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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 02: Cells, Cellular Processes, and Tissues SUGGESTED DURATION : 8 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the recognition of the types of cells and tissues of the human body, the role of the cell membrane, and the chemical reactions and processes that provide energy for the body.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Biology
    • B.4 – The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
      • B.4A – Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity.
      • B.4B – Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules.
    • B.5 – The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. The student is expected to:
      • B.5A – Describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms.
      • B.5B – Describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and environmental factors in cell differentiation.
      • B.5C – Recognize that disruptions of the cell cycle lead to diseases such as cancer.
    • B.6 – The student knows the mechanisms of genetics such as the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics. The student is expected to:
      • B.6A – Identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA.
      • B.6C – Explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation using models of DNA and RNA.
    • B.9 – The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:
      • B.9A – Compare the functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
      • B.9B – Compare the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy, energy conversions, and matter.
      • B.9C – Identify and investigate the role of enzymes.
    • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
      • B.10C – Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.                                                                                         

 

During this Unit

Students analyze the functions of organic and inorganic substances in metabolic pathways and energy conversions in the body. Students investigate how homeostasis is maintained by the processes used to move materials through the cell membrane.  

 

The fundamental concepts found in TEKS AP.7A and AP.11A are expanded in this unit. TEKS AP.11B introduces disease, trauma, and congenital defects and their effects on cells and tissues. Students distinguish between the different types of stem cells in TEKS AP.13A and will recognize advances in stem cell research in a later unit. The understandings gained will assist in exploring all facets of these TEKS throughout the course.

 

Streamlining Note

The former Biology TEKS B.5B was removed, meaningthat students enrolled in Biology in 2018-2019 and beyond will no longer examine specialized cells.Biology TEKS B.9A removed language expecting students to compare the structure of biomolecules. However, students will continue to compare the functions of biomolecules.                                                                                     

 

After this Unit

Students will use information gained in this unit to understand role of cells and tissues, and the importance of metabolic pathways, in the structure and function of the various organs of the human body systems. 

 

Research

“By end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.
  • The successful operation of a designed system often involves feedback. Such feedback can be used to encourage what is going on in a system, discourage it, or reduce its discrepancy from some desired value. The stability of a system can be greater when it includes appropriate feedback mechanisms.”

 

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I.  Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • VI. Biology – B2 – Describe the structure and function of enzymes.
    • VI. Biology – B4 – Describe the major features and chemical events in cellular respiration.
    • VI. Biology – B5 – Know how organisms respond to presence or absence of oxygen, including mechanisms of fermentation.
    • VI. Biology – B6 – Understand coupled reaction processes and describe the role of ATP in energy coupling and transfer.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
    • VI. Biology – F2 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
    • VII. Chemistry – E5 – Understand energy changes in chemical reactions.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas College and Career Readiness Standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us.

 


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems. 

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena? 
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification? 
  • How are the components, processes, and/or patterns of systems interrelated? 

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible. 

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated? 

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions. 

  • What gives meaning to data? 
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data? 

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations. 

  • What is the value of scientific literacy? 
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

A series of chemical reactions (or metabolic pathways), involving the breakdown and synthesis of biomolecules, is necessary to provide energy for the body.

  • What are the roles of anabolism and catabolism in the energy conversions of biomolecules?
  • How do metabolic pathways interact to produce the energy conversions necessary to maintain life?

 

The structural components of the cell membrane maintain the integrity of the cell, control the entrance and exit of substances, provide a reaction surface, and enable the cell to communicate and interact with other cells.

  • What is the role of energy in molecular transport through the cell membrane?
  • What types of stem cells exist and what is their role in treating diseases?

Systems

  • Metabolic pathways

 

Classifications

  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins

 

Properties

  • Energy conversions

 

Patterns

  • Anabolic
  • Catabolic

 

Models

  • Enzymes

 

Constancy

  • pH homeostasis

 

Change

  • Protein denaturation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The structural components of the cell membrane maintain the integrity of the cell, control the entrance and exit of substances, provide a reaction surface, and enable the cell to communicate and interact with other cells.

  • How are cell membranes specialized to enable a variety of functions to occur?

 

There are four major tissue types in the human body that can be distinguished from one another by variations in cell membrane specializations: cell shape, cell size, function, and organization.

  • How does the cellular specialization at the tissue level influence the relationship between structure and function that we observe at the other levels of structural hierarchy?
  • Why is it important to distinguish between the various tissue types?

Systems

  • Levels of structural hierarchy

 

Classifications

  • Cells
  • Tissues

 

Properties

  • Energy

 

Patterns

  • Principle of complementarity

 

Models

  • Molecular transport
  • Tissue classification
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions 

  • Students may think that pH remains constant and neutral throughout the body, rather than understanding that pH is a different value in different areas of the body based on the function in that area.
  • Students may think of biomolecules as having a set structure, rather than understanding that the human body must constantly make and break and maintain molecules in order to produce energy for life.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts 

  • Some students may have limited understanding of the importance of proteins as regulatory enzymes.
  • Students may have a limited understanding of cellular differentiation and its impact on cellular functions.
  • Students may have a limited understanding of the types of stem cells and their limitations and uses.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Active transport – does require energy in order to occur
  • Anabolism – a reaction that joins smaller molecules into a larger molecule
  • Buffer system – a combination of an acid and a base that resists large, sudden changes in pH
  • Calorie – the amount of potential energy in food
  • Catabolism – reaction that breaks larger molecules into smaller molecules
  • Cellular respiration – process that transfers energy from molecules and makes it available for cellular use
  • Congenital – a disease or condition that is present at birth
  • Connective tissues – tissues that have a variety of supportive functions
  • Differentiation – specialization of structures to be able to carry out a particular function
  • Disease – a disorder of structure or function
  • Energy – the ability to do work
  • Enzyme – a molecule that speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy required, while not being consumed during the reaction
  • Epithelial tissues – tissues that cover and line body surfaces
  • Intercellular junctions – structures that connect the membranes of two adjacent cells
  • Muscle tissues – tissues that cause movement
  • Nervous tissues – tissues that function to communicate and control the body
  • Passive transport – does not require energy in order to occur
  • Protein denaturation – the loss of structure of a protein due to extremes in temperature and/or pH
  • Stem cell – the stage of a cell in which it can self-renew and differentiate
  • Trauma – a physical or psychological injury

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Acids
  • Active site
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Basement membrane
  • Bases
  • Carbohydrates
  • Dehydration synthesis
  • Desmosomes
  • Diffusion
  • Endocytosis
  • Exocytosis
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Filtration
  • Gap junctions
  • Glycolysis
  • Hydrolysis
  • Induced pluripotent stem cell
  • Lipids
  • Multipotent stem cell
  • Neuroglia
  • Neurons
  • Osmosis
  • pH scale
  • Phagocytosis
  • Phosphorylation
  • Pinocytosis
  • Pluripotent stem cell
  • Proteins
  • Substrate
  • Tight junctions
  • Totipotent stem cell
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
AP.1 The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:
AP.1A

Demonstrate verbal and non-verbal communication in a clear, concise, and effective manner.

Demonstrate

NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • General communication skills
    • Professionalism
      • Correct grammar – spoken and written
      • Questioning strategies (open vs. closed ended)
      • Terms with precise meanings for discussing the human body
        • Medical terminology
          • Roots
          • Prefixes
          • Suffixes
          • Common layman’s terms
  • Non-verbal communication skills
    • Written communication
      • Spelling
      • Formatting
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – A1 – Use correct application of writing practices in scientific communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – C1 – Prepare and present scientific/technical information in appropriate formats for various audiences.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral, written, and visual presentations. 12D/H7
AP.1B Exhibit the ability to cooperate, contribute, and collaborate as a member of a team.

Exhibit

THE ABILITY TO COOPERATE, CONTRIBUTE, AND COLLABORATE AS A MEMBER OF A TEAM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cooperate
    • Exchange relevant information and resources in support of each other’s individual goals, rather than a shared goal
  • Contribute
    • Play a significant part in bringing about a shared goal
  • Collaborate
    • Work together to create something new in support of a shared goal
  • Traits of successful team members
    • Competence
    • Dependability
    • Honesty
    • Initiative
    • Patience
    • Responsibility
    • Self-motivation
    • Tact
    • Willingness to learn
    • Follow a chain of command
    • Decision making
    • Flexibility
    • Integrity
    • Loyalty
  • Examples
    • Collaborate on a group presentation
    • Contribute and collaborate by assigning and carrying out a set of roles within your group
    • Cooperate by sharing knowledge with others to produce individual projects
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C1 – Collaborate on joint projects.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions. 12D/H6
AP.2 The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.2A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read, understand, and follow lab instructions independently
  • Know and follow classroom safety guidelines
  • Know location and proper use of safety equipment
    • Fire extinguisher
    • Safety shower
    • Eye wash
  • Wear appropriate personal protective equipment for each activity
    • Goggles
    • Aprons
    • Gloves
  • Handle all specimens based on their safety recommendations
  • Use lab equipment only as instructed
  • Analyze lab procedures and equipment in the physical lab setting, lab simulations, and field observations to determine their safe and unsafe practices
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – C2 – Understand and apply safe procedures in the laboratory and field, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety and safe handling of live or preserved organisms.
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B1 – Read technical and scientific articles to gain understanding of interpretations, apparatuses, techniques or procedures, and data.
AP.3 The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
AP.3E

Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Plan, Implement

COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Comparative investigations
    • Involve collecting data on different organisms / objects / features / events or collecting data under different conditions to make a comparison
    • The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable
    • A fair test can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined
      • A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same
  • Implement investigations
    • Obtain data that can be used to support, reject, or modify the hypothesis
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
    • I. Nature of Science – B1 – Design and conduct scientific investigations in which hypotheses are formulated and tested.
    • I. Nature of Science – D2 – Use computer models, applications, and simulations.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
  • TEA: Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations–FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
AP.3F

Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.

Collect, Organize

DATA USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Qualitative – an observation that describes the physical appearance or observable changes in the investigation
  • Quantitative – a numerical measurement taken during an investigation
  • Organize data
    • Graphs
    • Tables
    • Charts
    • Diagrams
    • Lists 
    • Concept maps
    • Graphic organizers
    • Feedback loops
    • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)
  • Tools
    • Data collecting probes
    • Computers
    • Standard laboratory glassware
    • Microscopes
    • Various prepared slides
    • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
    • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures  
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – F1 – Select and use appropriate Standard International (SI) units and prefixes to express measurements for real world problems.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
AP.3G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Analyze, Evaluate, Make Inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Infer – to form an opinion, based on known facts or evidence, as to the outcome of a thought or conclusion
  • Predict – to declare or indicate in advance; foretell on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reasoning
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible examples of data usage may include:
      • Prediction of the possible outcome of the investigation using only related scientific evidence collected prior to the investigation
      • Proposed inference, based on researched facts and evidence, serving as the hypothesis of the investigation
      • Evaluation of the validity of scientific data sets
      • Relationships among data sets
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • I. Nature of Science – E2 – Use essential vocabulary of the discipline being studied.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A7 – Use calculators, spreadsheets, computers, etc. in data analysis.
AP.3H

Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA THROUGH METHODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conclusion – an explanation of results based on data collected
  • Communicate valid conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
    • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
    • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
    • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Draw conclusions based only on the data from the investigation
  • Demonstrate various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
AP.5 The student evaluates the energy needs of the human body and the processes through which these needs are fulfilled. The student is expected to:
AP.5A Analyze the chemical reactions that provide energy for the body.

Analyze

THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT PROVIDE ENERGY FOR THE BODY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Energy balance
    • A condition in which caloric intake equals caloric expenditure
    • Factors influencing basal metabolic rate (BMR)
  • Cellular metabolic reactions
    • Dietary energy sources
      • Energy – the ability to do work
      • Calorie – amount of potential energy in food
      • Structure and function of biomolecules in energy production
        • Carbohydrates
        • Proteins
        • Lipids
    • Requires specific enzymatic catalysts
      • Active site
      • Substrate
      • Protein denaturation
        • Caused by extremes in temperature and pH
        • Results in breaking of hydrogen bonds and destruction of active site
    • Anabolism
      • Requires energy
      • Reaction type: dehydration synthesis
      • Joins small molecules into larger molecules
      • Examples to include:
        • Glucose to form glycogen for energy storage in liver cells
        • Fatty acids and glycerol to form lipids for energy storage in fat cells
        • Amino acids to form proteins for enzyme production or maintenance and repair of structures
    • Catabolism
      • Releases energy
        • 60% as heat
        • 40% to drive cellular processes
      • Reaction type: hydrolysis
      • Breaks larger molecules into smaller molecules
      • Reversal of anabolism reactions in the body (see prior examples)
  • Energy production
    • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – molecular energy in a form usable for cellular processes
    • Interrelation of chemical processes used for ATP production
      • ADP-ATP cycle
      • ATP-phosphocreatine (PC) cycle
      • Anaerobic glycolysis
      • Oxidative phosphorylation
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – B2 – Describe the structure and function of enzymes.
    • VI. Biology – B4 – Describe the major features and chemical events in cellular respiration.
    • VI. Biology – B5 – Know how organisms respond to presence or absence of oxygen, including mechanisms of fermentation.
    • VI. Biology – B6 – Understand coupled reaction processes and describe the role of ATP in energy coupling and transfer.
    • VI. Biology – F2 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
    • VII. Chemistry – E5 – Understand energy changes in chemical reactions.
AP.7 The student examines the body processes that maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:
AP.7A

Investigate and describe the integration of the chemical and physical processes, including equilibrium, temperature, pH balance, chemical reactions, passive transport, active transport, and biofeedback, that contribute to homeostasis.

 

Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to describe the types of cell transports and processes required to maintain homeostasis in the human body. Students will investigate some types of cell transports in this unit.

Investigate, Describe

THE INTEGRATION OF THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HOMEOSTASIS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Coordination of multiple body processes is required for homeostatic regulation of all the body’s diverse activities
  • Homeostatic maintenance of cellular internal and external environment through types of cell transport
    • Passive transport
      • Does not require energy in order to occur
      • Requires use of selectively permeable membranes
      • Transports molecules from an area of comparatively high concentration to an area of comparatively low concentration (along the concentration gradient)
      • Types
        • Diffusion – movement of molecules through the phospholipid bilayer
          • Facilitated diffusion – use of carrier proteins and channels to move molecules along the concentration gradient
          • Osmosis – movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane into a compartment containing impermeant solute
        • Filtration – movement of molecules through a porous membrane from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
      • Possible passive transport examples may include:
        • Causes and effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions on the intracellular fluid (ICF) and the extracellular fluid (ECF) composition in animal cells
        • Transport types involved in the movement of water through aquaporin channels to regulate water balance
        • Transport processes involved in each phase of urine formation, such as glomerular filtration in the kidney
    • Active transport
      • Requires energy released from breaking a chemical bond in ATP
      • Requires a carrier molecule or a vesicle
      • Types
        • Transports molecules from an area of comparatively low concentration to an area of comparatively high concentration (against the concentration gradient)
          • Membrane proteins that act as an enzyme to break down ATP and use the energy (e.g., Sodium-potassium pump)
        • Transports molecules that are too large to pass through the cell membrane
          • Endocytosis – process where large molecules are brought into the cell by wrapping the cell membrane around the molecules to form a vesicle
            • Phagocytosis – cells taking in solid particles
            • Pinocytosis – cells taking in fluid and dissolved particles
            • Receptor mediated endocytosis – a receptor-ligand complex forms to all cells with the specific receptors to selectively remove and process substances in their surroundings
          • Exocytosis – a vesicle formed around cellular waste or cellular products fuses with the cell membrane to release the waste or products into the extracellular environment
        • Transports ions and other charged molecules through the cell membrane
      • Possible active transport examples may include:
        • Action of the sodium-potassium pump in neurons and muscle cells
        • Uptake of glucose into the blood through the villi of the small intestine
        • Use of LDL receptors to remove and process cholesterol out of the blood to the liver
        • Release of neurotransmitters by exocytosis from vesicles in axon terminals
        • Action of a macrophage white blood cell while engulfing pathogens
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
    • VIII. Physics – E3 – Apply the concept of static equilibrium.
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

 

Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to identify the major tissues of the body and the basic functions they provide. Students analyze how the structural components of each tissue allows the functions to occur. In subsequent units, students will apply this knowledge at the organ level in the appropriate systems.

Analyze

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Tissue types – locations, functions, and microscope identification
    • Intercellular junctions
      • Tight junctions
        • Location example: cells lining the digestive system
        • Function: prevent intercellular spaces by fusing adjacent cell membranes
      • Desmosomes
        • Location example: cells of outer skin layer
        • Function: increase resistance to mechanical stresses by anchoring adjacent cell membranes
      • Gap junctions
        • Location example: cardiac muscle cells
        • Function: enhance exchange of substances by forming channels between adjacent cell membranes
    • Epithelial
      • Simple
        • Squamous
        • Cuboidal
        • Columnar
      • Stratified
        • Squamous
        • Cuboidal
        • Columnar
      • Pseudostratified columnar
      • Transitional
    • Connective
      • Areolar
      • Adipose
      • Reticular
      • Dense
        • Regular
        • Irregular
      • Elastic connective tissue
      • Cartilage
        • Elastic
        • Hyaline
        • Fibro
      • Bone
        • Trabecular (spongy – cancellous)
        • Cortical (compact)
      • Blood
    • Muscle
      • Smooth
      • Skeletal
      • Cardiac
    • Nervous
      • Neurons
      • Neuroglia

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow. 6C/H3*
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
AP.11B

Evaluate the cause and effect of disease, trauma, and congenital defects on the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and systems.

 

Note: This standard spans many of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to differentiate between disease, trauma, and congenital defects. Students should also understand that, while the cause and effects of these processes begin at the cellular and tissue levels of organization, they affect the entire organism. Specific examples of disease, trauma, and congenital defects will be evaluated in future units.

THE CAUSE AND EFFECT OF DISEASE ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS, TISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Disease – a disorder of structure or function, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury
  • Relationship between the etiology (cause) and the signs and symptoms (effects) of a disease at the applicable level(s) of structural hierarchy

Evaluate

THE CAUSE AND EFFECT OF TRAUMA ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS, TISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Trauma – a physical or psychological injury
  • Relationship between the type of trauma (cause) and the signs and symptoms (effects) of a trauma at the applicable level(s) of structural hierarchy

Evaluate

THE CAUSE AND EFFECT Of CONGENITAL DEFECTS ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS, TISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Congenital defects – a disease or condition that is present at birth
  • Relationship between the etiology (cause) and the signs and symptoms (effects) of a congenital defect at the applicable level(s) of structural hierarchy
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know:
    • Faulty genes can cause body parts or systems to work poorly. Some genetic diseases appear only when an individual has inherited a certain faulty gene from both parents. 6E/H2
    • Some viral diseases, such as AIDS, destroy critical cells of the immune system, leaving the body unable to deal with multiple infection agents and cancerous cells. 6E/H4
AP.13 The student recognizes emerging technological advances in science. The student is expected to:
AP.13A

Recognize advances in stem cell research such as cord blood use.

 

Note: Students will recognize the various types of stem cells in this unit during a discussion of cellular differentiation. Advances in research will be mastered in a later unit discussing advances in medicine.

Recognize

ADVANCES IN STEM CELL RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Stem cell – can self-renew (make copies of themselves) and differentiate (develop into more specialized cells)
  • Types
    • Totipotent stem cells
      • Can give rise to every cell type in the fully formed body, including the placenta and umbilical cord
      • No longer present after dividing into the cells that generate the placenta and umbilical cord
    • Embryonic stem cells
      • Pluripotent – can give rise to every cell type in the fully formed body, except the placenta and umbilical cord
      • Exist only at the earliest stages of development
    • Tissue-specific stem cells (also referred to as somatic or adult stem cells)
      • Multipotent – can generate different cell types but only for the specific tissue or organ in which they are found
      • Appear during fetal development and remain in our bodies throughout life
    • Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells
      • Engineered in the lab by converting tissue-specific cells into cells that behave like embryonic stem cells
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Technological problems and advances often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, and new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in new ways or to undertake entirely new lines of research. The very availability of new technology itself often sparks scientific advances. 3A/H1*
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 07/29/2019
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