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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 09: Introduction to Sensory Function SUGGESTED DURATION : 4 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address the structures and functions of the nervous system responsible for the sensory functions of equilibrium and sight.

 

Streamlining Note

The former Biology TEKS B.5B was removed, meaning students enrolled in Biology in 2018-2019 and beyond will no longer examine specialized cells.

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Biology
    • B.4 – The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
      • B.4A – Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity.
      • B.4B – Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules.
    • B.5 – The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation.
    • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
      • B.10A – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.
      • B.10C – Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.    
    • B.11 – The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance.                                                                

 

After this Unit

Students will use information gained in this unit to deepen their understanding of the principle of complementarity of structure and function.

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.
  • The successful operation of a designed system often involves feedback. Such feedback can be used to encourage what is going on in a system, discourage it, or reduce its discrepancy from some desired value. The stability of a system can be greater when it includes appropriate feedback mechanisms.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
    • I. Nature of Science – B1 – Design and conduct scientific investigations in which hypotheses are formulated and tested.
    • I.  Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas College and Career Readiness Standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Both general senses and special senses use receptors to initiate impulses to the central nervous system based on internal and external environmental changes.

  • How do the structures of the eye work together to provide the sense of sight?
  • What is the relationship between aging and presbyopia?

 

Special senses consist of sensory receptors that are part of a complex sensory organ.

  • In what ways are the special senses of dynamic and static equilibrium and vision interrelated?

Body system

  • Nervous system

 

Classifications

  • General senses
  • Special senses

 

Properties

  • Vision

 

Patterns

  • Transmission of light
  • Regulation of light

 

Models

  • Eye structure

 

Change

  • Glaucoma
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Both general senses and special senses use receptors to initiate impulses to the central nervous system based on internal and external environmental changes.

  • How do the structures of the ear work together to provide the property of equilibrium?

 

Special senses consist of sensory receptors that are part of a complex sensory organ.

  • In what ways are the special senses of dynamic and static equilibrium and vision interrelated?
  • How are vertigo and motion sickness triggered by homeostatic imbalances in dynamic and static equilibrium?

Body system

  • Nervous system

 

Classifications

  • General senses
  • Special senses

 

Properties

  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Equilibrium

 

Patterns

  • Static equilibrium
  • Dynamic equilibrium

 

Models

  • Ear structure

 

Constancy

  • Negative feedback mechanisms

 

Change

  • Vertigo
  • Motion sickness
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think of the ear as only an organ of hearing, rather than understanding its role in maintaining the body’s equilibrium.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may have limited understanding of the complexity of the eye required for vision.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Accommodation – changes in eye structures to focus on close objects
  • Cochlea – responsible for hearing
  • Dynamic equilibrium – detection of motion to aid in maintaining balance
  • External ear – structures that face the outside to direct sound waves inward, including the auricle, external acoustic meatus, and tympanic membrane
  • Glaucoma – disease process causing an increase in the eye’s intraocular pressure
  • Inner ear – fluid filled space within the temporal bone containing the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth
  • Middle ear – air filled space within temporal bone containing the auditory ossicles which increase the force of sound vibrations
  • Presbyopia – reduced accommodation of the lens due to the aging process
  • Refractory structures – structures of the eye that bend light waves to focus on retina; include cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
  • Saccule – structure responsible for detection of vertical movement
  • Semicircular canals – responsible for equilibrium
  • Specialized sensory organs – complex, specialized organs confined to the structures within the head, such as ears, eyes, taste buds, and olfactory organs
  • Static equilibrium – detection of motionless head position to aid in maintaining stability and posture
  • Stereoscopic vision – binocular vision necessary to perceive distance, depth, height, and width of object simultaneously
  • Utricle – structure responsible for detection of horizontal movement
     

Related Vocabulary:

  • Ampullae
  • Auditory ossicles
  • Auricle
  • Choroid
  • Ciliary body
  • Conjunctiva
  • Contractility
  • Crista ampullaris
  • Endolymph
  • Eustachian tube
  • Fovea centralis
  • Iris
  • Lacrimal apparatus
  • Macula
  • Optic disc
  • Pupil
  • Retina
  • Sclera
  • Tympanic membrane
  • Vertigo
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
AP.3 The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
AP.3E

Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Plan, Implement

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Experimental investigations
    • Involve designing a fair test similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified
    • Variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship
    • Often called a controlled experiment
  • Plan investigations
    • Ask questions
    • Formulate hypotheses
    • Select appropriate equipment and technology
  • Implement investigations
    • Obtain data that can be used to support, reject, or modify the hypothesis

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
    • I. Nature of Science – B1 – Design and conduct scientific investigations in which hypotheses are formulated and tested.
    • I. Nature of Science – D2 – Use computer models, applications, and simulations.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
  • TEA:
AP.6 The student differentiates the responses of the human body to internal and external forces. The student is expected to:
AP.6C

Interpret normal and abnormal contractility conditions such as in edema, glaucoma, aneurysms, and hemorrhage.

Interpret

NORMAL AND ABNORMAL CONTRACTILITY CONDITIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contractility
    • Ability of muscle cells to forcefully shorten
    • Gives muscle the ability to cause movement
  • Normal contractility
    • Presbyopia
      • Factors determining the normal elasticity of the lens of the eye change during the aging process
  • Abnormal contractility
    • Glaucoma
      • Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) that leads to optical nerve damage
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
AP.7 The student examines the body processes that maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:
AP.7A

Investigate and describe the integration of the chemical and physical processes, including equilibrium, temperature, pH balance, chemical reactions, passive transport, active transport, and biofeedback, that contribute to homeostasis.

Note: This standard spans many of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to describe the physical and chemical processes required to maintain homeostasis of sensory functions. Students will investigate the senses of sight and of equilibrium in this unit.

Investigate, Describe

THE INTEGRATION OF THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HOMEOSTASIS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Coordination of multiple body processes is required for homeostatic regulation of all the body’s diverse activities
  • Homeostatic maintenance of equilibrium
    • Static equilibrium – senses the position of the head to maintain stability and posture when the head and body are still
      • Structures
        • Vestibule
          • Utricle – horizontal movement detection
            • Macula
            • Endolymph
          • Saccule – vertical movement detection
            • Macula
            • Endolymph
      • Methods of investigation
        • Romberg test
    • Dynamic equilibrium – detects motion when head and body suddenly move or rotate and aids in maintaining balance
      • Structures
        • Semicircular canal
          • Ampullae
          • Crista ampullaris
      • Methods of investigation
        • Barany test
    • Role of vision in the maintenance of equilibrium
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
    • VIII. Physics – E3 – Apply the concept of static equilibrium.
AP.7B Determine the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis.

Note: This standard spans many of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to determine the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis of the senses of sight and of equilibrium in this unit.

Determine

THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE FAILURE TO MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS

Including, but not limited to:

  • General consequences
    • Positive feedback mechanisms
      • Inherently unstable system
      • Can lead to a chain reaction that can be potentially damaging to life processes
    • Negative feedback mechanisms
      • Loss of efficiency can lead to a state of disorder
  • Examples to include
    • Equilibrium imbalance resulting in a loss of spatial and motion awareness causing
      • Dizziness
      • Vertigo
      • Motion sickness
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I.  Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
  • Project 2061: By the 12th grade, the student should understand that:
    • The successful operation of a designed system often involves feedback. Such feedback can be used to encourage what is going on in a system, discourage it, or reduce its discrepancy from some desired value. The stability of a system can be greater when it includes appropriate feedback mechanisms. 11A/H3*
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to analyze the structure and function of the nervous system organs involved in the senses of sight and equilibrium.

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Nervous system
    • Functions
      • Maintain homeostasis by sensing, integrating, and responding to stimuli
      • Reflexes
    • Special senses
      • Eye – structures and their functions
        • Conjunctiva
        • Lacrimal apparatus
        • Extrinsic eye muscles
        • Eye wall
          • Sclera – outer fibrous tunic
          • Choroid – middle vascular tunic
          • Retina – inner nervous tunic
        • Iris
        • Pupil
        • Ciliary body with suspensory ligaments
        • Fovea centralis
        • Optic disc
        • Refractory structures
          • Cornea
          • Aqueous humor
          • Lens
          • Vitreous humor
      • Ear – structures and their functions
        • Structures
          • External ear
            • Auricle
            • External acoustic meatus
            • Tympanic membrane
          • Middle ear
            • Auditory ossicles
            • Oval window
            • Auditory (Eustachian) tube
          • Inner ear
            • Cochlea – functions in hearing
            • Vestibule – functions in both equilibrium and hearing
            • Semicircular canals – functions in equilibrium
              • Static equilibrium
              • Dynamic equilibrium
    • Possible investigations on special senses
      • Stretch reflexes; types, function, reflex time
      • Reaction times
      • Aspects of two-point threshold of various regions of skin
      • Location and function of various taste receptors
      • Eye dissection and determination of location and function of major structures and their role in vision
      • Vision and hearing tests

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow. 6C/H3*
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 10/25/2018
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