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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 05: Joints of the Skeletal System SUGGESTED DURATION : 6 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles Student Expectations that address interactions of bones and muscles to allow movement of the human body.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • B.4 – The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
    • B.4B – Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules. 
  • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to: 
    • B.10C – Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system. 
  • B.11 – The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance. 

 

During this Unit

Students analyze joints both structurally and functionally by examining the features and motions of example joints. Students describe the effect of forces, such as torque, on the action of joints. Students continue evaluating the cause and effects of disease.

Mastery of TEKS AP.11A continues as students analyze the relationship of structure and function in the joints of the skeletal system. Students increase their understanding of TEKS AP.11B by evaluating the cause and effect of the disease process on the human body through the study of three joint diseases.

 

After this Unit

Students will use knowledge gained in this unit to analyze how proper joint function effects overall body position which impacts the correct functioning of other body systems.

 

Research

By the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.
  • Faulty genes can cause body parts or systems to work poorly. Some genetic diseases appear only when an individual has inherited a certain faulty gene from both parents.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php.

 

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
    • VI. Biology – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal condition.
    • VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
    • VIII. Physics – E2 – Understand the concept of torque.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas College and Career Readiness Standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validate?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

A joint is an interaction between two or more bones and the muscles attached to them.

  • What are the pros and cons to the human body due to the interaction of bones and muscles to form joints?

 

Joints are classified structurally according to the type of tissue binding bones together and the functionally by the amount of motion allowed.

  • What criteria are used to classify joints?
  • In what ways does the structural classification of a joint determine the amount of motion allowed by that joint?
  • In what ways does the disease processes of arthritis affect the structure and function of a joint?

 

Torque is a force that causes rotation and can have both positive and negative effects on bones and joints.

  • What circumstances can cause a torque force on a joint?
  • How can the rotation of a torque force have a positive effect on bones and joints?
  • Under what circumstances will the rotation of a torque force have a negative effect on bones and joints?

Systems

  • Skeletal system joints

 

Classifications

  • Fibrous
  • Cartilaginous
  • Synovial
  • Synarthroses
  • Amphiarthroses
  • Diarthroses

 

Properties

  • Range of motion
  • Strength
  • Torque

 

Patterns

  • Joint motion

 

Models

  • Joint structure
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that all joints work in the same manner, rather than understanding that joint types are specialized for different advantages in strength or range of motion.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may have a limited understanding of how bones interact within a joint.
  • Students may have a limited understanding of the causes and effects of different types of arthritis.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Amphiarthroses – slightly movable joints
  • Articulation – another term for joint
  • Bursae – double layered sac of synovial fluid to cushion and reduce friction
  • Cartilaginous joint – joint in which bones are connected by cartilage and with the absence of a joint capsule
  • Diarthroses – freely movable joints
  • Elasticity – ability of an object or material to resume its normal shape after being stretched or compresses
  • Fibrous joint – joint in which bones are  connected by fibrous connective tissue and with the absence of a joint capsule
  • Joint capsule – a double layered fibrous capsule enclosing the joint
  • Movement – the act, process, or result of changing the place or position of
  • Synovial joint – joint which contains a joint capsule
  • Synovial membrane – inner lining of joint capsule that produces synovial fluid
  • Synarthroses – immovable joints
  • Torque – twisting force that tends to cause rotation

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Bi-axial joint
  • Circumduction
  • Disease
  • Dorsiflexion
  • Extension
  • Flexion
  • Gomphosis
  • Hyperextension
  • Ligaments
  • Multiaxial joint
  • Plantar flexion
  • Pronation
  • Rotation
  • Supination
  • Suture
  • Symphysis
  • Synchondrosis
  • Syndesmosis
  • Tendons
  • Uni-axial joint
  • Wolf’s law
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

Show this message:

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
AP.4 The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.4A

In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Critique – a careful judgment to provide an opinion about the positive and negative aspects of something
  • Assess examples of scientific explanations and their usefulness to the field of medicine
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Analyze the use of herbal supplements in disease prevention and treatment
      • Evaluate the use of radiation in medical diagnostics and treatment

Use

EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE, LOGICAL REASONING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Empirical evidence – information acquired by observation or experimentation
  • Logical reasoning – the drawing of inferences or conclusions through the use of reason
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Analyze a patient's medical history or case study
      • Analyze a patient's lab results
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence. 1B/H4*
AP.4B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as accredited scientific journals, institutions of higher learning, current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Extract, Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Extract scientific information from various sources
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Accredited scientific journal
      • Institution of higher learning
      • Current event
      • News report
      • Published journal articles
      • Marketing material
  • Communicate scientific information
  • Apply scientific information
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grades, students should know that:
    • The dissemination of scientific information is crucial to its progress. Some scientists present their findings and theories in papers that are delivered at meetings or published in scientific journals. Those papers enable scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and, of course, to stay abreast of scientific developments around the world. 1C/H12** (SFAA)
    • Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Acting in their areas of expertise, scientists can help people understand the likely causes of events and estimate their possible effects. 1C/H6ab 
AP.6 The student differentiates the responses of the human body to internal and external forces. The student is expected to:
AP.6A

Explain the coordination of muscles, bones, and joints that allows movement of the body.

Explain

THE COORDINATION OF BONES AND JOINTS THAT ALLOWS MOVEMENT OF THE BODY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bones
    • Act as levers for muscular action
  • Joints
    • Classifications and functions
      • Fulcrum for the lever action
      • Fibrous joint
        • Structure – joined by fibrous tissue, no joint capsule
        • Functional classification – primarily synarthroses
        • Examples – suture, syndesmosis, gomphoses
      • Cartilaginous joint
        • Structure – joined by cartilaginous tissue, no joint capsule
        • Function classification – primarily amphiarthroses
        • Examples – synchondroses, symphyses
      • Synovial joint
        • Structure – has a joint capsule
        • Functional classification – diarthroses
        • Examples:
          • Non-axial joint – plane
          • Uni-axial joint – hinge, pivot
          • Bi-axial joints – condyloid, saddle
          • Multi-axial joints – ball, socket
        • Types of synovial joint movement
          • Flexion
          • Extension
          • Hyperextension
          • Dorsiflexion
          • Plantar flexion
          • Abduction
          • Adduction
          • Circumduction
          • Rotation
          • Supination
          • Pronation 

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
    • VIII. Physics – E1 – Understand rotational kinematics.
    • VIII. Physics – E2 – Understand the concept of torque.
    • VIII. Physics – E4 – Understand angular momentum.
AP.6D

Analyze and describe the effects of pressure, movement, torque, tension, and elasticity on the human body.

Analyze, Describe

THE EFFECTS OF MOVEMENT, TORQUE ON THE HUMAN BODY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Movement
    • The act, process, or result of changing the place or position of
    • Effects on pressure, torque, tension, and elasticity which affect body processes
  • Torque – twisting force that tends to cause rotation
    • Effects on action of ball and socket joints
    • Effects on action of pivot joints
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
    • VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
    • VIII. Physics – E2 – Understand the concept of torque.
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.



Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to analyze the structures and functions of the skeletal system and muscular system as they interact in a joint.

Analyze

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Skeletal system
    • Functions
      • Act as levers for the muscles to cause movement
    • Factors affecting growth, development, and repair
      • Physical exercise
        • Wolff’s law – bones grow according to the stresses placed upon them
    • Structures
      • Bones of the axial and appendicular skeletons
      • Bone marking features of the individual bones comprising the axial and appendicular skeletons
  • Muscular system
    • Functions
      • Movement of the human body
      • Organs
        • Superficial anterior and posterior skeletal muscles

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.11B

Evaluate the cause and effect of disease, trauma, and congenital defects on the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and systems.



Note: This standard spans many of the units of this course. In this unit, students evaluate the cause and effect of disease on the human body through the study of three example diseases that affect the joints of the skeletal system.
 Students should also understand that, while the cause and effects of these processes begin at the cellular and tissue levels of organization, they affect the entire organism. Specific examples of trauma and congenital defects will be evaluated in Unit 08 and Unit 16.

Evaluate

THE CAUSE AND EFFECT OF DISEASE ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS, AND SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Disease – a disorder of structure or function, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury
  • Relationship between the etiology (cause) and the signs and symptoms (effects) of a disease at the applicable level(s) of structural hierarchy
  • Included examples
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Lyme arthritis
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 09/10/2019
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