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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 07: Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System SUGGESTED DURATION : 6 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address the nervous system and serve as a starting point for understanding the integration and control of the human body systems. Students apply their knowledge of cellular specialization and differentiation by analyzing the relationships between the structure and function of the various nervous system cells. Students illustrate and examine the electrical conduction process involved in the transmission of a neuron impulse and then, identify the effects of substances on the process of neurotransmission, as well as how to minimize harmful effects. Students examine the effects of aging on the structure and function of the nervous system.

Mastery of TEKS AP.11A continues as students analyze the relationship of structure and function at the cellular level in the nervous system. Students revisit TEKS AP.10A and AP.10B with continued mastery of environmental factors and body effects and AP.11D with the aging process.

 

Streamlining Note

Biology TEKS B.5B, examine specialized cells including animal cells such as blood, muscle, and epithelium, was removed during the streamlining process implemented in 2018-2019. Students continue to understand the concept of cell differentiation and specialization in the context of new TEKS B.5B.

Biology TEKS B.11A, describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis, was also removed. Students continue to understand homeostasis in the context of new Biology TEKS B.4B and B.11A.

 

Prior Content Connections

  • B.4 – The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
    • B.4B – Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules.
  • B.5 – The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. The student is expected to: 
    • B.5B – Describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and environmental factors in cell differentiation. 
  • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
    • B.10A – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.

 

After this Unit

Students will use information gained in this unit to reinforce the nervous system’s role in the integration and control of multiple aspects of human body systems; along with, the division of labor within the nervous system organs.

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.
  • Some drugs mimic or block the molecules involved in communication between cells and therefore affect operations of the brain and body.
  • Some allergic reactions are caused by the body's immune responses to usually harmless environmental substances. Sometimes the immune system may attack some of the body's own cells.
  • New medical techniques, efficient health care delivery systems, improved diet and sanitation, and a fuller understanding of the nature of health and disease give today's human beings a better chance of staying healthy than their ancestors had.
  • Toxic substances, some dietary habits, and some personal behavior may be bad for one's health. Some effects show up right away, others years later. Avoiding toxic substances, such as tobacco, and changing dietary habits increase the chance of living longer.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.

 

  • TxCCRS
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – C1 – Recognize patterns of change
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas College and Career Readiness Standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The nervous system is responsible for sensing, integrating, and responding to stimuli in order to maintain homeostasis.

  • How is the interdependence of nervous system functions crucial to maintenance of homeostasis?
  • How do the properties of irritability and conductivity allow the nervous system to function?
  • How does aging affect the nervous system and how can these effects be minimized?

 

Neural cells communicate through membrane potentials and synaptic transmissions, allowing for signal initiation and regulation.

  • How is cell membrane potential important in generating an action potential?
  • What is the importance of the synaptic cleft?
  • What sequence of events takes place at the synapse to initiate and regulate signal transmission?

 

Environmental factors can cause neurological malfunctions.

  • In what ways do drugs and other chemicals interfere with neurological function?
  • How can the effects of these toxic substances on nervous system function be minimized?

Systems

  • Nervous system

 

Classifications

  • Neurons
  • Neuroglia

 

Properties

  • Irritability
  • Conductivity

 

Patterns

  • Cellular communication

 

Models

  • Neuron structure
  • Synaptic cleft structure

 

Constancy

  • Membrane potential transmission
  • Synaptic transmission

 

Change

  • Regulation of neural signaling
  • Effect of drugs on neural signaling
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think neurotransmitters only cause the initiation of process, rather than understanding that the release of a neurotransmitter can initiate or inhibit processes.
  • Students may think that neurons and nerves refer to the same structure, rather than understanding that neurons are the cells while nerves are the organs in the nervous system.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may not realize the importance of the enzymatic breakdown or re-uptake in controlling the process of neurotransmission.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Axon – longer process that carries the information away from the cell in the form of a bioelectric signal (impulse)
  • Axon terminal – the end of a neuron that make synaptic connections with another nerve cell or with an effector cell (e.g. muscle cell or gland cell) through the use of neurotransmitter release
  • Conductivity – ability to transmit an impulse from one structure to the next
  • Dendrites – small cellular processes that receive input
  • Enzymatic breakdown (degradation) – process in which an enzyme binds to the neurotransmitter and breaks it apart so that the neurotransmitter can no longer fit into a receptor on the receiving cell
  • Irritability – ability to respond to a stimuli and to convert it into an impulse
  • Lipofuscin – any of several brown pigments similar to melanin that accumulate in animal cells with age and are products of oxidation of lipids and lipoproteins
  • Myelin – lipid material that forms a sheath like covering around some axons
  • Neuroglia – specialized cells of the nervous system that produce myelin, maintain the ionic environment, provide growth factors that support neurons, provide structural support, and play a role in cell to cell communication
  • Neurons – conducting nerve cells
  • Neurotransmitter – chemical that an axon secretes, into a synaptic cleft, that stimulates or inhibits an effector or other neuron
  • Nociceptor – a sensory receptor that sends signals that cause the perception of pain in response to potentially damaging stimulus
  • Reuptake – process in which a neurotransmitter is taken back up into the axon terminal that released itso that the neurotransmitter is no longer available to fill the receptor on the receiving cell
  • Saltatory conduction – rapid impulse conduction, along a myelinated axon, that transmits from one node to the next

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Action potential (aka. Nerve impulse)
  • Axon hillock
  • Cell body
  • Chemoreceptor
  • Enzyme
  • Mechanoreceptor
  • Neurilemma
  • Node of Ranvier
  • Oligodendrocyte
  • Photoreceptor
  • Postsynaptic membrane
  • Presynaptic membrane
  • Receptor
  • Saltatory conduction
  • Schwann cell
  • Synapse
  • Synaptic cleft
  • Synaptic knob
  • Thermoreceptor
  • Vesicle
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
AP.3G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Analyze, Evaluate, Make Inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Infer – to form an opinion, based on known facts or evidence, as to the outcome of a thought or conclusion
  • Predict – to declare or indicate in advance; foretell on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reasoning
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible examples of data usage may include:
      • Prediction of the possible outcome of the investigation using only related scientific evidence collected prior to the investigation
      • Proposed inference, based on researched facts and evidence, serving as the hypothesis of the investigation
      • Evaluation of the validity of scientific data sets
      • Relationships among data sets
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • I. Nature of Science – E2 – Use essential vocabulary of the discipline being studied.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A7 – Use calculators, spreadsheets, computers, etc. in data analysis.
AP.3H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA THROUGH METHODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conclusion – an explanation of results based on data collected
  • Communicate valid conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
    • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
    • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
    • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Draw conclusions based only on the data from the investigation
  • Demonstrate various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
AP.4 The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.4A

In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Critique – a careful judgment to provide an opinion about the positive and negative aspects of something
  • Assess examples of scientific explanations and their usefulness to the field of medicine

Use

EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE, LOGICAL REASONING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Empirical evidence – information acquired by observation or experimentation
  • Logical reasoning – the drawing of inferences or conclusions through the use of reason
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Analyze a patient's medical history or case study
      • Set up, conduct, and analyze a lab investigation
      • Analyze a patient's lab results
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence. 1B/H4*
AP.4B

Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as accredited scientific journals, institutions of higher learning, current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Extract, Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contrast of scientific information and non-scientific information
    • Scientific information refers to data gained through the scientific method using a sequence of logical steps to investigate, acquire, or expand our understanding. Scientific information can be reproduced and has been demonstrated to be consistent.
    • Non-scientific information refers to knowledge and truths about the world acquired by using techniques that do not follow the scientific method, such as traditions, personal experience, and intuition
  • Extract scientific information from various sources
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Accredited scientific journal
      • Institution of higher learning
      • Published journal articles
  • Communicate scientific information
  • Apply scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Determination of necessary scientific information when making a decision
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grades, students should know that:
    • The dissemination of scientific information is crucial to its progress. Some scientists present their findings and theories in papers that are delivered at meetings or published in scientific journals. Those papers enable scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and, of course, to stay abreast of scientific developments around the world. 1C/H12** (SFAA)
    • Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Acting in their areas of expertise, scientists can help people understand the likely causes of events and estimate their possible effects. 1C/H6ab 
AP.8 The student examines the electrical conduction processes and interactions. The student is expected to:
AP.8A

Illustrate conduction systems such as nerve transmission or muscle stimulation.

Illustrate

CONDUCTION SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Nerve impulse
    • Processes
      • Generation of action potential
      • Pathway through neuron
      • Synaptic transmission
        • Neurotransmitter involvement
        • Effects of myelination
      • Neutralization of stimulation
        • Reuptake
        • Enzymatic breakdown
    • Structures
      • Multipolar neuron
        • Dendrites
        • Cell body
        • Axon hillock
        • Axon
        • Axon terminal
          • Synaptic knob of axon terminal
      • Synapse
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – E6 – Understand chemical kinetics.
    • VIII. Physics – I8 – Relate electricity and magnetism to everyday life.
AP.10 The student investigates environmental factors that affect the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.10A

Identify the effects of environmental factors such as climate, pollution, radioactivity, chemicals, electromagnetic fields, pathogens, carcinogens, and drugs on body systems.

Note: There are many environmental factors capable of affecting multiple body systems. In order to aid student mastery of this concept, a few factors are specifically discussed in each of five body systems. In this unit, students identify the effects of chemicals and drugs on the nervous system.

Identify

THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Chemicals and drugs
    • Nervous system
      • Substances, such as alcohol and opiates, causing neurological malfunctions
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Some drugs mimic or block the molecules involved in communication between cells and therefore affect operations of the brain and body. 6C/H5** (BSL)
AP.10B Explore measures to minimize harmful environmental factors on body systems.

Note: There are many environmental factors capable of affecting multiple body systems. In order to aid student mastery of this concept, a few measures of protection are specifically discussed in each of five body systems. In this unit, students explore measures to minimize the harmful effects of chemicals and drugs on the nervous system.

Explore

MEASURES TO MINIMIZE HARMFUL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Chemicals and drugs
    • Nervous system
      • Avoidance of toxic substances

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should understand:
    • Toxic substances, some dietary habits, and some personal behavior may be bad for one's health. Some effects show up right away, others years later. Avoiding toxic substances, such as tobacco, and changing dietary habits increase the chance of living longer. 6E/M2
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to analyze the structure and function of the nervous system at the cellular and tissue levels.

Analyze

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Nervous system
    • Functions
      • Maintain homeostasis by sensing, integrating, and responding to stimuli
      • Reflexes
    • Structures
      • Cells
        • Neuron – can conduct, cannot replicate
          • Dendrites
            • Sensory receptors (on sensory neutrons)
              • Classifications by stimulus
                • Mechanoreceptors
                • Photoreceptors
                • Thermoreceptors
                • Chemoreceptors
                • Nociceptors
          • Cell body
          • Axon hillock
          • Axon
          • Axon terminal
          • Synaptic knob of axon terminal
        • Neuroglial cells – can replicate, cannot conduct
          • Myelin production
          • Structural support
          • Communication
          • Environmental monitoring

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow. 6C/H3*
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.11D Examine characteristics of the aging process on body systems.

Note: The againg process affects all body systems. In order to aid student mastery of this concept, a few factors are specifically discussed in each of four body systems.

Examine

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AGING PROCESS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine the effects on each system caused by the age-related changes including;
    • Nervous system
      • Age-related chang
        • Degenerative changes in neurons
        • Loss of dendritic and synaptic connections
        • Accumulation of lipofuscin in neurons
      • Effects on system
        • Loss of balance
        • Insomnia
        • Increased risk of depression, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease
        • Fading memory
        • Slowed responses and reflexes
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – C1 – Recognize patterns of change.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 07/24/2018
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