication in a clear, concise, and effective manner.

Demonstrate

VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • General communication skills
    • Professionalism
      • Considerate of audience
      • Appropriate to the situation
      • Correct grammar – spoken and written
      • Questioning strategies (open vs. closed ended)
      • Terms with precise meanings for discussing the human body
        • Medical terminology
          • Roots
          • Prefixes
          • Suffixes
          • Common layman’s terms
  • Verbal communication skills
    • Explicit communication skills – information conveyed through spoken words
      • Pitch
      • Tone
      • Speed of speech
      • Word pronunciation
      • Active listening
  • Non-verbal communication skills
    • Implicit communication – information and meaning conveyed without spoken words
      • Awareness of body language
    • Written communication
      • Spelling
      • Formatting
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – A1 – Use correct application of writing practices in scientific communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – C1 – Prepare and present scientific/technical information in appropriate formats for various audiences.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral, written, and visual presentations. 12D/H7
AP.1B Exhibit the ability to cooperate, contribute, and collaborate as a member of a team.

Exhibit

THE ABILITY TO COOPERATE, CONTRIBUTE, AND COLLABORATE AS A MEMBER OF A TEAM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cooperate
    • Exchange relevant information and resources in support of each other’s individual goals, rather than a shared goal
  • Contribute
    • Play a significant part in bringing about a shared goal
  • Collaborate
    • Work together to create something new in support of a shared goal
  • Traits of successful team members
    • Competence
    • Dependability
    • Honesty
    • Initiative
    • Patience
    • Responsibility
    • Self-motivation
    • Tact
    • Willingness to learn
    • Follow a chain of command
    • Decision making
    • Flexibility
    • Integrity
    • Loyalty
  • Examples
    • Collaborate on a group presentation
    • Contribute and collaborate by assigning and carrying out a set of roles within your group
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C1 – Collaborate on joint projects.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions. 12D/H6
AP.2 The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.2A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read, understand, and follow lab instructions independently
  • Know and follow classroom safety guidelines
  • Know location and proper use of safety equipment
    • Fire extinguisher
    • Safety shower
    • Eye wash
  • Wear appropriate personal protective equipment for each activity
    • Goggles
    • Aprons
    • Gloves
  • Handle all specimens based on their safety recommendations
  • Use lab equipment only as instructed
  • Analyze lab procedures and equipment in the physical lab setting, lab simulations, and field observations to determine their safe and unsafe practices
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – C2 – Understand and apply safe procedures in the laboratory and field, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety and safe handling of live or preserved organisms.
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B1 – Read technical and scientific articles to gain understanding of interpretations, apparatuses, techniques or procedures, and data.
AP.2B Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Exhibit ethical behavior during the use and disposal of living or once living specimens during dissections and investigations
  • Exhibit the proper use and disposal of all biohazards encountered, including scalpel blades and dissection specimens
  • Analyze lab procedures and equipment in the physical lab setting, lab simulations, and field observations to determine their proper use, conservation of resources, and disposal
  • Identify recyclable materials
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
  • Project 2061: By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Human beings are part of the earth's ecosystems. Human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems. 5D/H3
AP.3 The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
AP.3F

Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.

Collect, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Qualitative – an observation that describes the physical appearance or observable changes in the investigation
  • Quantitative – a numerical measurement taken during an investigation
  • Organize data
    • Charts
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers
    • Images (e.g.,  illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Accuracy – the closeness of a measured value to a standard or known value
  • Precision – the closeness of two or more measurements to each other, independent of accuracy
  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Tools
    • Computers
    • Microscopes
    • Various prepared slides
    • Stereoscopes
    • Metric rulers
    • Hand lenses
    • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
    • Timing devices
    • Cameras
    • Dissection equipment
    • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures 
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – F1 – Select and use appropriate Standard International (SI) units and prefixes to express measurements for real world problems.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
AP.3H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA THROUGH METHODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conclusion – an explanation of results based on data collected
  • Communicate valid conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
    • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
    • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
    • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Draw conclusions based only on the data from the investigation
  • Demonstrate various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to analyze the structure and function of selected structures within each body system by performing an investigation using biological specimens.

Analyze

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Proper use of terms that describe relative positions, body sections, body regions, and body membranes

    • Anatomy
    • Physiology
    • Relative position
      • Superior
      • Inferior
      • Anterior
      • Posterior
      • Medial
      • Lateral
      • Intermediate
      • Proximal
      • Distal
      • Superficial
      • Deep
      • Ipsilateral
      • Contralateral
    • Body sections
      • Sagittal
      • Transverse
      • Frontal
      • Oblique
    • Body regions
      • Abdominal
      • Brachial
      • Carpal
      • Cephalic
      • Cervical
      • Costal
      • Coxal
      • Lumbar
      • Oral
      • Orbital
      • Otic
      • Pectoral
      • Sacral
      • Vertebral
    • Tissue types – locations, functions, and microscope identification
      • Epithelial
        • Simple
          • Squamous
          • Cuboidal
          • Columnar
        • Stratified
          • Squamous
          • Cuboidal
          • Columnar
        • Pseudostratified columnar
        • Transitional
      • Connective
        • Areolar
        • Adipose
        • Reticular
        • Dense
          • Regular
          • Irregular
        • Elastic connective tissue
        • Cartilage
          • Elastic
          • Hyaline
          • Fibro
        • Bone
          • Trabecular (spongy – cancellous)
          • Cortical (compact)
        • Blood
      • Muscle
        • Smooth
        • Skeletal
        • Cardiac
      • Nervous
        • Neurons
        • Neuroglia
    • Membranes
      • Serous
        • Visceral
        • Parietal
        • Peritoneum
        • Pleurae
        • Pericardium
      • Cutaneous
      • Mucous
      • Synovial
  • Nervous system
    • Functions
      • Maintain homeostasis by sensing, integrating, and responding to stimuli
    • Structures
  • Central nervous system
    • Major organs – location and function
      • Brain
        • Cerebrum
        • Cerebellum
        • Midbrain
          • Epithalamus
          • Corpus callosum
          • Thalamus
          • Hypothalamus
        • Brainstem
          • Pons
          • Midbrain
          • Medulla oblongata
  • Muscular system
    • Functions
      • Movement of the human body
    • Structures
      • Organs
        • Superficial anterior and posterior skeletal muscles
  • Cardiovascular system
    • Functions
      • Circulate the blood in a unidirectional pathway to effectively transport materials throughout the body
    • Structures
      • Organs – location and role in maintaining unidirectional blood flow
        • Heart
          • Atria – right and left
          • Ventricles – right and left
          • Atrioventricular septum
          • Atrioventricular valves
            • Tricuspid
            • Bicuspid
          • Semilunar valves
            • Pulmonary SL valve
            • Aortic SL valve
          • The coverings and the layers that make up the heart wall
            • Parietal pericardium
            • Pericardial cavity
            • Visceral pericardium (Epicardium)
            • Myocardium
            • Endocardium
        • Major blood vessels
          • Inferior and superior vena cavae
          • Pulmonary trunk
          • Right and left pulmonary arteries
          • Right and left pulmonary veins
          • Aorta
  • Respiratory system
    • Function – exchange of respiratory gases involved in the process of cellular respiration
    • Structures
      • Conduction zone
        • Nasal cavity
        • Pharynx
        • Larynx
        • Trachea
        • Lungs
        • Bronchi
        • Bronchioles
  • Digestive system
    • Functions
      • Mechanical digestion
      • Chemical digestion
      • Ingestion
      • Propulsion
      • Absorption
      • Defecation
    • Structures
      • Alimentary canal
        • Mouth
        • Pharynx
        • Esophagus
        • Stomach
        • Small intestine
          • Duodenum
          • Jejunum
          • Ilium
        • Large intestine or colon
          • Ascending colon
          • Transverse colon
          • Descending colon
          • Sigmoid colon
        • Rectum
        • Anal canal
        • Anus
      • Accessory organs and their secretions
        • Salivary glands
        • Liver
          • Function of liver in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis
        • Pancreas
        • Gallbladder
  • Urinary system
    • Functions
      • Maintains homeostasis in the composition, pH, and volume of body fluids
    • Structures
      • Organs
        • Kidneys
        • Ureters
        • Urinary bladder
        • Urethra
  • Lymphatic system
    • Function of:
      • Lymphatic system – returns interstitial fluid to the blood and aids in lipid absorptio
    • Structures of lymphatic system
      • Organs
        • Lymph nodes
        • Spleen
        • Thymus
  • Endocrine system
    • Functions
      • Regulate metabolic activities of body structures
      • Provide cell to cell communication through the use of hormonal feedback mechanisms
    • Structures
      • Adrenal gland
      • Pancreas
      • Ovaries
      • Testes
      • Examples of hormones secreted and actions regulated
  • Reproductive system
    • Function
      • Manufacture and transport of gametes
      • Female system provides for prenatal development and childbirth
    • Male structures
      • Scrotum
      • Testes
      • Epididymis
      • Ductus deferens
      • Urethra
      • Penis
    • Female structures
      • Ovaries
      • Uterine tubes
      • Uterus
      • Vagina
      • Cervix
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The immune system functions to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within. 6C/H1*
    • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow. 6C/H3*
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/06/2019
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