Hello, Guest!

Instructional Focus Document
Grade 4 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 02: Thinking Like a Historian SUGGESTED DURATION : 5 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to the critical thinking skills associated with historical inquiry. A rigorous study of history requires that students employ strategies for the close reading of historical sources, both primary and secondary.  Mastery of the skills used by historians is necessary for students to become resourceful consumers of information readily and abundantly available in twenty-first century society.

In 2016 the Stanford History Education Group analyzed over 7,804 student responses to a series of exercises related to examining information on the internet.  The researchers found that students in middle school, high school, and college lacked the ability to reason about information. Students were unable to distinguish ads from new stories, corroborate information, evaluate claims, or judge the reliability of a source. These findings substantiate the importance of the critical thinking skills students practice in this unit and continue to develop throughout the course.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit students studied the physical geography of Texas utilizing the skills of geographers to create maps depicting geographic patterns.

During this Unit

During this unit, students begin the process of historical inquiry by first examining the Declaration of Independence and US Constitution for meaning, purpose, and intent. In this unit students begin by 1) exploring a compelling question; 2) employing strategies for locating and obtaining sources of information; and 3) practicing close reading of sources in order to find the main idea, identify cause-effect relationships, and summarize information.

Throughout the Grade 4 social studies curriculum, students continue to study the geographic and historical patterns of Texas utilizing the skills introduced in these first two units. More specifically, in the next unit students learn about the history of American Indian groups in early Texas and the impact of the environment on their lifestyles.

Additional Notes

Given the nature of the unit - thinking like of a historian - students are best served by practicing the skills embedded in the performance assessments and performance tasks. A multiple choice test may not be wholly appropriate for assessing the kind of skills student should be demonstrating. Consequently, there are few to no items in the item bank for this unit.

After this Unit

In subsequent grades, students continue to refine their critical thinking skills associated with historical inquiry. It is recommended that teachers consult the Thinking Like a Historian resource for additional information about this unit’s Performance Assessments as well as a social studies skills matrix for viewing the vertical progression of skills attainment in the social studies curriculum.

Research

Wineburg, Sam and McGrew, Sarah and Breakstone, Joel and Ortega, Teresa. (2016). Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online Reasoning. Stanford Digital Repository. http://purl.stanford.edu/fv751yt5934.


The values of a society are reflected in its culture and institutions.

  • How does a society preserve and perpetuate its values?

Historical inquiry is a continuous process of analyzing multiple sources and reconciling multiple points of view in order to construct a tentative interpretation of the past.

  • What methods are used to craft a narrative of the past?

Historians, geographers, and social scientists conduct research by creating compelling questions; evaluating sources; gathering, analyzing, and synthesizing information; and communicating conclusions supported by evidence.

  • How do historians, geographers, and social scientists conduct credible research?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Americans preserved important legal ideas in documents.

  • Why is it important for leaders to create written documents?
  • What important ideas are included in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights?

Civic Engagement

  • Democratic Principles
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Historians examine a variety of sources to study the past.

  • What is the difference between a primary source and a secondary source?
  • What information can be acquired by examining sources?

Social Studies Skills

  • Acquire information through research and analysis
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may think that the existence of bias in a source negates it as relevant or informative. Students should understand that all sources contain bias and that historical inquiry requires the examination of historical context or frame of reference to account for that bias.

Unit Vocabulary

constitution – an outline of the fundamental principles and structure of an organization or government
document – a written record of information
rights – freedoms given to citizens
historian – someone who studies the past by examining written and visual sources
source – a person, place, or document that provides information

Related Vocabulary

  •  freedom
  •  liberty
 
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
4 Government.
4.15 Government. The student understands important ideas in historical documents of Texas and the United States. The student is expected to:
4.15C Identify the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights (Celebrate Freedom Week).

Identify

INTENT, MEANING, AND IMPORTANCE OF DOCUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Declaration of Independence
    • Intent/meaning – to explain the grievances (complaints) Americans had about the actions of King George III and Great Britain
    • This document declared the colonies independence from Great Britain and marked the beginning of the American Revolution
  • U.S. Constitution
    • Intent/meaning – to create a constitutional republic in the United States and outline the structure of the U.S. government
    • Importance – formed the government of the United States
  • Bill of Rights
    • Intent/meaning – to list the individual rights of American citizens
    • Importance – a document that specifically details the rights of Americans and protects the individual rights of Americans
4 Social studies skills.
4.21 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
4.21A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; documents; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States and Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT THE UNITED STATES AND TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Computer software
  • Interviews
  • Biographies
  • Oral, print, and visual material
  • Documents
  • Artifacts
4.21B Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • By using skills of:
    • Sequencing
    • Categorizing
    • Identifying cause-and-effect relationship
    • Comparing
    • Contrasting
    • Finding the main idea
    • Summarizing
    • Making generalizations and predictions
    • Drawing inferences and conclusions
4.21C Organize and interpret information in outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Information in:
    • Outlines
    • Reports
    • Databases
    • Visuals
      • Graphs
      • Charts
      • Timelines
      • Maps
4.21D Identify different points of view about an issue, topic, historical event, or current event.

Identify

POINTS OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Points of view about:
    • Issue
    • Topic
    • Historical event
    • Current event
4.22 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
4.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

4.22B Incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication.

Incorporate

MAIN AND SUPPORTING IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In verbal communication
  • In written communication
4.22C Express ideas orally based on research and experiences.

Express

IDEAS ORALLY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Based on research
  • Based on experiences
4.22D Create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 05/24/2018
Loading
Data is Loading...