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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 15: The Urinary System and Water, Electrolyte, and pH Balance SUGGESTED DURATION : 8 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address the structure and function of the urinary system. Students continue analyzing the body’s transport systems and their interactions, while also determining the factors that alter normal transport functions. Students examine age-related characteristics and their effects on water, electrolyte, and pH balance.

 

Streamlining Note

In Biology TEKS B.4A, students now compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity in addition to previous expectations. The former Biology TEKS B.11A, describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms, was removed during the streamlining process implemented in 2018-2019. Students continue to understand the concept of process regulation in animals in the context of TEKS B.10A and homeostasis at the cellular level is addressed in TEKS B.4B.

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Biology
    • B.4 – The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
      • B.4A – Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity.
      • B.4B – Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules.
    • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
      • B.10A – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.
      • B.10C – Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.
    • B.11 – The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance.                                                               

 

After this Unit

Students will discuss the effects of pregnancy on the body’s transport systems. Students will also explore the application of technology in the diagnosis and treatment of transport system disorders.

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.
  • The dissemination of scientific information is crucial to its progress. Some scientists present their findings and theories in papers that are delivered at meetings or published in scientific journals. Those papers enable scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and, of course, to stay abreast of scientific developments around the world.
  • Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Acting in their areas of expertise, scientists can help people understand the likely causes of events and estimate their possible effects.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.

 

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – C1 – Recognize patterns of change.
    • VI. Biology – A6 – Know the structure of membranes and how this relates to permeability.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
    •  VI. Biology – F2 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas College and Career Readiness Standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The urinary system regulates urine volume and concentration through a series of specialized structures.

  • Why is the sequence of mechanisms through each structure of the urinary system important in regulation of urine production?
  • Why are certain substances reabsorbed while others are secreted?
  • What is involved during the urinary system’s response to environmental, disease, and age-related changes?

Systems

  • Urinary system

 

Classifications

  • Renal cortex
  • Renal medulla
  • Renal pyramid

 

Properties

  • Biological properties
  • Chemical properties
  • Physical properties

 

Patterns

  • Glomerular filtration
  • Tubular reabsorption
  • Tubular secretion

 

Models

  • Renal structure
  • Glomerulus structure
  • Nephron structure

 

Constancy

  • Process sequence

 

Change

  • Disease conditions
  • Pollutants
  • Age-related
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The interaction of transport systems is vital to homeostasis by regulating the composition, pH, and volume of body fluids.

  • In what ways do cardiac mechanisms, respiratory mechanisms, and renal mechanisms regulate fluid pH?
  • In what ways do cardiac mechanisms, respiratory mechanisms, and renal mechanisms regulate fluid volume?
  • In what ways do cardiac mechanisms, respiratory mechanisms, and renal mechanisms regulate fluid composition?
  • In what ways do environmental and disease factors affect transport system interaction regarding the regulation of body fluids?

Systems

  • Urinary system
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Respiratory system
  • Buffer systems

 

Classifications

  • Respiratory mechanisms
  • Renal mechanisms
  • Protein buffer systems
  • Phosphate buffer systems

 

Properties

  • Passive transport
  • Active transport
  • Vasoconstriction
  • Vasodilation

 

Patterns

  • Glomerular filtration rate

 

Models

  • Glomerulus structure

 

Constancy

  • Constituents of urine
  • Renin-angiotensin system

 

Change

  • Pollutants
  • Disease conditions
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think chemical equilibrium means that concentrations are equal rather than understanding that chemical equilibrium is the point at which reactants and products are being created at the same rate so the concentrations appear to be unchanging but not necessarily equal to each other.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may have a limited understanding of the relationships between transport systems in maintaining body fluid homeostasis under changing conditions.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Ascites – accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity causing abdominal swelling
  • Chemical buffer system – chemical or chemical system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding to hydrogen ions
  • Extracellular fluid (ECF) – fluid located in the body but outside of the cells, including plasma and interstitial fluid
  • Glomerular filtration – non-selective process in which excess fluid and waste products are filtered out of the blood into the urine collecting tubules of the kidney
  • Glomerulus – cluster of capillaries forming part of the nephron, filter wastes from the blood
  • Incontinence – lack of voluntary control over urination
  • Intracellular fluid (ICF) – fluid located within the cells, including cytoplasm
  • Macula densa – collection of specialized epithelial cells in the distal convoluted tubule that detects sodium concentration of the fluid in the tubule
  • Micturition – process of urination
  • Nephron – structural andfunctional unit of the kidney; consists of glomerulus and renal tubule
  • Phosphate buffer system – buffer system that maintains pH homeostasis in the intracellular fluids
  • Physiological buffer system – chemicals used by the body to prevent large changes in the pH of a body fluid during biological processes
  • Podocytes – highly specialized cells in the kidney glomeruli essential for efficient glomerular filtration
  • Protein buffer system – buffer system that maintains pH homeostasis in both the intracellular and extracellular fluids
  • Renin-angiotensin system – system of hormones that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance
  • Tubular reabsorption – process of removing water and solutes from the tubular fluid and returning them to the blood
  • Tubular secretion – process of moving unneeded substances from the peritubular capillaries into the urine collecting tubules of the nephron
  • Ureter – pair of muscular tubes that propel urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
  • Urethra – tube by which urine conveyed out of the body from the urinary bladder

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Amino acid
  • Baroreceptor
  • Creatine
  • Erythropoietin
  • Hypertonic
  • Hypotonic
  • Isotonic
  • Microvilli
  • pH shift
  • Solute
  • Solvent
  • Urea
  • Uric acid
  • Vasoconstriction
  • Vasodilation
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
AP.1 The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:
AP.1A Demonstrate verbal and non-verbal communication in a clear, concise, and effective manner.

Demonstrate

VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • General communication skills
    • Professionalism
      • Considerate of audience
      • Appropriate to the situation
      • Correct grammar – spoken and written
      • Questioning strategies (open vs. closed ended)
      • Terms with precise meanings for discussing the human body
        • Medical terminology
          • Roots
          • Prefixes
          • Suffixes
          • Common layman’s terms
  • Verbal communication skills
    • Explicit communication skills – information conveyed through spoken words
      • Pitch
      • Tone
      • Speed of speech
      • Word pronunciation
      • Active listening
  • Non-verbal communication skills
    • Implicit communication – information and meaning conveyed without spoken words
      • Awareness of body language
    • Written communication
      • Spelling
      • Formatting
  • Examples
    • Patient medical history
    • Presentation of medical information to a healthcare professional, a patient, and your classmates
    • Detailed lab report providing and explaining data
    • Article analysis from a professional journal
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – A1 – Use correct application of writing practices in scientific communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – C1 – Prepare and present scientific/technical information in appropriate formats for various audiences.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral, written, and visual presentations. 12D/H7
AP.1B Exhibit the ability to cooperate, contribute, and collaborate as a member of a team.

Exhibit

THE ABILITY TO COOPERATE, CONTRIBUTE, AND COLLABORATE AS A MEMBER OF A TEAM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cooperate
    • Exchange relevant information and resources in support of each other’s individual goals, rather than a shared goal
  • Contribute
    • Play a significant part in bringing about a shared goal
  • Collaborate
    • Work together to create something new in support of a shared goal
  • Traits of successful team members
    • Competence
    • Dependability
    • Honesty
    • Initiative
    • Patience
    • Responsibility
    • Self-motivation
    • Tact
    • Willingness to learn
    • Follow a chain of command
    • Decision making
    • Flexibility
    • Integrity
    • Loyalty
  • Examples
    • Collaborate on a group presentation
    • Contribute and collaborate by assigning and carrying out a set of roles within your group
    • Cooperate by sharing knowledge with others to produce individual projects
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C1 – Collaborate on joint projects.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions. 12D/H6
AP.3 The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
AP.3F

Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.

Collect, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Qualitative – an observation that describes the physical appearance or observable changes in the investigation
  • Quantitative – a numerical measurement taken during an investigation
  • Organize data
    • Graphs
    • Tables
    • Charts
    • Diagrams
    • Lists 
    • Concept maps
    • Graphic organizers
    • Feedback loops
    • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Accuracy – the closeness of a measured value to a standard or known value
  • Precision – the closeness of two or more measurements to each other, independent of accuracy
  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Tools
    • Data collecting probes
    • Computers
    • Standard laboratory glassware
    • Microscopes
    • Various prepared slides
    • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
    • Cameras
    • Dissection equipment
    • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures  
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – F1 – Select and use appropriate Standard International (SI) units and prefixes to express measurements for real world problems.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
AP.3G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Analyze, Evaluate, Make Inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Infer – to form an opinion, based on known facts or evidence, as to the outcome of a thought or conclusion
  • Predict – to declare or indicate in advance; foretell on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reasoning
  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations to analyze and manipulate data
    • Averaging
    • Percent change
    • Probabilities and ratios
    • Rate of change
    • Statistical analysis
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible examples of data usage may include:
      • Prediction of the possible outcome of the investigation using only related scientific evidence collected prior to the investigation
      • Proposed inference, based on researched facts and evidence, serving as the hypothesis of the investigation
      • Evaluation of the validity of scientific data sets
      • Relationships among data sets
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • I. Nature of Science – E2 – Use essential vocabulary of the discipline being studied.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A7 – Use calculators, spreadsheets, computers, etc. in data analysis.
AP.3H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA THROUGH METHODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conclusion – an explanation of results based on data collected
  • Communicate valid conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
    • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
    • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
    • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Draw conclusions based only on the data from the investigation
  • Demonstrate various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
AP.4 The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.4A In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Critique – a careful judgment to provide an opinion about the positive and negative aspects of something
  • Assess examples of scientific explanations and their usefulness to the field of medicine
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Evaluate the best practice guidelines for a childhood vaccination schedule
      • Critique the use of herd immunity in protecting non-vaccinated individuals
      • Analyze the use of herbal supplements in disease prevention and treatment
      • Evaluate the use of radiation in medical diagnostics and treatment

Use

EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE, LOGICAL REASONING, AND EXPERIMENTAL AND OBSERVATIONAL TESTING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Empirical evidence – information acquired by observation or experimentation
  • Logical reasoning – the drawing of inferences or conclusions through the use of reason
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Analyze a patient's medical history or case study
      • Set up, conduct, and analyze a lab investigation
      • Analyze a patient's lab results
  • Observational testing – members of a sample are studied without trying to affect them
  • Experimental testing – people or things are randomly assigned to groups; treatment is applied to one of the groups, while the other group does not receive treatment
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Double-blind study protocol
      • Patient medical history or case study analysis
      • Medical scenarios and their observational or experimental characteristics
      • Experimental and observational testing as applied to the scientific method
      • Experimental or observational testing aspects of anatomy labs
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence. 1B/H4*
AP.4B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as accredited scientific journals, institutions of higher learning, current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Extract, Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contrast of scientific information and non-scientific information
    • Scientific information refers to data gained through the scientific method using a sequence of logical steps to investigate, acquire, or expand our understanding. Scientific information can be reproduced and has been demonstrated to be consistent.
    • Non-scientific information refers to knowledge and truths about the world acquired by using techniques that do not follow the scientific method, such as traditions, personal experience, and intuition.
  • Extract scientific information from various sources
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Accredited scientific journal
      • Institution of higher learning
      • Current event
      • News report
      • Published journal articles
      • Marketing material
  • Communicate scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Video presenting findings from a scientific journal or published journal article to the public
      • Display critiquing only the scientific characteristics of two similar products gathered from marketing materials
  • Apply scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Scientific compared to non-scientific informational analysis of a situation 
      • Determination of necessary scientific information when making a decision
        • A patient being able to give informed consent
        • Better medication choice to take under certain conditions
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grades, students should know that:
    • The dissemination of scientific information is crucial to its progress. Some scientists present their findings and theories in papers that are delivered at meetings or published in scientific journals. Those papers enable scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and, of course, to stay abreast of scientific developments around the world. 1C/H12** (SFAA)
    • Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Acting in their areas of expertise, scientists can help people understand the likely causes of events and estimate their possible effects. 1C/H6ab 
AP.4C Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.

Draw

INFERENCES BASED ON DATA RELATED TO PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish between promotional and non-promotional materials
    • Promotional material
      • Biased message
      • Example: an advertisement issued on behalf of some product or service, cause or idea, or person or institution
    • Non-promotional material 
      • Non-biased data
      • Example: focuses on the current state of understanding of certain diseases and is not related to specific products or services
  • Infer – deduce from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Type of data provided by promotional materials for products and services described in a variety of sources, such as print, on television, and on the Internet
      • Promotional material evaluation for quality, validity, and accuracy of information provided
      • Evaluation of completeness and reliability of information from promotional materials
      • Inference about the product or medical process based only on the information provided in the promotional materials
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – A1 – Use skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
AP.7 The student examines the body processes that maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:
AP.7A

Investigate and describe the integration of the chemical and physical processes, including equilibrium, temperature, pH balance, chemical reactions, passive transport, active transport, and biofeedback, that contribute to homeostasis.

Investigate, Describe

THE INTEGRATION OF THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HOMEOSTASIS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Coordination of multiple body processes is required for homeostatic regulation of all the body’s diverse activities
  • Homeostatic maintenance of pH (conceptual level – no calculations)
    • Chemical buffer systems
      • First line of defense against pH shift
      • Phosphate buffer system in the stabilization of pH of intracellular (ICF) fluids of cells
      • Protein buffer system in the stabilization of pH of intracellular (ICF) and extracellular (ECF) fluids through the use of amino acids
    • Physiological buffer systems
      • Second line of defense against pH shift
      • Renal mechanisms to regulate phosphate buffer system
  • Homeostatic maintenance of cellular internal and external environment through types of cell transport
    • Passive transport
      • Possible passive transport examples may include:
        • Causes and effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions on the intracellular fluid (ICF) and the extracellular fluid (ECF) composition in animal cells
        • Transport processes involved in each phase of urine formation, such as glomerular filtration in the kidney

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
AP.9 The student explores the body's transport systems. The student is expected to:
AP.9A

Analyze the physical, chemical, and biological properties of transport systems, including circulatory, respiratory, and excretory.

Analyze

THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Excretory / urinary system
    • Physical properties
      • Transport system structures
        • Kidney
          • Nephron
        • Ureters
        • Urinary bladder
        • Urethra
          • Urethral sphincters
      • Transport mechanisms
        • Glomerular filtration
        • Tubular reabsorption
        • Tubular secretion
        • Peristalsis
    • Chemical properties
      • Common constituents of urine
        • Water – solvent
        • Nitrogen based waste – solutes
          • Urea
          • Uric acid
          • Creatinine
      • Regulation of urine volume and concentration
        • Index of kidney function – glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
        • Homeostasis maintained by
          • Autoregulation through vasoconstriction and vasodilation
          • Renin-angiotensin system (RAS)
    • Biological properties
      • Structures
        • Renal baroreceptors – measure fluid pressure
        • Macula densa cells – specialized epithelial cells that monitor sodium concentration
        • Podocytes – highly modified epithelial cells that form slit pores for filtration
        • Brush border microvilli – increase surface area to enhance tubular reabsorption
      • Functions
        • Communication with the nervous system
        • Filtration
        • Tubular reabsorption
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A6 – Know the structure of membranes and how this relates to permeability.
    • VI. Biology – F2 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
    • VII. Chemistry – I2 – Understand properties of solutions.
    • VIII. Physics – F1 – Understand pressure in a fluid and its applications.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.9B Determine the factors that alter the normal functions of transport systems.

Determine

THE FACTORS THAT ALTER THE NORMAL FUNCTIONS OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Environment
    • Pollutants – affect multiple transport functions dependent on type of pollutant
  • Disease conditions
    • Glomerulonephritis – affects ability of kidney to filter
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A6 – Know the structure of membranes and how this relates to permeability.
    • VI. Biology – F2 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
    • VII. Chemistry – I2 – Understand properties of solutions.
    • VIII. Physics – F1 – Understand pressure in a fluid and its applications.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.9C Contrast the interactions among the transport systems.

Contrast

THE INTERACTIONS AMONG THE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Circulatory and excretory interactions
    • Pathway of blood flow through the major vessels involved with urine formation within the kidney
    • Role of the kidney in blood cell formation due to the production of erythropoietin
    • Ascites due to congestive heart failure
  • Multiple system interactions
    • Respiratory and excretory systems interaction with the circulatory system to maintain stable blood pH
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A6 – Know the structure of membranes and how this relates to permeability.
    • VI. Biology – F2 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
    • VII. Chemistry – I2 – Understand properties of solutions.
    • VIII. Physics – F1 – Understand pressure in a fluid and its applications.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

Analyze

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Urinary system
    • Functions
      • Maintains homeostasis in the composition, pH, and volume of body fluids
      • Transport processes involved
        • Glomerular filtration
        • Tubular reabsorption
        • Tubular secretion
        • Micturition
    • Structures
      • Organs
        • Kidneys
          • Nephron
            • Renal corpuscle
            • Glomerulus
            • Bowman’s capsule
            • Renal tubule
          • Renal sinus
          • Renal pelvis
          • Renal medulla
          • Renal cortex
          • Renal capsule
        • Ureters
        • Urinary bladder
        • Urethra

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow. 6C/H3*
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.11D Examine characteristics of the aging process on body systems.

Note: The aging process affects all body systems. In order to develop student mastery of this concept, a few factors are specifically discussed in each of four body systems. In this unit, students are expected to examine characteristics of the aging process on the urinary system.

Examine

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AGING PROCESS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine the effects on each system caused by the age-related changes including;
    • Urinary system
      • Age-related change
        • Degenerative changes in kidneys
        • Kidney atrophy due to loss of glomeruli due to fewer functional nephrons
        • Renal tubules thicken
        • Loss of elasticity of ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
      • Effect on system
        • GFR declines
        • Reduced reabsorption of sodium, glucose, and other molecules
        • Slowed medication clearance
        • Incontinence
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – C1 – Recognize patterns of change.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 02/13/2018
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