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Instructional Focus Document
Anatomy and Physiology
TITLE : Introduction: Processes of Anatomy and Physiology Investigations SUGGESTED DURATION : 1 day

Unit Overview

Introduction (describes the focus and purpose of the unit)

This IFD serves two purposes:

  1. An introduction to the course through the lens of overarching understandings and the processes used to engage with and explore the content.
  2. A guide for educators to navigate Instructional Focus Documents during instructional planning for the units of this course. (See parenthetical notes in each section.)

Prior to this Unit (list of TEKS in previous courses or previous units of this course that align with the content of this unit)

Many of the process TEKS from K-12 Science courses are similar. We are only listing TEKS from the one specified prerequisite science course

  • Biology
    • B.1A – Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.
    • B.1B – Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.
    • B.2A – Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.
    • B.2B – Know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.
    • B.2C – Know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.
    • B.2D – Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.
    • B.2E – Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.
    • B.2F – Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as data-collecting probes, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettes, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.
    • B.2G – Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.
    • B.2H – Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.
    • B.3A – Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
    • B.3B – Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.
    • B.3C – Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.
    • B.3D – Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment.
    • B.3E – Evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events.
    • B.3F – Research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.

During this Unit (an overview of the content in this unit)

The scientific processes are very similar throughout every science course, beginning in Kindergarten. Students may need some direct instruction on the purpose and properties of scientific processes; however, it is intended for students to develop a deep understanding of the scientific processes by using them in the context of the content of this course throughout every unit of this course.

Streamlining Note (a statement describing the changes in relevant TEKS in current and previous courses implemented in the 2018-2019 school year)

TEKS in K-8 Science courses and High School Biology, Integrated Physics and Chemistry, Chemistry, and Physics were streamlined prior to the 2018-2019 school year. Over the next few years as students take these streamlined courses, the prior content understanding may change due to removal of some subjects. Relevant changes will be reflected in these notes throughout the course.

After this Unit (a statement that may describe the content that will be studied next in the course, how the content aligns with future courses, or how the content of this unit may be used in the real world)

Students will use scientific processes to investigate the anatomy and physiology concepts of this course.

Research (a list of research-based student expectations that align with the TEKS of this unit)

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Science is based on the assumption that the universe is a vast single system in which the basic rules are everywhere the same and that the things and events in the universe occur in consistent patterns that are comprehensible through careful, systematic study.
  • From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how things work. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Continuity and change are persistent features of science.
  • No matter how well one theory fits observations, a new theory might fit them just as well or better, or might fit a wider range of observations.
  • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth.
  • In matters that can be investigated in a scientific way, evidence for the value of a scientific approach is given by the improving ability of scientists to offer reliable explanations and make accurate predictions.
  • Investigations are conducted for different reasons, including to explore new phenomena, to check on previous results, to test how well a theory predicts, and to compare theories.
  • Hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available).
  • Sometimes, scientists can control conditions in order to obtain evidence. When that is not possible, practical, or ethical, they try to observe as wide a range of natural occurrences as possible to discern patterns.
  • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence.
  • Scientists in any one research group tend to see things alike, so even groups of scientists may have trouble being entirely objective about their methods and findings. For that reason, scientific teams are expected to seek out the possible sources of bias in the design of their investigations and in their data analysis. Checking each other's results and explanations helps, but that is no guarantee against bias.
  • In the short run, new ideas that do not mesh well with mainstream ideas in science often encounter vigorous criticism.
  • In the long run, theories are judged by the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how useful they are in making accurate predictions.
  • New ideas in science are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often rejected by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring from unexpected findings; and usually grow slowly, through contributions from many investigators.
  • Scientists' nationality, sex, ethnic origin, age, political convictions, and so on may incline them to look for or emphasize one or another kind of evidence or interpretation.
  • To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it. A hypothesis that cannot, in principle, be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it may not be scientifically useful.
  • Bias attributable to the investigator, the sample, the method, or the instrument may not be completely avoidable in every instance, but scientists want to know the possible sources of bias and how bias is likely to influence evidence.
  • To avoid biased observations, scientific studies sometimes use observers who don't know what the results are "supposed" to be.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/bolintro.htm.

 


(Overarching Understandings and Questions are the big ideas that encompass the investigation of scientific concepts. They align to scientific processes and the Overarching Concepts. They may be used to help students make connections between unit-level, topical ideas and the bigger ideas in science. The application and alignment of these may vary across content areas due to the unique nature of each discipline.)

 

Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and/or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

(Unit Understandings and Questions are the unit-level, topical big ideas. They represent what students should understand at the end of the unit of study. Therefore, they may be used to develop unit learning outcomes. There is a direct relationship between Unit Understandings, Concepts, Performance Assessments, and Unit Assessment Items.)

 

Scientific investigations provide a valid method for scientists to gain understanding about phenomena.

  • What is the value of scientific investigations?

(Overarching Concepts are directly related to the Overarching Understandings, and Unit Concepts are directly related to the Unit Understandings. The list shows how the two are related.)

 

Systems 

  • Scientific investigation 

 

Classifications 

  • Laboratory
  • Field

 

Properties 

  • Asking questions
  • Formulating testable hypotheses
  • Selecting equipment and technology
  • Collect data
  • Organize data
  • Analyze data
  • Evaluate data
  • Make inferences from data
  • Predict trends from data
  • Communicate valid conclusions supported by data

 

Patterns 

  • Investigative procedures

 

Models 

  • Scientific explanations

 

Constancy 

  • Safe practices
  • Conservation of resources

 

Change 

  • Society
  • Environment
  • History of science
  • Contributions of scientists
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions: (a view or opinion that is incorrect because it is based on faulty thinking or lack of understanding)

  • Students may think that scientific investigations are something that scientists do, rather than understanding that they can engage in scientific investigations throughout the course.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts: (an inadequate, superficial, or partial understanding of a conceptual idea or skill)

  • Students may only have an understanding of theory in layman’s terms.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary: (unit-specific terms, such as major content terminology that will or may be introduced to students)

  • Science – use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process

 

Related Vocabulary: (general terminology that may have high-yield impacts when utilized in combination with Key Content Vocabulary and may have been previously taught)

  • Scientific inquiry

 

 

Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

(Other Resources may be from the state or other sources that are not created by TEKS Resource System, e.g., TEA, NOAA, NASA, TPWD, etc.)

 

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – OnTRACK Scientific Process Skills

https://www.texasgateway.org/binder/ontrack-scientific-process-skills


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
AP.1 The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:
AP.1A Demonstrate verbal and non-verbal communication in a clear, concise, and effective manner.

Demonstrate

VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • General communication skills
    • Professionalism
      • Considerate of audience
      • Appropriate to the situation
      • Correct grammar – spoken and written
      • Questioning strategies (open vs. closed ended)
      • Terms with precise meanings for discussing the human body
        • Medical terminology
          • Roots
          • Prefixes
          • Suffixes
          • Common layman’s terms
      • Cultural competence awareness – a set of behaviors, practices, attitudes, and policies that come together amongst a group to enable effective work to be done in a cross-cultural situation
        • Culture – the sum of the values, beliefs, standards, languages, thinking patterns, behavioral norms, communication styles, etc. that guide decisions and actions of a group through time
  • Verbal communication skills
    • Explicit communication skills – information conveyed through spoken words
      • Pitch
      • Tone
      • Speed of speech
      • Word pronunciation
      • Active listening
  • Non-verbal communication skills
    • Implicit communication – information and meaning conveyed without spoken words
      • Awareness of body language
    • Written communication
      • Spelling
      • Formatting
  • Common barriers to communication
    • Physical disabilities
      • Aphasia
      • Hearing loss
      • Impaired vision
    • Psychological barriers
      • Attitudes
      • Bias
      • Prejudice
      • Stereotyping
  • Examples
    • Patient medical history
    • Presentation of medical information to a healthcare professional, a patient, and your classmates
    • How different cultural groups might respond to a medical scenario
    • Information directed to a certain cultural group
    • Examples of technical and expository writing
      • Topical speech
      • Detailed lab report providing and explaining data
      • Article analysis from a professional journal
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – A1 – Use correct application of writing practices in scientific communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – B3 – Recognize scientific and technical vocabulary in the field of study and use this vocabulary to enhance clarity of communication.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Application of Communication – C1 – Prepare and present scientific/technical information in appropriate formats for various audiences.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral, written, and visual presentations. 12D/H7
AP.1B Exhibit the ability to cooperate, contribute, and collaborate as a member of a team.

Exhibit

THE ABILITY TO COOPERATE, CONTRIBUTE, AND COLLABORATE AS A MEMBER OF A TEAM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cooperate
    • Exchange relevant information and resources in support of each other’s individual goals, rather than a shared goal
  • Contribute
    • Play a significant part in bringing about a shared goal
  • Collaborate
    • Work together to create something new in support of a shared goal
  • Traits of successful team members
    • Competence
    • Dependability
    • Honesty
    • Initiative
    • Patience
    • Responsibility
    • Self-motivation
    • Tact
    • Willingness to learn
    • Follow a chain of command
    • Decision making
    • Flexibility
    • Integrity
    • Loyalty
  • Examples
    • Collaborate on a group presentation
    • Contribute and collaborate by assigning and carrying out a set of roles within your group
    • Cooperate by sharing knowledge with others to produce individual projects
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C1 – Collaborate on joint projects.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
    • Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions. 12D/H6
AP.2 The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.2A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read, understand, and follow lab instructions independently
  • Know and follow classroom safety guidelines
  • Know location and proper use of safety equipment
    • Fire extinguisher
    • Safety shower
    • Eye wash
  • Wear appropriate personal protective equipment for each activity
    • Goggles
    • Aprons
    • Gloves
  • Handle all specimens based on their safety recommendations
  • Use lab equipment only as instructed
  • Analyze lab procedures and equipment in the physical lab setting, lab simulations, and field observations to determine their safe and unsafe practices
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – C2 – Understand and apply safe procedures in the laboratory and field, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety and safe handling of live or preserved organisms.
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B1 – Read technical and scientific articles to gain understanding of interpretations, apparatuses, techniques or procedures, and data.
AP.2B Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the proper use, conservation, and disposal of a variety of resources through the use of Safety Data Sheets and other sources of valid information
  • Limit the use of resources to the smallest amounts possible to conserve resources
  • Practice procedures to avoid waste due to the cross contamination of resources
  • Exhibit ethical behavior during the use and disposal of living or once living specimens during dissections and investigations
  • Exhibit the proper use and disposal of all biohazards encountered, including scalpel blades and dissection specimens
  • Analyze lab procedures and equipment in the physical lab setting, lab simulations, and field observations to determine their proper use, conservation of resources, and disposal
  • Identify recyclable materials
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
  • Project 2061: By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Human beings are part of the earth's ecosystems. Human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems. 5D/H3
AP.3 The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
AP.3A Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(4) of this section.

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Science – the “use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process"
  • Recognize science as a dynamic body of knowledge that is always growing and changing

Understand

SCIENCE HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Testability
  • Current technology
  • Professional ethics
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – B1 – Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations.
  • Project 2061: By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Science is based on the assumption that the universe is a vast single system in which the basic rules are everywhere the same and that the things and events in the universe occur in consistent patterns that are comprehensible through careful, systematic study. 1A/H1*
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
AP.3B Know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.

Know

THAT HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Recognize characteristics of a well-developed hypothesis
    • Constructed before any applicable research has been done, apart from a background information review
    • An empirical statement susceptible to observation
    • An explanation of a general phenomena, not a single occurrence
    • Plausible
    • Specific and carefully defined
    • Testable
  • Formulate a testable hypothesis for an investigative procedure
  • Determine if statements represent testable hypotheses

Know

THAT HYPOTHESES MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze data to determine whether the observational evidence supports or does not support the hypothesis
  • Summarize the characteristics of a widely tested hypothesis that leads to the incorporation into a theory
    • Have durable explanatory power – the ability to effectively explain the subject matter it pertains to over a long period of time without significant deterioration in quality or value
    • Have the ability to be supported, or not supported, by observational evidence
    • Have been proven over a wide variety of conditions by multiple investigators
Note(s):
  • National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Science, Evolution, and Creationism, National Academies Press, Washington, 2008 – Definition of science - “there must be possible observational consequences that could support the idea but also ones that could refute it”.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – B1 – Design and conduct scientific investigations in which hypotheses are formulated and tested.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available). 1B/H2
    • To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it. A hypothesis that cannot, in principle, be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it may not be scientifically useful. 1B/H9** (SFAA)
AP.3C Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science are created and new technologies emerge.

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ARE BASED ON NATURAL AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA AND ARE CAPABLE OF BEING TESTED BY MULTIPLE INDEPENDENT RESEARCHERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Components
    • Well-established and highly reliable explanations
    • Based on (natural) non-artificial phenomena, which involves the physical properties of matter and energy
    • Principles formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data
  • May be subject to change
    • New evidence arising that is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
    • The development of new technologies
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of anatomy and physiology and the evidence that supports, disproves, or modifies them, such as:
    • Humoral theory of disease
      • Description: Galen relied upon the Hippocratic treatise On the Nature of Man, which stated that good health relied on the balance of four humors or bodily fluids: phlegm, blood, yellow bile, and black bile
        • Historical example – use of bloodletting in disease treatment
        • Modern modification – use of leeches and maggots in medicine to reduce inflammation and remove necrotic tissue
    • Miasmatic theory
      • Description: states the origin of epidemics was due to a miasma, emanating from rotting organic matter, and spread to susceptible people by decaying plant and animal matter, various kinds of waste, bad smells, and bad air
      • Replaced in the 1880s by the germ theory of disease
    • Germ theory of disease
      • Description: states that specific microscopic organisms are the cause of specific diseases
      • Lister – antiseptic surgical techniques
      • Koch – Koch’s postulate
      • Pasteur – pasteurization, vaccination
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In the long run, theories are judged by the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how useful they are in making accurate predictions. 1B/H6b*
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
AP.3D Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.

Distinguish

BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Theory – a well-established and highly reliable explanation, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
  • Hypothesis – a tentative and testable statement that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence
  • Use supporting evidence to determine whether a statement is a hypothesis or a scientific theory
Note(s):
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In the long run, theories are judged by the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how useful they are in making accurate predictions. 1B/H6b*
    • The human ability to influence the course of history comes from its capacity for generating knowledge and developing new technologies—and for communicating ideas to others. 3C/H6** (BSL)
AP.3E Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Plan, Implement

DESCRIPTIVE, COMPARATIVE, AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Descriptive investigations
    • Involve collecting qualitative and / or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system
    • Includes a question, but no hypothesis
    • Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated
  • Comparative investigations
    • Involve collecting data on different organisms / objects / features / events or collecting data under different conditions to make a comparison
    • The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable
    • A fair test can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined
      • A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same
  • Experimental investigations
    • Involve designing a fair test similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified
    • Variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship
    • Often called a controlled experiment
  • Plan investigations
    • Ask questions
    • Formulate hypotheses
    • Select appropriate equipment and technology
  • Implement investigations
    • Obtain data that can be used to support, reject, or modify the hypothesis
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
    • I. Nature of Science – B1 – Design and conduct scientific investigations in which hypotheses are formulated and tested.
    • I. Nature of Science – D2 – Use computer models, applications, and simulations.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
  • TEA: Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations–FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
AP.3F Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.

Collect, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Qualitative – an observation that describes the physical appearance or observable changes in the investigation
  • Quantitative – a numerical measurement taken during an investigation
  • Organize data
    • Graphs
    • Tables
    • Charts
    • Diagrams
    • Lists 
    • Concept maps
    • Graphic organizers
    • Feedback loops
    • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Accuracy – the closeness of a measured value to a standard or known value
  • Precision – the closeness of two or more measurements to each other, independent of accuracy
  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Tools
    • Calculators (4 function or higher)
    • Spreadsheet software
    • Data collecting probes
    • Computers
    • Standard laboratory glassware
    • Microscopes
    • Various prepared slides
    • Stereoscopes
    • Metric rulers
    • Electronic balances
    • Gel electrophoresis apparatuses
    • Micropippetors
    • Hand lenses
    • Celsius thermometers
    • Hot plates
    • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
    • Timing devices
    • Petri dishes
    • Lab incubators
    • Cameras
    • Dissection equipment
    • Meter sticks
    • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures  
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – F1 – Select and use appropriate Standard International (SI) units and prefixes to express measurements for real world problems.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – B2 – Set up apparatuses, carry out procedures and collect specified data from a given set of appropriate instructions.
AP.3G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Analyze, Evaluate, Make Inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Infer – to form an opinion, based on known facts or evidence, as to the outcome of a thought or conclusion
  • Predict – to declare or indicate in advance; foretell on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reasoning
  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations to analyze and manipulate data
    • Averaging
    • Percent change
    • Probabilities and ratios
    • Rate of change
    • Statistical analysis
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible examples of data usage may include:
      • Prediction of the possible outcome of the investigation using only related scientific evidence collected prior to the investigation
      • Proposed inference, based on researched facts and evidence, serving as the hypothesis of the investigation
      • Evaluation of the validity of scientific data sets
      • Relationships among data sets
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
    • I. Nature of Science – E2 – Use essential vocabulary of the discipline being studied.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A7 – Use calculators, spreadsheets, computers, etc. in data analysis.
AP.3H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA THROUGH METHODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conclusion – an explanation of results based on data collected
  • Communicate valid conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
    • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
    • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
    • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Draw conclusions based only on the data from the investigation
  • Demonstrate various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
AP.4 The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
AP.4A In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze – to study or determine the nature and relationship of the parts of something
  • Evaluate – to determine the significance, worth, or condition of, usually by careful appraisal and study
  • Critique – a careful judgment to provide an opinion about the positive and negative aspects of something
  • Assess examples of scientific explanations and their usefulness to the field of medicine
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Evaluate the best practice guidelines for a childhood vaccination schedule
      • Critique the use of herd immunity in protecting non-vaccinated individuals
      • Analyze the use of herbal supplements in disease prevention and treatment
      • Evaluate the use of radiation in medical diagnostics and treatment

Use

EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE, LOGICAL REASONING, AND EXPERIMENTAL AND OBSERVATIONAL TESTING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Empirical evidence – information acquired by observation or experimentation
  • Logical reasoning – the drawing of inferences or conclusions through the use of reason
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Analyze a patient's medical history or case study
      • Set up, conduct, and analyze a lab investigation
      • Analyze a patient's lab results
  • Observational testing – members of a sample are studied without trying to affect them
  • Experimental testing – people or things are randomly assigned to groups; treatment is applied to one of the groups, while the other group does not receive treatment
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Double-blind study protocol
      • Patient medical history or case study analysis
      • Medical scenarios and their observational or experimental characteristics
      • Experimental and observational testing as applied to the scientific method
      • Experimental or observational testing aspects of anatomy labs
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence. 1B/H4*
AP.4B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as accredited scientific journals, institutions of higher learning, current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Extract, Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contrast of scientific information and non-scientific information
    • Scientific information refers to data gained through the scientific method using a sequence of logical steps to investigate, acquire, or expand our understanding. Scientific information can be reproduced and has been demonstrated to be consistent.
    • Non-scientific information refers to knowledge and truths about the world acquired by using techniques that do not follow the scientific method, such as traditions, personal experience, and intuition.
  • Extract scientific information from various sources
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Accredited scientific journal
      • Institution of higher learning
      • Current event
      • News report
      • Published journal articles
      • Marketing material
  • Communicate scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Video presenting findings from a scientific journal or published journal article to the public
      • Display critiquing only the scientific characteristics of two similar products gathered from marketing materials
  • Apply scientific information
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Scientific compared to non-scientific informational analysis of a situation 
      • Determination of necessary scientific information when making a decision
        • A patient being able to give informed consent
        • Better medication choice to take under certain conditions
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – D1 – Demonstrate literacy in computer use.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grades, students should know that:
    • The dissemination of scientific information is crucial to its progress. Some scientists present their findings and theories in papers that are delivered at meetings or published in scientific journals. Those papers enable scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and, of course, to stay abreast of scientific developments around the world. 1C/H12** (SFAA)
    • Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Acting in their areas of expertise, scientists can help people understand the likely causes of events and estimate their possible effects. 1C/H6ab 
AP.4C Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.

Draw

INFERENCES BASED ON DATA RELATED TO PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish between promotional and non-promotional materials
    • Promotional material
      • Biased message
      • Example: an advertisement issued on behalf of some product or service, cause or idea, or person or institution
    • Non-promotional material 
      • Non-biased data
      • Example: focuses on the current state of understanding of certain diseases and is not related to specific products or services
  • Infer – deduce from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Type of data provided by promotional materials for products and services described in a variety of sources, such as print, on television, and on the Internet
      • Promotional material evaluation for quality, validity, and accuracy of information provided
      • Evaluation of completeness and reliability of information from promotional materials
      • Inference about the product or medical process based only on the information provided in the promotional materials
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – A1 – Use skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D1 – Use search engines, databases, and other digital electronic tools effectively to locate information.
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – D2 – Evaluate quality, accuracy, completeness, reliability, and currency of information from any source.
AP.4D Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment.

Evaluate

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Importance of scientific articles in gaining an understanding of the impact of research
  • Recognition of the connection of scientific discoveries to technological innovations
  • Impact of scientific research and technology on ethical and legal practices
  • Impact of commonly held ethical beliefs on scientific research and vice versa
  • Understanding how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
  • Possible research topics may include:
    • Development of preventive, diagnostic, or treatment products
    • How vaccines prevent diseases in society
    • Transmission of diseases, such as AIDS and tuberculosis, and how to protect society from diseases
    • Technology that can improve quality of life for those living with paralysis or other disabilities
    • Use of stem cells, both fetal and adult

Evaluate

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Understanding of the environmental impact of research
  • Recognition of how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Description of how scientific research has led to scientific discoveries
  • Analysis of scientific discoveries that have impacted the environment positively and negatively
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Dangers of second hand smoke
      • Uses of nuclear medicine
      • Dangers of airborne asbestos particles
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
  • Project 2061: By the 12th grade, students should understand:
    • Because science is a human activity, what is valued in society influences what is valued in science. 1C/H10** (SFAA)
    • The human ability to influence the course of history comes from its capacity for generating knowledge and developing new technologies—and for communicating ideas to others. 3C/H6** (BSL)
AP.4E Evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events.

Evaluate

MODELS ACCORDING TO THEIR LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine and evaluate various biological models (including physical, mathematical, and conceptual)
  • Identify advantages and limitations in biological models
  • Possible examples of evaluating biological models may include:
    • Effects of molecular structure on the function of the major biomolecules
    • Discrepancies between generalized cell model and differentiated cells
    • Evaluation of muscular contraction using the sliding filament theory
    • Volume and pressure changes in the lungs and thoracic cage during pulmonary ventilation
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
AP.4F Research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.

Research, Describe

THE CONTRIBUTION OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contributions of various scientists to the field of anatomy and physiology
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Leonardo Da Vinci
      • Sir Humphry Davy (anesthetics)
      • William Harvey (An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals)
      • Crawford Long (anesthetics)
      • William Morton (anesthetics)
      • Louis Pasteur (germ theory)
      • Vesalius (De Fabrica Corporis Humani)
      • Dr. Horace Wells (anesthetics)
      • Dr. Paul Dudley White (electrocardiograph)
      • Sir Christopher Wren (blood transfusions)

Research, Describe

THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Research on significant events in history of anatomy and physiology
  • Timeline of the significant events within a certain era
Note(s):
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories in science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 07/24/2019
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