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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 03: Integumentary System SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the principle of complementarity of structure and function of the integumentary system.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • B.5 – Science concepts. The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. The student is expected to:
    • B.5C – Recognize that disruptions of the cell cycle lead to diseases such as cancer.
  • B.10 – Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
    • B.10A – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals.
    • B.10C – Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.

 

During this Unit

Students apply their knowledge of cells and tissues to describe the layers, accessory structures, and other features of the integumentary system and analyze how they perform their specialized functions. Effects of environmental factors and the aging process on the integumentary system are identified, explored, and examined.

 

The fundamental concepts found in TEKS AP.10AB and AP.11D are introduced in this unit and the understandings gained will assist in exploring all facets of these TEKS throughout the course.

 

After this Unit

Students continue to use the principle of complementarity throughout subsequent units and build upon their knowledge of cell and tissue specialization and the interdependence of human body systems.

 

Research

“By the 12th grade, the student should understand that:

  • Because science is a human activity, what is valued in society influences what is valued in science.
  • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.
  • New medical techniques, efficient health care delivery systems, improved diet and sanitation, and a fuller understanding of the nature of health and disease give today's human beings a better chance of staying healthy than their ancestors had.
  • Toxic substances, some dietary habits, and some personal behavior may be bad for one's health. Some effects show up right away, others years later. Avoiding toxic substances, such as tobacco, and changing dietary habits increase the chance of living longer.”

 

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.

 


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and/or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The integumentary system is composed of several types of tissues organized into distinct layers, each having specific functions determined by the tissue types and accessory structures contained within the layer.

  • How do the structures of the integumentary system exhibit the principle of complementarity of structure and function?
  • In what way are accessory structures (hair, nails, glands, and sensory receptors) crucial to maintaining homeostasis?

 

The integumentary system provides biological, chemical, and mechanical protection.

  • What specific structures are responsible for the protective functions of the integumentary system?
  • How might damage to integumentary system structures cause a lack of protection?
  • What ways might the integumentary system assist in maintaining homeostasis throughout one’s lifespan?

Systems

  • Integumentary system

 

Classifications

  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Accessory structures

 

Properties

  • Evaporation
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Radiation
  • Energy transfer

 

Patterns

  • Vasoconstriction
  • Vasodilation

 

Models

  • Skin layers

 

Constancy

  • Temperature homeostasis

 

Change

  • Hyperthermia
  • Hypothermia
  • Lifespan
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Damage to the integumentary system can be caused by several types of environmental factors. A variety of methods of prevention and treatment are available.

  • How do environmental factors cause skin cancers, and what are the effects on the integumentary system?
  • How could one prevent and treat damage to the integumentary system caused by environmental factors?

 

The integumentary system heals through a combination of two processes: regeneration and fibrosis.

  • What are the determining factors in the type of healing that occurs?
  • How does the type of healing that occurs ultimately affect the physiology of the body part?

Systems

  • Homeostasis

 

Classifications

  • Environmental factors

 

Properties

  • Regeneration
  • Fibrosis

 

Models

  • Skin cancers
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions

  • Students may think of skin as a stable unchanging structure, rather than understanding that it is a living organ with cyclical renewal patterns.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts

  • Students may have limited understanding or experience in distinguishing between the levels of structural hierarchy in a given body system.
  • Students may have limited understanding of body temperature regulation.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Angiogenesis – the formation of new blood vessels
  • Fibrosis – the formation of excessive fibrous tissue in wound repair
  • Granulation tissue – new growth tissue containing capillary buds and fibroblast
  • Hyperthermia – raised body temperature
  • Hypothermia – lowered body temperature
  • Keratin – tough, fibrous, waterproofing protein
  • Keratinization – process by which skin cells fill with keratin fibrils and harden
  • Keratinocytes – cells that produce keratin
  • Melanocytes – cells that produce melanin
  • Regeneration – replacement of the same tissue type in wound repair
  • Sebaceous glands – glands that produce sebum (oil)
  • Sudoriferous glands – glands that produce sweat
  • Vasoconstriction – decrease in diameter of a blood vessel
  • Vasodilation – increase in diameter of a blood vessel

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Allograft
  • Arterioles
  • Autograft
  • Capillaries
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Dermis
  • Epidermis
  • Evaporation
  • Hypodermis
  • Melanin
  • Radiation
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
AP.3E

Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Plan, Implement

COMPARATIVE, AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Comparative investigations
    • Involve collecting data on different organisms / objects / features / events or collecting data under different conditions to make a comparison
    • The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable
    • A fair test can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined
      • A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same
  • Experimental investigations
    • Involve designing a fair test similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified
    • Variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship
    • Often called a controlled experiment
  • Plan investigations
    • Ask questions
    • Formulate hypotheses
    • Select appropriate equipment and technology
  • Implement investigations
    • Obtain data that can be used to support, reject, or modify the hypothesis
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
    • I. Nature of Science – B1 – Design and conduct scientific investigations in which hypotheses are formulated and tested.
    • I. Nature of Science – D2 – Use computer models, applications, and simulations.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
  • TEA: Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations–FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
AP.3F

Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.

Collect, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Qualitative – an observation that describes the physical appearance or observable changes in the investigation
  • Quantitative – a numerical measurement taken during an investigation
  • Organize data
    • Graphs
    • Tables
    • Charts
    • Diagrams
    • Lists 
    • Concept maps
    • Graphic organizers
    • Feedback loops
    • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Accuracy – the closeness of a measured value to a standard or known value
  • Precision – the closeness of two or more measurements to each other, independent of accuracy
  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Tools
    • Data collecting probes
    • Computers
    • Microscopes
    • Various prepared slides
    • Stereoscopes
    • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
    • Timing devices
    • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures  
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – F1 – Select and use appropriate Standard International (SI) units and prefixes to express measurements for real world problems.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
AP.3G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Analyze, Evaluate, Make Inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Infer – to form an opinion, based on known facts or evidence, as to the outcome of a thought or conclusion
  • Predict – to declare or indicate in advance; foretell on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reasoning
  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations to analyze and manipulate data
    • Averaging
    • Percent change
    • Probabilities and ratios
    • Rate of change
    • Statistical analysis
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible examples of data usage may include:
      • Prediction of the possible outcome of the investigation using only related scientific evidence collected prior to the investigation
      • Proposed inference, based on researched facts and evidence, serving as the hypothesis of the investigation
      • Evaluation of the validity of scientific data sets
      • Relationships among data sets
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • I. Nature of Science – E2 – Use essential vocabulary of the discipline being studied.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A7 – Use calculators, spreadsheets, computers, etc. in data analysis.
AP.3H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA THROUGH METHODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conclusion – an explanation of results based on data collected
  • Communicate valid conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
    • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
    • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
    • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Draw conclusions based only on the data from the investigation
  • Demonstrate various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
AP.4 The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.4B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as accredited scientific journals, institutions of higher learning, current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Extract, Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contrast of scientific information and non-scientific information
    • Scientific information refers to data gained through the scientific method using a sequence of logical steps to investigate, acquire, or expand our understanding. Scientific information can be reproduced and has been demonstrated to be consistent.
    • Non-scientific information refers to knowledge and truths about the world acquired by using techniques that do not follow the scientific method, such as traditions, personal experience, and intuition.
  • Extract scientific information from various sources
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Accredited scientific journal
      • Institution of higher learning
      • Current event
      • News report
      • Published journal articles
      • Marketing material
  • Communicate scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Video presenting findings from a scientific journal or published journal article to the public
      • Display critiquing only the scientific characteristics of two similar products gathered from marketing materials
  • Apply scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Scientific compared to non-scientific informational analysis of a situation 
      • Determination of necessary scientific information when making a decision
        • A patient being able to give informed consent
        • Better medication choice to take under certain conditions
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grades, students should know that:
    • The dissemination of scientific information is crucial to its progress. Some scientists present their findings and theories in papers that are delivered at meetings or published in scientific journals. Those papers enable scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and, of course, to stay abreast of scientific developments around the world. 1C/H12** (SFAA)
    • Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Acting in their areas of expertise, scientists can help people understand the likely causes of events and estimate their possible effects. 1C/H6ab 
AP.4C Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.

Draw

INFERENCES BASED ON DATA RELATED TO PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish between promotional and non-promotional materials
    • Promotional material
      • Biased message
      • Example: an advertisement issued on behalf of some product or service, cause or idea, or person or institution
    • Non-promotional material 
      • Non-biased data
      • Example: focuses on the current state of understanding of certain diseases and is not related to specific products or services
  • Infer – deduce from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Type of data provided by promotional materials for products and services described in a variety of sources, such as print, on television, and on the Internet
      • Promotional material evaluation for quality, validity, and accuracy of information provided
      • Evaluation of completeness and reliability of information from promotional materials
      • Inference about the product or medical process based only on the information provided in the promotional materials
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – A1 – Use skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
AP.4D

Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment.

Evaluate

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Importance of scientific articles in gaining an understanding of the impact of research
  • Recognition of the connection of scientific discoveries to technological innovations
  • Impact of scientific research and technology on ethical and legal practices
  • Impact of commonly held ethical beliefs on scientific research and vice versa
  • Understanding how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
  • Possible research topics may include:
    • Development of preventive, diagnostic, or treatment products
    • Use of stem cells, both fetal and adult
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the 12th grade, students should understand:
    • Because science is a human activity, what is valued in society influences what is valued in science. 1C/H10** (SFAA)
    • The human ability to influence the course of history comes from its capacity for generating knowledge and developing new technologies—and for communicating ideas to others. 3C/H6** (BSL)
AP.4E Evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events.

Evaluate

MODELS ACCORDING TO THEIR LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine and evaluate various biological models (including physical, mathematical, and conceptual)
  • Identify advantages and limitations in biological models
  • Possible examples of evaluating biological models may include:
    • Effects of molecular structure on the function of the major biomolecules
    • Discrepancies between generalized cell model and differentiated cells
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
AP.4F Research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.

Research, Describe

THE CONTRIBUTION OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contributions of various scientists to the field of anatomy and physiology

Research, Describe

THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Research on significant events in history of anatomy and physiology
  • Timeline of the significant events within a certain era
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories in science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
AP.10 The student investigates environmental factors that affect the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.10A

Identify the effects of environmental factors such as climate, pollution, radioactivity, chemicals, electromagnetic fields, pathogens, carcinogens, and drugs on body systems.

 

Note: There are many environmental factors capable of affecting multiple body systems. In order to aid student mastery of this concept, a few factors are specifically discussed in each of five body systems.

THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Environmental hazards
    • Integumentary system
      • Exposure to fire or electricity causing thermal or electrical burns
  • Climate
    • Integumentary system
      • Causes dehydration through excessive sweating
  • Radioactivity
    • Integumentary system
      • Causes radiation burn (sunburn) and skin cancers
AP.10B Explore measures to minimize harmful environmental factors on body systems.

 

Note: There are many environmental factors capable of affecting multiple body systems. In order to aid student mastery of this concept, a few measures of protection are specifically discussed in each of five body systems.

Explore

MEASURES TO MINIMIZE HARMFUL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Environmental hazards
    • Integumentary system
      • Practice safety methods when working with fire or electricity
  • Climate
    • Integumentary system
      • Ensure proper hydration and monitor activity levels
  • Radioactivity
    • Integumentary system
      • Use of sunscreen and sun protective clothing
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should understand:
    • Some allergic reactions are caused by the body's immune responses to usually harmless environmental substances. Sometimes the immune system may attack some of the body's own cells. 6E/H1
    • New medical techniques, efficient health care delivery systems, improved diet and sanitation, and a fuller understanding of the nature of health and disease give today's human beings a better chance of staying healthy than their ancestors had. 6E/H3a*
    • Toxic substances, some dietary habits, and some personal behavior may be bad for one's health. Some effects show up right away, others years later. Avoiding toxic substances, such as tobacco, and changing dietary habits increase the chance of living longer. 6E/M2
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

 

Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to analyze the structure and function of the integumentary system.

Analyze

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Proper use of terms that describe body membranes
  • Membranes
    • Serous
      • Visceral
      • Parietal
      • Peritoneum
      • Pleurae
      • Pericardium
    • Cutaneous
    • Mucous
    • Synovial
  • Integumentary system
    • Functions
      • Protection of underlying structures
      • Regulation of water balance
      • Sensation
      • Production of vitamin D to induce calcium uptake
      • Regulation of body temperature
        • Vasoconstriction
        • Vasodilation
        • Sweating
        • Evaporation
      • Wounds and healing
        • Regeneration
        • Fibrosis
        • Angiogenesis
        • Granulation tissue
    • Structures
      • Skin
        • Epidermis
          • Cells
            • Keratinocytes – provide waterproofing protection for the body
            • Melanocytes – provide chemical protection from ultraviolet radiation
              • Determine skin color
          • Layers of the epidermis from superficial to deep
            • Stratum corneum
            • Stratum lucidum – only located on palms and soles (hairless skin)
            • Stratum granulosum
            • Stratum spinosum
            • Stratum basale
        • Dermis
          • Layers of the dermis from superficial to deep
            • Papillary layer
            • Reticular layer
        • Hypodermis / subcutaneous layer
      • Accessory structures
        • Nails
        • Hair
        • Skin glands
          • Sebaceous glands
          • Sudoriferous glands
            • Eccrine
            • Apocrine
            • Ceruminous

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.11D Examine characteristics of the aging process on body systems.

 

Note: The aging process affects all body systems. In order to aid student mastery of this concept, a few factors are specifically discussed in each of four body systems.

Examine

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AGING PROCESS ON BODY SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine the effects on each system caused by the age-related changes including;
    • Integumentary system
      • Age-related change
        • Degenerative loss of collagen and elastin fibers in dermis
        • Reduced activity of sebaceous glands
        • Decreased pigment production in hair follicles
        • Reduced activity of sweat glands
      • Effect on system
        • Skin becomes thinner and wrinkles appear
        • Hair becomes gray
        • Increased risk of hyperthermia under conditions of high temperature
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – C1 – Recognize patterns of change.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 07/29/2019
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