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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 08: Divisions of the Nervous System SUGGESTED DURATION : 7 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address the divisions of the nervous system and their role in the integration and control of the human body systems. Students analyze the structures and functions of the central and peripheral nervous system divisions and the specialized mechanisms responsible for the protection of the brain and spinal cord. The application of electrical technologies in the evaluation and treatment of traumatic brain injuries is investigated.

Mastery of TEKS AP.11A continues during the analysis of the relationship of structure and function in the nervous system divisions. Students continue to demonstrate mastery of TEKS AP.11B by analyzing the effects of trauma on the central nervous system and of TEKS AP.8A and AP.8B by evaluating the application of external electricity sources.

 

Streamlining Note

Biology TEKS B.11A, describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms, was removed during the streamlining process implemented in 2018-2019. Students continue to understand the concept of process regulation in animals in the context of TEKS B.10A, and homeostasis at the cellular level is addressed in TEKS B.4B. The 2017-2018 TEKS B.5B was removed and students no longer examine specialized cells.

 

Prior Content Connections

Biology

  • B.4 – Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
    • B.4B – Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules.
  • B.5 – The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. The student is expected to:
    • B.5A – Describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms.
    • B.5B – Describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and environmental factors in cell differentiation.
  • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
    • B.10A – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.
    • B.10C – Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.
  • B.11 – The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance. The student is expected to:

 

After this Unit

Students will use information gained in this unit to further explain the nervous system’s role in the integration and control of multiple aspects of human body systems, including an introduction to sensory function.

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should understand:

  • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.

 

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas College and Career Readiness Standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Divisions of the nervous system allow for a division of labor in receiving, processing, and sending a wide variety of information.

  • How do the different divisions of the brain coordinate to perform a common function?
  • What are the benefits of having the regulation of body functions split between the different divisions of the nervous system?

 

Due to the importance of the central division of the nervous system, special protective mechanisms and structures exist.

  • Why is it crucial to protect the central nervous system?
  • In what ways do the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood brain barrier work together to protect the central nervous system?

 

Cranial nerves and spinal nerves provide communication lines from the CNS to all other body parts.

  • In what ways are reflexes used to determine the effectiveness of communication between body and brain?
  • How can technology involving external sources of electricity be utilized to diagnose and treat brain and spinal cord disorders?

Systems

  • Nervous system

 

Classifications

  • Central
  • Peripheral
  • Autonomic
  • Sympathetic
  • Parasympathetic

 

Properties

  • Sensory
  • Motor

 

Patterns

  • Voluntary
  • Involuntary
  • Incoming
  • Outgoing
  • Mixed 

 

Models

  • Brain
  • Spinal cord
  • Cranial nerves
  • Spinal nerves

 

Constancy

  • Reflex arc

 

Change

  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Spinal cord injury
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that reflexes are all preprogrammed, rather than understanding that some reflexes are learned.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may have limited understanding of the division of functions within the central nervous system.
  • Students may have limited understandings about traumatic brain injuries and their long term effects.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Autonomic – division of the nervous system responsible for involuntary activity of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
  • Central – control center – division of the nervous system, consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  • Cerebrospinal fluid – clear liquid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and provides mechanical and chemical protection
  • Choroid plexus – specialized capillaries, located in the ventricles, that produce cerebrospinal fluid
  • Meninges – protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
  • Motor – division of the nervous system that transmits outgoing information to muscles and glands
  • Parasympathetic – division of the nervous system that relaxes the body and slows or inhibits many high energy functions; often referred to the rest and digest system
  • Peripheral – communication lines between brain and body – division of the nervous system consisting of cranial and spinal nerves
  • Plexus – network of interlaced nerves
  • Reflex – automatic response to a stimulus
  • Sensory – division of the nervous system that transmits incoming information to the brain
  • Somatic – division of the nervous system responsible for voluntary activity of skeletal muscles
  • Sympathetic – division of the nervous system that prepares the body for intense physical activity and is often referred to as the fight or flight response system
  • Trauma – a physical or psychological injury
  • Ventricles – interconnected cavities in the brain that hold cerebrospinal fluid

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Arachnoid mater
  • Cranial nerves
  • Dura mater
  • Effector
  • Gyri
  • Interneuron
  • Motor neuron
  • Pia mater
  • Receptor
  • Sensory neuron
  • Spinal nerves
  • Sulci
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
AP.4 The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.4A In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Critique – a careful judgment to provide an opinion about the positive and negative aspects of something
  • Assess examples of scientific explanations and their usefulness to the field of medicine
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Analyze the use of herbal supplements in disease prevention and treatment
      • Evaluate the use of radiation in medical diagnostics and treatment

Use

EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE, LOGICAL REASONING, AND EXPERIMENTAL AND OBSERVATIONAL TESTING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Empirical evidence – information acquired by observation or experimentation
  • Logical reasoning – the drawing of inferences or conclusions through the use of reason
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Analyze a patient's medical history or case study
      • Set up, conduct, and analyze a lab investigation
      • Analyze a patient's lab results
  • Observational testing – members of a sample are studied without trying to affect them
  • Experimental testing – people or things are randomly assigned to groups; treatment is applied to one of the groups, while the other group does not receive treatment
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Double-blind study protocol
      • Patient medical history or case study analysis
      • Medical scenarios and their observational or experimental characteristics
      • Experimental and observational testing as applied to the scientific method
      • Experimental or observational testing aspects of anatomy labs
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence. 1B/H4*
AP.4B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as accredited scientific journals, institutions of higher learning, current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Extract, Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contrast of scientific information and non-scientific information
    • Scientific information refers to data gained through the scientific method using a sequence of logical steps to investigate, acquire, or expand our understanding. Scientific information can be reproduced and has been demonstrated to be consistent.
    • Non-scientific information refers to knowledge and truths about the world acquired by using techniques that do not follow the scientific method, such as traditions, personal experience, and intuition.
  • Extract scientific information from various sources
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Accredited scientific journal
      • Institution of higher learning
      • Current event
      • News report
      • Published journal articles
      • Marketing material
  • Communicate scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Video presenting findings from a scientific journal or published journal article to the public
      • Display critiquing only the scientific characteristics of two similar products gathered from marketing materials
  • Apply scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Scientific compared to non-scientific informational analysis of a situation 
      • Determination of necessary scientific information when making a decision
        • A patient being able to give informed consent
        • Better medication choice to take under certain conditions
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grades, students should know that:
    • The dissemination of scientific information is crucial to its progress. Some scientists present their findings and theories in papers that are delivered at meetings or published in scientific journals. Those papers enable scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and, of course, to stay abreast of scientific developments around the world. 1C/H12** (SFAA)
    • Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Acting in their areas of expertise, scientists can help people understand the likely causes of events and estimate their possible effects. 1C/H6ab 
AP.4D Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment.

Evaluate

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Importance of scientific articles in gaining an understanding of the impact of research
  • Recognition of the connection of scientific discoveries to technological innovations
  • Impact of scientific research and technology on ethical and legal practices
  • Impact of commonly held ethical beliefs on scientific research and vice versa
  • Understanding how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
  • Possible research topics may include:
    • Development of preventive, diagnostic, or treatment products
    • How vaccines prevent diseases in society
    • Transmission of diseases, such as AIDS and tuberculosis, and how to protect society from diseases
    • Technology that can improve quality of life for those living with paralysis or other disabilities
    • Use of stem cells, both fetal and adult

Evaluate

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Recognition of how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Description of how scientific research has led to scientific discoveries
AP.7 The student examines the body processes that maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:
AP.7B Determine the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis.

Determine

THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE FAILURE TO MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS

Including, but not limited to:

  • General consequences
    • Positive feedback mechanisms
      • Inherently unstable system
      • Can lead to a chain reaction that can be potentially damaging to life processes
    • Negative feedback mechanisms
      • Loss of efficiency can lead to a state of disorder
  • Examples to include
    • Equilibrium imbalance resulting in a loss of spatial and motion awareness causing
      • Dizziness
      • Vertigo
      • Motion sickness
    • Blood glucose imbalance resulting in hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia causing
      • Diabetic retinopathy
      • Neuropathy
      • Nephropathy
    • Temperature imbalance resulting in hypothermia and hyperthermia causing
      • Compromised cardiac function
      • Enzymatic destruction due to protein denaturation
    • pH imbalance resulting in acidosis and alkalosis causing
      • Reduced blood flow and oxygenation of the brain and body tissues
      • Enzymatic destruction due to protein denaturation
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I.  Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
  • Project 2061: By the 12th grade, the student should understand that:
    • The successful operation of a designed system often involves feedback. Such feedback can be used to encourage what is going on in a system, discourage it, or reduce its discrepancy from some desired value. The stability of a system can be greater when it includes appropriate feedback mechanisms. 11A/H3*
AP.8 The student examines the electrical conduction processes and interactions. The student is expected to:
AP.8B Investigate the therapeutic uses and effects of external sources of electricity on the body system.

Note: Students continue to investigate the uses and effects of external energy sources and their therapeutic applications. This investigation will continue in the study of the cardiovascular system.

Investigate

THE THERAPEUTIC USES AND EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY ON THE BODY SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Nervous system
    • Deep brain stimulation
    • Electromyography
    • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – I8 – Relate electricity and magnetism to everyday life.
AP.8C

Evaluate the application of advanced technologies such as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, bionics, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and cardioversion.

Note: Students continue evaluate the applications of advanced technologies. This investigation will continue in the study of the cardiovascular system.

Evaluate

THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Electroencephalogram
    • A graphical representation of the electrical activity of the brain in evaluating the function of the nervous system
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should understand:
    • Technological problems and advances often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, and new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in new ways or to undertake entirely new lines of research. The very availability of new technology itself often sparks scientific advances. 3A/H1*
AP.9 The student explores the body's transport systems. The student is expected to:
AP.9B Determine the factors that alter the normal functions of transport systems.

Determine

THE FACTORS THAT ALTER THE NORMAL FUNCTIONS OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Stress induced cortisol release
    • Increase of sympathetic nervous system activities – affects cardiovascular function
    • Reduction of parasympathetic nervous system activities – affects immune response of white blood cells leading to increased infections
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A6 – Know the structure of membranes and how this relates to permeability.
    • VI. Biology – F2 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
    • VII. Chemistry – I2 – Understand properties of solutions.
    • VIII. Physics – F1 – Understand pressure in a fluid and its applications.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to analyze the structure and function of the nervous system at the organ and systemic levels.

Analyze

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Nervous system
    • Functions
      • Maintain homeostasis by sensing, integrating, and responding to stimuli
      • Reflexes
    • Structures
    • Central nervous system
      • Major organs – location and function
        • Brain
          • Cerebrum
            • Cerebral cortex (gray matter)
            • Corpus callosum (white matter)
          • Diencephalon
            • Epithalamus – region consisting of pineal gland & roof of 3rd ventricle including the choroid plexus
            • Thalamus
            • Hypothalamus
          • Brainstem
            • Pons
            • Midbrain
            • Medulla oblongata
          • Cerebellum
        • Spinal cord
          • Reflex arc – functions and pathway
            • Receptor
            • Sensory neuron
            • Interneuron
            • Motor neuron
            • Effector
      • Other structures
        • Cerebrospinal fluid
          • Function
          • Circulation pattern
    • Peripheral nervous system
      • Structures
        • Nerves – overview of structure and function
          • Cranial nerves
          • Spinal nerves
      • Divisions
        • Sensory division
        • Motor divison
          • Somatic division
          • Autonomic division
            • Sympathetic division
            • Parasympathetic division
        • Nerve plexuses – general location and importance
          • Cervical plexus
          • Brachial plexus
          • Lumbar plexus
          • Sacral plexus

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The immune system functions to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within. 6C/H1*
    • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow. 6C/H3*
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.11B

Evaluate the cause and effect of disease, trauma, and congenital defects on the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and systems.

Note: This standard spans many of the units of this course. In this unit, students evaluate the cause and effect of trauma on the human body through the study of two example traumas that affect the nervous system. Students should also understand that, while the cause and effects of these processes begin at the cellular and tissue levels of organization, they affect the entire organism.

Evaluate

THE CAUSE AND EFFECT OF TRAUMA ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS, AND SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Trauma – a physical or psychological injury
  • Relationship between the type of trauma (cause) and the signs and symptoms (effects) of a trauma at the applicable level(s) of structural hierarchy
  • Included examples
    • Traumatic brain injuries
    • Spinal cord injuries
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 11/29/2018
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