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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Unit 01: Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology SUGGESTED DURATION : 6 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the relationship between anatomy and physiology in terms of relative positions, body sections, body regions, and major body structures. The human body is organized into multiple levels of structural organization, including body cavities, body regions, and body systems. Professional standards include clear, concise methods of verbal and nonverbal communication using a specific set of terms to describe the organization of the human body.

Prior Content Connections

  • Biology 
    • B.4 – The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
      • B.4B – Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules
    • B.10 – The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:

      • B.10A – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals
      • B.10C – Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system
    • B.11 – The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance.

 

During this Unit

Students extend their knowledge of homeostasis by describing the interrelationship of the parts and functions of homeostatic mechanisms and determining the consequences of failure to maintain homeostasis. Students recognize the main structures of the body systems as an introduction to the remainder of the course. Students are expected to analyze the physical relationships between anatomical structures by using correct terminology to describe relative positions, body sections, body regions, and major body structures.

The fundamental concepts found in TEKS AP.7AB and AP.11A are introduced in this unit, and the understandings gained will assist in exploring all facets of these TEKS throughout the course.

 

Streamlining Note

Biology TEKS B.11A, describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms, was removed during the streamlining process implemented in 2018-2019. Students continue to understand the concept of process regulation in animals in the context of TEKS B.10A, and homeostasis at the cellular level is addressed in TEKS B.4B.

 

After this Unit

Throughout this course, students will continue to examine physiological processes that maintain homeostasis by investigating and describing the integration of the chemical and physical processes involved. Students will continue to analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of each body system by using correct terminology to describe relative positions, body sections, and body regions.

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should understand that:

  • The immune system functions to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within.
  • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
  • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.

 

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas College and Career Readiness Standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and/or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Professional standards include clear, concise methods of verbal and nonverbal communication.

  • What is the importance of specific terminology in effective communication?

 

The human body is organized into multiple levels of structural organization, including body cavities, body regions, and body systems. This organization can be described by using a specific set of terms.

  • How is a body part’s role in maintaining homeostasis related to its level of structural organization?
  • In what ways are models useful in understanding the principle of complementarity of structure and function?

Systems

  • Body systems

 

Patterns

  • Hierarchy of structural organization

 

Models

  • Body structures
  • Relative positions
  • Body regions
  • Body cavities
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Homeostasis refers to the body’s ability to use a variety of mechanisms to maintain a relatively constant internal environment.

  • In what ways does the human body utilize positive and negative feedback mechanisms to maintain a constant internal environment regardless of the changing internal and external conditions?
  • What are the consequences of failing to maintain homeostasis?

Systems

  • Biofeedback mechanisms

 

Classifications

  • Positive feedback
  • Negative feedback

 

Patterns

  • Principle of complementarity of structure and function

 

Constancy

  • Homeostasis
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think of homeostasis as an unchanging condition, rather than understanding the continual adjustment of feedback mechanisms necessary to maintain the normal ranges necessary for life.
  • Students may consider science as a body of facts, rather than understanding that scientific theories may change as new information is gained through new technologies.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Some students may have limited understandings of human body systems and their structures and functions.
  • Some students may have limited understandings of the importance of using professional terminology and language in a field of study.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Anatomy – the structure of body parts
  • Feedback mechanism – a process that uses one component to regulate another, either through positive or negative feedback
  • Physiology – the function of body parts
  • Negative feedback – the end result of an action that inhabits that action from continuing to occur
  • Positive feeback – an action or process in which the end products of an action cause more of that action to occur in a feedback loop; it amplifies the original action

 

Relative Positions:

  • Superior – above
  • Inferior – below
  • Anterior (ventral) – in front of
  • Posterior (dorsal) – in back of
  • Medial – toward the midline
  • Lateral – away from the midline
  • Intermediate – in between
  • Proximal – closer to the point of attachment
  • Distal – further from the point of attachment
  • Superficial – near the surface
  • Deep – further from the surface
  • Ipsilateral – on same side
  • Contralateral – on opposite sides

 

Body Sections:

  • Frontal (coronal) – lengthwise cut that divides body into anterior and posterior sections
  • Oblique – cut that divides body into sections at an angle
  • Sagittal – lengthwise cut that divides body into right and left sections
  • Transverse – horizontal cut that divides body into superior and inferior sections

 

Body Regions: 

  • Abdominal – region between thorax and pelvis
  • Brachial – arm
  • Carpal – wrist
  • Cephalic – head
  • Cervical – neck
  • Costal – ribs
  • Coxal – hip
  • Lumbar – lower back between ribs and pelvis
  • Oral – mouth
  • Orbital – eye cavity
  • Otic – ear
  • Pectoral – anterior chest
  • Sacral – posterior region between hip bones
  • Vertebral – spinal column

 

Body Membranes:

  • Parietal – outer serous membrane lining body cavity
  • Pericardium –membranes in pericardial cavity surrounding heart
  • Peritoneum – membranes in abdominopelvic region surrounding organs
  • Pleurae – membranes in pleural region surrounding lungs
  • Visceral – inner serous membrane touching organs

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Anatomical position
  • Control center
  • Effector
  • Homeostasis
  • Metabolism
  • Receptor
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
AP.1 The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:
AP.1A Demonstrate verbal and non-verbal communication in a clear, concise, and effective manner.

Demonstrate

VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • General communication skills
    • Professionalism
      • Considerate of audience
      • Appropriate to the situation
      • Correct grammar – spoken and written
      • Questioning strategies (open vs. closed ended)
      • Terms with precise meanings for discussing the human body
        • Medical terminology
          • Roots
          • Prefixes
          • Suffixes
          • Common layman’s terms
      • Cultural competence awareness – a set of behaviors, practices, attitudes, and policies that come together amongst a group to enable effective work to be done in a cross-cultural situation
        • Culture – the sum of the values, beliefs, standards, languages, thinking patterns, behavioral norms, communication styles, etc. that guide decisions and actions of a group through time
  • Verbal communication skills
    • Explicit communication skills – information conveyed through spoken words
      • Pitch
      • Tone
      • Speed of speech
      • Word pronunciation
      • Active listening
  • Non-verbal communication skills
    • Implicit communication – information and meaning conveyed without spoken words
      • Awareness of body language
    • Written communication
      • Spelling
      • Formatting
  • Common barriers to communication
    • Physical disabilities
      • Aphasia
      • Hearing loss
      • Impaired vision
    • Psychological barriers
      • Attitudes
      • Bias
      • Prejudice
      • Stereotyping
  • Examples
    • Patient medical history
    • Presentation of medical information to a healthcare professional, a patient, and your classmates
    • How different cultural groups might respond to a medical scenario
    • Information directed to a certain cultural group
    • Examples of technical and expository writing
      • Topical speech
      • Detailed lab report providing and explaining data
      • Article analysis from a professional journal
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – A1 – Use correct application of writing practices in scientific communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – C1 – Prepare and present scientific/technical information in appropriate formats for various audiences.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral, written, and visual presentations. 12D/H7
AP.1B Exhibit the ability to cooperate, contribute, and collaborate as a member of a team.

Exhibit

THE ABILITY TO COOPERATE, CONTRIBUTE, AND COLLABORATE AS A MEMBER OF A TEAM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cooperate
    • Exchange relevant information and resources in support of each other’s individual goals, rather than a shared goal
  • Contribute
    • Play a significant part in bringing about a shared goal
  • Collaborate
    • Work together to create something new in support of a shared goal
  • Traits of successful team members
    • Competence
    • Dependability
    • Honesty
    • Initiative
    • Patience
    • Responsibility
    • Self-motivation
    • Tact
    • Willingness to learn
    • Follow a chain of command
    • Decision making
    • Flexibility
    • Integrity
    • Loyalty
  • Examples
    • Collaborate on a group presentation
    • Contribute and collaborate by assigning and carrying out a set of roles within your group
    • Cooperate by sharing knowledge with others to produce individual projects
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C1 – Collaborate on joint projects.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions. 12D/H6
AP.3 The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
AP.3A Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(4) of this section.

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Science – the “use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process"
  • Recognize science as a dynamic body of knowledge that is always growing and changing

Understand

SCIENCE HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Testability
  • Current technology
  • Professional ethics
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – B1 – Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations.
  • Project 2061: By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Science is based on the assumption that the universe is a vast single system in which the basic rules are everywhere the same and that the things and events in the universe occur in consistent patterns that are comprehensible through careful, systematic study. 1A/H1*
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
AP.3B Know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.

Know

THAT HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Recognize characteristics of a well-developed hypothesis
    • Constructed before any applicable research has been done, apart from a background information review
    • An empirical statement susceptible to observation
    • An explanation of a general phenomena, not a single occurrence
    • Plausible
    • Specific and carefully defined
    • Testable
  • Formulate a testable hypothesis for an investigative procedure
  • Determine if statements represent testable hypotheses

Know

THAT HYPOTHESES MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze data to determine whether the observational evidence supports or does not support the hypothesis
  • Summarize the characteristics of a widely tested hypothesis that leads to the incorporation into a theory
    • Have durable explanatory power – the ability to effectively explain the subject matter it pertains to over a long period of time without significant deterioration in quality or value
    • Have the ability to be supported, or not supported, by observational evidence
    • Have been proven over a wide variety of conditions by multiple investigators
Note(s):
  • National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Science, Evolution, and Creationism, National Academies Press, Washington, 2008 – Definition of science - “there must be possible observational consequences that could support the idea but also ones that could refute it”.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – B1 – Design and conduct scientific investigations in which hypotheses are formulated and tested.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available). 1B/H2
    • To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it. A hypothesis that cannot, in principle, be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it may not be scientifically useful. 1B/H9** (SFAA)
AP.3C Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science are created and new technologies emerge.

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ARE BASED ON NATURAL AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA AND ARE CAPABLE OF BEING TESTED BY MULTIPLE INDEPENDENT RESEARCHERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Components
    • Well-established and highly reliable explanations
    • Based on (natural) non-artificial phenomena, which involves the physical properties of matter and energy
    • Principles formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data
  • May be subject to change
    • New evidence arising that is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
    • The development of new technologies
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of anatomy and physiology and the evidence that supports, disproves, or modifies them, such as:
    • Humoral theory of disease
      • Description: Galen relied upon the Hippocratic treatise On the Nature of Man, which stated that good health relied on the balance of four humors or bodily fluids: phlegm, blood, yellow bile, and black bile
        • Historical example – use of bloodletting in disease treatment
        • Modern modification – use of leeches and maggots in medicine to reduce inflammation and remove necrotic tissue
    • Miasmatic theory
      • Description: states the origin of epidemics was due to a miasma, emanating from rotting organic matter, and spread to susceptible people by decaying plant and animal matter, various kinds of waste, bad smells, and bad air
      • Replaced in the 1880s by the germ theory of disease
    • Germ theory of disease
      • Description: states that specific microscopic organisms are the cause of specific diseases
      • Lister – antiseptic surgical techniques
      • Koch – Koch’s postulate
      • Pasteur – pasteurization, vaccination
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In the long run, theories are judged by the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how useful they are in making accurate predictions. 1B/H6b*
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
AP.3D Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.

Distinguish

BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Theory – a well-established and highly reliable explanation, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
  • Hypothesis – a tentative and testable statement that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence
  • Use supporting evidence to determine whether a statement is a hypothesis or a scientific theory
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In the long run, theories are judged by the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how useful they are in making accurate predictions. 1B/H6b*
    • The human ability to influence the course of history comes from its capacity for generating knowledge and developing new technologies—and for communicating ideas to others. 3C/H6** (BSL)
AP.3F

Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.

Collect, Organize

DATA USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Qualitative – an observation that describes the physical appearance or observable changes in the investigation
  • Organize data
    • Graphs
    • Tables
    • Charts
    • Diagrams
    • Lists 
    • Concept maps
    • Graphic organizers
    • Feedback loops
    • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)
  • Tools
    • Computers
    • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
    • Cameras
    • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures  
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – F1 – Select and use appropriate Standard International (SI) units and prefixes to express measurements for real world problems.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
AP.3G

Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Analyze, Evaluate, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Predict – to declare or indicate in advance; foretell on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reasoning
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible examples of data usage may include:
      • Evaluation of the validity of scientific data sets
      • Relationships among data sets
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • I. Nature of Science – E2 – Use essential vocabulary of the discipline being studied.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A7 – Use calculators, spreadsheets, computers, etc. in data analysis.
AP.3H

Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA THROUGH METHODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conclusion – an explanation of results based on data collected
  • Communicate valid conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
    • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
    • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
    • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Draw conclusions based only on the data from the investigation
  • Demonstrate various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
AP.7 The student examines the body processes that maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:
AP.7A

Investigate and describe the integration of the chemical and physical processes, including equilibrium, temperature, pH balance, chemical reactions, passive transport, active transport, and biofeedback, that contribute to homeostasis.

 

Note: This standard spans many of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to understand the general concept of homeostasis and the types of mechanisms required to maintain homeostasis in the human body. Students will investigate specific physical and chemical processes in the appropriate body system.

Describe

THE INTEGRATION OF THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HOMEOSTASIS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Coordination of multiple body processes is required for homeostatic regulation of all the body’s diverse activities
  • Homeostatic maintenance of body processes through biofeedback mechanisms, including temperature regulation
    • Structures
      • Receptor
      • Control center
      • Effector
    • Types
      • Positive feedback mechanisms
        • Involve processes that need to be pushed out of homeostasis to completion
        • Beneficial actions, including,
          • Blood coagulation in which each step releases chemicals that accelerate the clotting process
          • Childbirth stimulated by rising oxytocin levels
      • Negative feedback mechanisms
        • Counteracts a change in order to return values to the ranges appropriate for the system to allows systems to self-stabilize, including,
          • Ionic blood calcium chemical regulation by the hormones, calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
          • Blood glucose chemical regulation by the hormones, insulin and glucagon
          • Body temperature regulation by the physical processes of vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and evaporation
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
    • VIII. Physics – E3 – Apply the concept of static equilibrium.
AP.7B Determine the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis.

 

Note: This standard spans many of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to understand the general concept of the consequences of failing to maintain homeostasis. Students will determine the specific consequences of certain events in the appropriate body system.

Determine

THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE FAILURE TO MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS

Including, but not limited to:

  • General consequences
    • Positive feedback mechanisms
      • Inherently unstable system
      • Can lead to a chain reaction that can be potentially damaging to life processes
    • Negative feedback mechanisms
      • Loss of efficiency can lead to a state of disorder
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I.  Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
  • Project 2061: By the 12th grade, the student should understand that:
    • The successful operation of a designed system often involves feedback. Such feedback can be used to encourage what is going on in a system, discourage it, or reduce its discrepancy from some desired value. The stability of a system can be greater when it includes appropriate feedback mechanisms. 11A/H3*
AP.11 The student investigates the structure and function of the human body. The student is expected to:
AP.11A

Analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems, including the integumentary, nervous, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

 

Note: This standard spans most of the units of this course. In this unit, students are expected to analyze the physical relationships between anatomical structures by using correct terminology to describe relative positions, body sections, body regions, and major body structures listed below

Analyze

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES OF SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Proper use of terms that describe relative positions, body sections, body regions, and body membranes
    • Anatomy
    • Physiology
    • Relative position
      • Superior
      • Inferior
      • Anterior
      • Posterior
      • Medial
      • Lateral
      • Intermediate
      • Proximal
      • Distal
      • Superficial
      • Deep
      • Ipsilateral
      • Contralateral
    • Body sections
      • Sagittal
      • Transverse
      • Frontal
      • Oblique
    • Body regions
      • Abdominal
      • Brachial
      • Carpal
      • Cephalic
      • Cervical
      • Costal
      • Coxal
      • Lumbar
      • Oral
      • Orbital
      • Otic
      • Pectoral
      • Sacral
      • Vertebral
  • Integumentary system
    • Structures
      • Skin
        • Nails
        • Hair
        • Skin glands
  • Nervous system
    • Structures
      • Brain
      • Spinal cord
      • Nerves
  • Skeletal system
    • Structures
      • Bones of the axial and appendicular skeletons
  • Muscular system
    • Structures
      • Superficial anterior and posterior skeletal muscles
  • Cardiovascular system
    • Structures
      • Heart
      • Major blood vessels
  • Respiratory system
    • Structures
      • Larynx
      • Trachea
      • Lungs
      • Bronchi
  • Digestive system
    • Structures
      • Esophagus
      • Stomach
      • Small intestine
      • Large intestine or colon
  • Urinary system
    • Structures
      • Kidneys
      • Ureters
      • Urinary bladder
      • Urethra
  • Blood
    • Structures

      • Cells
        • Leukocytes
        • Erythrocytes
        • Thrombocytes
      • Plasma
  • Lymphatic system and immunity
    • Structures
      • Lymph nodes
      • Spleen
      • Thymus
  • Endocrine system
    • Structures
      • Hypothalamus
      • Thyroid gland
      • Adrenal gland
  • Reproductive system
    • Male structures
      • Testes
      • Prostate gland
    • Female structures
      • Ovaries
      • Uterus
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The immune system functions to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within. 6C/H1*
    • Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow. 6C/H3*
    • The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve for the organism: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. 6C/H6** (SFAA)
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 07/29/2019
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