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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 14: Respiratory System SUGGESTED DURATION : 11 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address the structure and function of the respiratory system. Students continue to evaluate the properties of transport systems and the factors that affect them. The analysis of environmental factors and their effects on body systems is expanded during this unit.

 

Streamlining Note

In Biology TEKS B.4A, students now compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity in addition to previous expectations. TEKS B.9B has been revised to include energy conversions moved from former TEKS B.4B. The former Biology TEKS B.11A, describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms, was removed during the streamlining process implemented in 2018-2019. Students continue to understand the concept of process regulation in animals in the context of TEKS B.10A and homeostasis at the cellular level is addressed in TEKS B.4B. 

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Biology
    • B.4 – The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
      • B.4A – Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity.
      • B.4B – Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules.
    • B.5 – The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation.
      • B.5B – Describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and environmental factors in cell differentiation.
    • B.6 – The student knows the mechanisms of genetics such as the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics. The student is expected to:
      • B.6E – Identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes.
    • B.9 – The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:
      • B.9B – Compare the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy, energy conversions, and matter.
    • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
      • B.10A – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.
      • B.10C – Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.
    • B.11 – The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance.                                                               

 

After this Unit

Students will continue to explore transport systems in the study of the urinary system.

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • The immune system functions to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within.
  • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.
  • Some allergic reactions are caused by the body's immune responses to usually harmless environmental substances. Sometimes the immune system may attack some of the body's own cells.
  • New medical techniques, efficient health care delivery systems, improved diet and sanitation, and a fuller understanding of the nature of health and disease give today's human beings a better chance of staying healthy than their ancestors had.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.
  • Toxic substances, some dietary habits, and some personal behavior may be bad for one's health. Some effects show up right away, others years later. Avoiding toxic substances, such as tobacco, and changing dietary habits increase the chance of living longer.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  •  How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The respiratory system consists of passages and structures that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells.

  • How do the respiratory zone and the conducting zone work together to maintain pulmonary ventilation?
  • What factors alter the properties of pressure, tension, and elasticity, and how can these effects on pulmonary ventilation be minimized?

Systems

  • Respiratory system

 

Classifications

  • Conducting zone
  • Respiratory zone

 

Properties

  • Elasticity / Tension
  • Compliance
  • Surface tension

 

Patterns

  • Respiratory volume adjustment

 

Models

  • Macroscopic structures
  • Microscopic structures

 

Constancy

  • Pulmonary ventilation

 

Change

  • Climate
  • Pollution
  • Pathogens
  • Carcinogens
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The respiratory system consists of passages and structures that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells.

  • How do the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the respiratory system work together to maintain efficient movement and exchange of respiratory gases?
  • In what ways does the respiratory system interact with other systems in the maintenance of pH homeostasis?
  • What factors alter the efficient movement and exchange of respiratory gases, and how can these effects be minimized?

Systems

  • Respiratory system
  • Transport systems

 

Properties

  • Biological
  • Chemical
  • Physical

 

Patterns

  • Bronchoconstriction
  • Bronchodilation
  • Respiratory acidosis
  • Respiratory alkalosis
  • Transport system interactions

 

Models

  • Macroscopic structures
  • Microscopic structures

 

Constancy

  • Dalton’s law
  • Henry’s law
  • Boyles’ law
  • pH homeostasis

 

Change

  • Environmental factors
  • Genetic factors
  • Disease factors
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that the respiratory system is only responsible for breathing rather than understanding the interaction of all the transport systems in the transport of respiratory gases for respiration and the maintenance of pH.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may have a limited understanding of the laws of physics involved in the flow of gases within the respiratory system.
  • Students may have a limited understanding of the relationship between cellular respiration and the respiratory system.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Alveolar surface tension forces – attraction of the moist alveolar walls to each other reducing the size of the alveoli
  • Alveoli – microscopic air sacs of the lungs
  • Atmospheric pressure – pressure due to the surrounding air environment
  • Bronchi – main respiratory passageways
  • Bronchoconstriction – reduction in diameter due to contraction of circular smooth muscles of the bronchi
  • Bronchodilation – increase in diameter due to the relaxation of circular smooth muscles of the bronchi
  • Conducting zone – all respiratory passageways not included in the respiratory zone
  • Goblet cells – cells responsible for the production of mucus in the upper respiratory tract
  • Intrapleural pressure – pressure within the intrapleural space (cavity)
  • Intrapulmonary pressure – pressure within the alveoli (alveolar pressure)
  • Lung compliance – the elasticity of the lungs; required for normal inspiration
  • Lung recoil – the ability of distended lung tissue to return to its resting state; required for normal expiration
  • Mucociliary escalator – defense mechanism involving ciliary action and the flow of mucus to rid the respiratory tract of particulate matter and pathogens
  • PCO2refers to partial pressure of carbon dioxide in a quantity of air
  • Pneumocytes – general term for cells in the respiratory system
  • PO2refers to the partial pressure of oxygen in a quantity of air
  • Pulmonary ventilation – inhalation and exhalation; moving air into and out of the lungs
  • Respiratory gas exchange – exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between blood and alveoli and between blood and tissues
  • Respiratory zone – actual site of gas exchange; consisting of alveoli, alveolar ducts, and respiratory bronchioles
  • Surfactant – substance that interferes with the alveolar surface tension forces

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Alveolar ducts
  • Bronchioles
  • Buffer system
  • Exhalation
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Hyperbaric
  • Inhalation
  • Larynx
  • Parietal pleura
  • Pharynx
  • Pressure
  • Tension
  • Trachea
  • Visceral pleura
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
AP.2 The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.2A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read, understand, and follow lab instructions independently
  • Know and follow classroom safety guidelines
  • Know location and proper use of safety equipment
    • Fire extinguisher
    • Safety shower
    • Eye wash
  • Wear appropriate personal protective equipment for each activity
    • Goggles
    • Aprons
    • Gloves
  • Handle all specimens based on their safety recommendations
  • Use lab equipment only as instructed
  • Analyze lab procedures and equipment in the physical lab setting, lab simulations, and field observations to determine their safe and unsafe practices
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – C2 – Understand and apply safe procedures in the laboratory and field, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety and safe handling of live or preserved organisms.
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B1 – Read technical and scientific articles to gain understanding of interpretations, apparatuses, techniques or procedures, and data.
AP.2B Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the proper use, conservation, and disposal of a variety of resources through the use of Safety Data Sheets and other sources of valid information
  • Limit the use of resources to the smallest amounts possible to conserve resources
  • Practice procedures to avoid waste due to the cross contamination of resources
  • Exhibit ethical behavior during the use and disposal of living or once living specimens during dissections and investigations
  • Exhibit the proper use and disposal of all biohazards encountered, including scalpel blades and dissection specimens
  • Analyze lab procedures and equipment in the physical lab setting, lab simulations, and field observations to determine their proper use, conservation of resources, and disposal
  • Identify recyclable materials
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
  • Project 2061: By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Human beings are part of the earth's ecosystems. Human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems. 5D/H3
AP.3 The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
AP.3E

Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Plan, Implement

COMPARATIVE AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Comparative investigations
    • Involve collecting data on different organisms / objects / features / events or collecting data under different conditions to make a comparison
    • The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable
    • A fair test can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined
      • A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same
  • Experimental investigations
    • Involve designing a fair test similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified
    • Variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship
    • Often called a controlled experiment
  • Plan investigations
    • Ask questions
    • Formulate hypotheses
    • Select appropriate equipment and technology
  • Implement investigations
    • Obtain data that can be used to support, reject, or modify the hypothesis
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
    • I. Nature of Science – B1 – Design and conduct scientific investigations in which hypotheses are formulated and tested.
    • I. Nature of Science – D2 – Use computer models, applications, and simulations.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
  • TEA: Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations–FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
AP.3F

Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.

Collect, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Qualitative – an observation that describes the physical appearance or observable changes in the investigation
  • Quantitative – a numerical measurement taken during an investigation
  • Organize data
    • Graphs
    • Tables
    • Charts
    • Diagrams
    • Lists 
    • Concept maps
    • Graphic organizers
    • Feedback loops
    • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Accuracy – the closeness of a measured value to a standard or known value
  • Precision – the closeness of two or more measurements to each other, independent of accuracy
  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Tools
    • Calculators (4 function or higher)
    • Spreadsheet software
    • Data collecting probes
    • Computers
    • Standard laboratory glassware
    • Microscopes
    • Various prepared slides
    • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
    • Timing devices
    • Dissection equipment
    • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures  
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – F1 – Select and use appropriate Standard International (SI) units and prefixes to express measurements for real world problems.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
AP.3G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Analyze, Evaluate, Make Inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Infer – to form an opinion, based on known facts or evidence, as to the outcome of a thought or conclusion
  • Predict – to declare or indicate in advance; foretell on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reasoning
  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations to analyze and manipulate data
    • Averaging
    • Percent change
    • Probabilities and ratios
    • Rate of change
    • Statistical analysis
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible examples of data usage may include:
      • Prediction of the possible outcome of the investigation using only related scientific evidence collected prior to the investigation
      • Proposed inference, based on researched facts and evidence, serving as the hypothesis of the investigation
      • Evaluation of the validity of scientific data sets
      • Relationships among data sets
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • I. Nature of Science – E2 – Use essential vocabulary of the discipline being studied.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A7 – Use calculators, spreadsheets, computers, etc. in data analysis.
AP.3H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA THROUGH METHODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conclusion – an explanation of results based on data collected
  • Communicate valid conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
    • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
    • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
    • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Draw conclusions based only on the data from the investigation
  • Demonstrate various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
AP.4 The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.4A In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Critique – a careful judgment to provide an opinion about the positive and negative aspects of something
  • Assess examples of scientific explanations and their usefulness to the field of medicine

Use

EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE, LOGICAL REASONING, AND EXPERIMENTAL AND OBSERVATIONAL TESTING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Empirical evidence – information acquired by observation or experimentation
  • Logical reasoning – the drawing of inferences or conclusions through the use of reason
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Analyze a patient's medical history or case study
      • Set up, conduct, and analyze a lab investigation
      • Analyze a patient's lab results
  • Observational testing – members of a sample are studied without trying to affect them
  • Experimental testing – people or things are randomly assigned to groups; treatment is applied to one of the groups, while the other group does not receive treatment
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Experimental and observational testing as applied to the scientific method
      • Experimental or observational testing aspects of anatomy labs
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence. 1B/H4*
AP.4E Evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events.

Evaluate

MODELS ACCORDING TO THEIR LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine and evaluate various biological models (including physical, mathematical, and conceptual)
  • Identify advantages and limitations in biological models
  • Possible examples of evaluating biological models may include:
    • Volume and pressure changes in the lungs and thoracic cage during pulmonary ventilation
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
AP.4F Research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.

Research, Describe

THE CONTRIBUTION OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contributions of various scientists to the field of anatomy and physiology

Research, Describe

THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Research on significant events in history of anatomy and physiology
  • Timeline of the significant events within a certain era
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories in science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
AP.6 The student differentiates the responses of the human body to internal and external forces. The student is expected to:
AP.6D

Analyze and describe the effects of pressure, movement, torque, tension, and elasticity on the human body.

Analyze, Describe

THE EFFECTS OF PRESSURE, TENSION, AND ELASTICITY ON THE HUMAN BODY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Pressure – force exerted by a solid, liquid, or gas
    • Effects of atmospheric pressure and alveolar pressure in the processes of inhalation and exhalation
  • Tension – pulling force
    • Effects of alveolar surface tension forces in infant respiratory distress syndrome
    • Effects of surfactant in the reduction of surface tension forces
  • Elasticity – ability of an object or material to resume its normal shape after being stretched or compressed
    • Effects of lung compliance and elastic recoil in inhalation and exhalation
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
    • VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
    • VIII. Physics – E2 – Understand the concept of torque.
AP.7 The student examines the body processes that maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:
AP.7A

Investigate and describe the integration of the chemical and physical processes, including equilibrium, temperature, pH balance, chemical reactions, passive transport, active transport, and biofeedback, that contribute to homeostasis.

Note: This standard spans many of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to describe the physical and chemical processes required to maintain homeostasis of pH through mechanisms of the respiratory system.

THE INTEGRATION OF THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HOMEOSTASIS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Coordination of multiple body processes is required for homeostatic regulation of all the body’s diverse activities
  • Homeostatic maintenance of pH (conceptual level – no calculations)
    • Chemical buffer systems
      • First line of defense against pH shift
      • Bicarbonate buffer system (carbonic acid / bicarbonate ion) in the stabilization of pH in extracellular fluids (ECF) of blood and digestive fluids
    • Physiological buffer systems
      • Second line of defense against pH shift
      • Respiratory mechanisms to regulate bicarbonate buffer system
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
    • VIII. Physics – E3 – Apply the concept of static equilibrium.
AP.9 The student explores the body's transport systems. The student is expected to:
AP.9A

Analyze the physical, chemical, and biological properties of transport systems, including circulatory, respiratory, and excretory.

Analyze

THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Respiratory system
    • Physical properties
      • Transport system structures
        • Conducting zone
          • Nose
          • Nasal cavity
          • Sinuses
          • Pharynx
          • Larynx
          • Trachea
          • Bronchi
          • Bronchioles
        • Respiratory zone
          • Respiratory bronchioles
          • Alveolar ducts
          • Alveolar sacs
          • Alveoli
      • Transport mechanisms
        • Inhalation
        • Exhalation
        • Bronchoconstriction
        • Bronchodilation
    • Chemical properties
      • Materials being transported
        • Oxygen
        • Carbon dioxide
        • Role in bicarbonate buffer system
      • Transport medium
        • Water
        • Surfactant
        • Gas exchange
    • Biological properties
      • Structures
        • Mucous membranes
          • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar tissue
            • Cilia – movement of contaminants away from lung tissue
            • Goblet cells – mucus production to trap dust, etc.
        • Type II pneumocytes
      • Processes
        • Mucociliary escalator – maintenance of uncontaminated exchange surfaces
        • Surfactant production
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A6 – Know the structure of membranes and how this relates to permeability.
    • VI. Biology – F2 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
    • VII. Chemistry – I2 – Understand properties of solutions.
    • VIII. Physics – F1 – Understand pressure in a fluid and its applications.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.9B Determine the factors that alter the normal functions of transport systems.

Determine

THE FACTORS THAT ALTER THE NORMAL FUNCTIONS OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Environment
    • Altitude – affects air pressure leading to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and decompression sickness
    • Pollutants – affect multiple transport functions dependent on type of pollutant
  • Disease conditions
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) – affects gas exchanges of oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • Genetic factors
    • Cystic fibrosis – affects mucus secretion in lungs
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A6 – Know the structure of membranes and how this relates to permeability.
    • VI. Biology – F2 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
    • VII. Chemistry – I2 – Understand properties of solutions.
    • VIII. Physics – F1 – Understand pressure in a fluid and its applications.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.9C Contrast the interactions among the transport systems.

Contrast

THE INTERACTIONS AMONG THE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Circulatory and respiratory interactions
    • Oxygen and carbon dioxide content of the blood regulating the process of hematopoiesis
    • Role of gas exchange in maintaining pH balance (acidosis / alkalosis)
  • Multiple system interactions
    • Respiratory and excretory systems interaction with the circulatory system to maintain stable blood pH
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A6 – Know the structure of membranes and how this relates to permeability.
    • VI. Biology – F2 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
    • VII. Chemistry – I2 – Understand properties of solutions.
    • VIII. Physics – F1 – Understand pressure in a fluid and its applications.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.10 The student investigates environmental factors that affect the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.10A

Identify the effects of environmental factors such as climate, pollution, radioactivity, chemicals, electromagnetic fields, pathogens, carcinogens, and drugs on body systems.

Note: There are many environmental factors capable of affecting multiple body systems. In order to aid student mastery of this concept, a few factors are specifically discussed in each of five body systems.

Identify

THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Climate
    • Respiratory system
      • Causes high altitude sickness
      • Causes decompression sickness
  • Pollution
    • Respiratory system
      • Causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (COPD) including asthma, bronchitis, emphysema
  • Pathogens
    • Respiratory system
      • Pathogens causing infections such as pneumonia
  • Carcinogens
    • Respiratory system
      • Carcinogens causing lung cancers
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Some drugs mimic or block the molecules involved in communication between cells and therefore affect operations of the brain and body. 6C/H5** (BSL)
AP.10B Explore measures to minimize harmful environmental factors on body systems.

Note: There are many environmental factors capable of affecting multiple body systems. In order to aid student mastery of this concept, a few measures of protection are specifically discussed in each of five body systems.

Explore

MEASURES TO MINIMIZE HARMFUL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Climate
    • Respiratory system
      • Monitor effects of high altitude
      • Scuba certification and safe practices when underwater
  • Pollution
    • Respiratory system
      • Use of air quality monitoring
      • Use of personal protective equipment such as filters or masks
  • Pathogens
    • Respiratory system
      • Use of air quality monitoring and personal protective equipment such as filters or masks
  • Carcinogens
    • Respiratory system
      • Use of smoking cessation methods 
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should understand:
    • Some allergic reactions are caused by the body's immune responses to usually harmless environmental substances. Sometimes the immune system may attack some of the body's own cells. 6E/H1
    • New medical techniques, efficient health care delivery systems, improved diet and sanitation, and a fuller understanding of the nature of health and disease give today's human beings a better chance of staying healthy than their ancestors had. 6E/H3a*
    • Toxic substances, some dietary habits, and some personal behavior may be bad for one's health. Some effects show up right away, others years later. Avoiding toxic substances, such as tobacco, and changing dietary habits increase the chance of living longer. 6E/M2
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to analyze the structure and function of the respiratory system.

Analyze

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Respiratory system
    • Function – exchange of respiratory gases involved in the process of cellular respiration
      • Processes involved
        • Pulmonary ventilation
          • Inspiration
          • Expiration
        • Respiratory gas exchange
          • External respiration
          • Internal respiration
        • Respiratory gas transport
      • Other factors involved
        • Pressure differences
          • Role of diaphragm and accessory muscles
          • Inverse relationship of pressure and volume (Boyle’s law)
        • Role of surfactant
        • Tissue elasticity
        • Respiratory volumes and capacities
        • Measure of PO2 and PCO2
    • Structures
      • Conduction zone
        • Nose
        • Nasal cavity
        • Sinuses
        • Pharynx
        • Larynx
        • Trachea
        • Lungs
        • Bronchi
        • Bronchioles
      • Respiratory zone
        • Respiratory bronchioles
        • Alveolar ducts
        • Alveolar sacs
        • Alveoli
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The immune system functions to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within. 6C/H1*
    • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow. 6C/H3*
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 02/11/2019
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