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Instructional Focus Document
Biology Systems Macro to Micro
TITLE : Unit 11: Genetics and Epigenetics SUGGESTED DURATION : 20 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

Students will focus on the processes and factors that control gene expression. Students investigate the predictable aspects of genetics that are based on nucleotide sequence and gene dominance behaviors. Students predict possible outcomes of monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-Mendelian inheritance using Punnett squares and mathematical conventions. Students recognize that gene expression is a regulated process by interpreting scenarios to determine the causes for demonstrated traits (see STAAR analysis of B.6D for more details). Students recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction and the events that can occur during meiosis that increase genetic variability. Students describe the roles of DNA, RNA, and environmental factors in cell differentiation.

 

Streamlining Note

Former TEKS B.6H has been removed. Students are no longer expected to describe how techniques are used to study the genomes of organisms. Gel electrophoresis apparatuses is still included in the list of tools used to make measurements with accuracy and precision in B.2F.

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Grade 7
    • 7.14A – Define heredity as the passage of genetic instructions from one generation to the next generation.
    • 7.14B – Compare the results of uniform or diverse offspring from asexual or sexual reproduction.
    • 7.14C – Recognize that inherited traits of individuals are governed in the genetic material found in the genes within chromosomes in the nucleus.

 

After this Unit

Students will apply their understanding of genetics and epigenetics to make informed ethical and social decisions and recognize gene expression within their own bodies.

 

STAAR Note

 

The Biology STAAR will directly assess student expectations in the following reporting categories:

  • Reporting Category 1: Cell Structure and Function
    • B.5B – Supporting Standard
  • Reporting Category 2: Mechanisms of Genetics
    • B.6D – Supporting Standard
    • B.6F – Readiness Standard
    • B.6G – Supporting Standard

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • …the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in the offspring of any two parents.
  • …heritable characteristics can include details of biochemistry and anatomical features that are ultimately produced in the development of the organism. By biochemical or anatomical means, heritable characteristics may also influence behavior.
  • …heritable characteristics can be observed at molecular and whole-organism levels—in structure, chemistry, or behavior.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993, 2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Genes are expressed or not expressed, based on allele dominance and chromatin structure regulated by the cell’s DNA, RNA, and response to environmental factors.

  • What factors influence inheritance patterns and expression of genes?
  • In what ways does gene expression influence cell differentiation?

Systems

  • Genetics
  • Epigenetics

 

Classifications

  • Mendelian inheritance
  • Non-Mendelian inheritance

 

Properties

  • DNA sequence
  • RNA sequence
  • Environmental factors

 

Patterns

  • Gene expression
  • Cell differentiation
  • Meiosis
  • Sexual reproduction

 

Models

  • Punnett squares

 

Constancy

  • Genotype / phenotype relationship

 

Change

  • Traits of offspring compared to parents
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Many genes are expressed in predictable patterns based on allele dominance behavior, and the probability of offspring inheritance of these genes and traits can be calculated.

  • In what ways can the probability of offspring inheritance be calculated?
  • What are the limitations of calculating the probability of offspring inheritance?
  • What role does meiosis play in the probability of offspring inheritance?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that Punnett squares give the exact genotypic and phenotypic ratios of a genetic cross, when in fact the ratios only indicate the probability of a particular outcome.
  • Students may think that dominant traits are more common in the population than recessive traits, rather than dominance only indicating which allele will be expressed, but not the rarity of the alleles.
  • Students may think that all or most traits follow the well-studied Mendelian Laws of Inheritance rather than understanding that the expression of most traits (especially in humans) are controlled by many factors and mechanisms not directly explained by Mendelian Laws.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may not fully understand the significant role meiosis plays in inheritance patterns; particularly the role it plays in genetic variation.
  • Students may overlook the role that environmental factors play in the expression of genes and ultimately the expression of traits.
  • Students may not understand that all cells have the same genome but that each specific differentiated cell type transcribes different genes or the same genes in different proportions or at different times in development than other cells to achieve differentiation.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Allele – one or more forms of a gene
  • Cell differentiation – process in multicellular organisms in which a less-specialized cell acquires specific differences during development; acquisition of these differences is the result of gene expression
  • Epigenetics – the study of factors that affect gene expression that are not directly linked to nucleotide sequence in genetic material
  • Gene – inheritable unit of information in DNA
  • Gene expression – process by which information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein, which results in the phenotypic manifestation of the gene
  • Genetics – the study of the processes and results of inherited traits
  • Genotype – allele combination for a trait
  • Meiosis – a two-part cell division process in organisms that sexually reproduce, which results in gametes with one-half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
  • Phenotype – an observable trait or characteristic
  • Punnett square – tool (model) used to indicate all possible genotypic outcomes of a particular cross or breeding experiment and to calculate genotypic and phenotypic probabilities in offspring

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Autosomal
  • Autosome
  • Codominance
  • Complete dominance
  • Dihybrid cross
  • Diploid
  • DNA triplet
  • Dominant
  • Electrophoresis
  • F1 generation
  • F2 generation
  • Haploid
  • Heterozygous
  • Homologous pairs
  • Homologous recombination (crossing over)
  • Homozygous
  • Incomplete dominance
  • Inherited
  • Law of independent assortment
  • Law of segregation
  • Monohybrid cross
  • Multiple alleles
  • Non-coding RNA
  • Non-Mendelian inheritance
  • Phenotypic expression
  • Polygenic traits
  • Polymerase
  • Polypeptide
  • Recessive
  • Recombination
  • Sex-linked traits
  • Sister chromatids
  • X-linked recessive
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Predict Monohybrid Crosses

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/predict-monohybrid-crosses

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Monohybrid and Dihybrid Crosses

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/monohybrid-and-dihybrid-crosses


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
B.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
B.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment, such as goggles, aprons, and gloves
  • Know location of safety equipment, such as fire extinguisher, safety shower, and eye wash
  • Follow classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
  • Handle organisms appropriately
  • Use lab equipment appropriately

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.1B Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
  • Reducing pollution
  • Being a wise consumer
  • Decreasing reliance on fossil fuels
  • Preserving habitats
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
B.2E Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

DESCRIPTIVE, COMPARATIVE, AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observe natural phenomena
  • Ask questions
  • Formulate testable hypotheses
  • Plan and implement investigations
    • Descriptive
    • Comparative
    • Experimental
  • Select appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations–FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Experimental investigations involve designing a ―fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a ―controlled experiment.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
B.2F Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as data-collecting probes, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettes, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.
Process Standard

Collect, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:           

  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Data collecting probes
  • Standard laboratory glassware
  • Microscopes
  • Various prepared slides
  • Stereoscopes
  • Metric rulers
  • Balances
  • Gel electrophoresis apparatuses
  • Micropipettes
  • Hand lenses
  • Celsius thermometers
  • Hot plates
  • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
  • Timing devices
  • Petri dishes
  • Lab incubators
  • Dissection equipment
  • Meter sticks
  • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures  

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
    • Students will be allowed to utilize 4 function, scientific, or graphing calculators on the STAAR Biology Assessment.
B.2G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Averaging
      • Percent change
      • Probabilities and ratios
      • Rate of change
  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible data format examples may include:
      • Punnett squares
      • Data and fact tables
      • Graphs
      • Graphic organizers
      • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
    • Students may be asked to interpret data in multiple contexts in order to make inferences and predict trends.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
B.2H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.
Process Standard

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
B.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
B.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
B.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.
Process Standard

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
    • Possible ways of communicating information:
      • Graphic organizer
      • Graphs
      • Written or verbal reports
      • Data tables
      • Advertisements
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • News reports
      • Product or food labels
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.3E Evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events.
Process Standard

Evaluate

MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine and evaluate various biological models (including physical, mathematical, and conceptual)
  • Identify advantages and limitations in biological models
    • Possible examples of biological models may include:
      • Simulations

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.5 Science concepts. The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. The student is expected to:
B.5B Describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and environmental factors in cell differentiation.
Supporting Standard

Describe

THE ROLES OF DNA, RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA), AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN CELL DIFFERENTIATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cell differentiation is the result of controlled modifications in the gene expression process
  • Differentiated cells have the same DNA (genome)
  • Cells differentiate when they do not use the same sections of DNA (genes), or they use the same sections of DNA (genes) in different proportions, or at different times in development
  • Epigenetic modification of DNA – changes in packaging structure for DNA (chromatin) affects which genes can be expressed
    • Epigenetic characteristics are passed from one cell to the next during mitosis causing the next cell to have the same gene expression patterns
    • Factors that affect epigenetics
      • Environmental factors (e.g., temperature, chemicals, radiation, food)
      • Internal factors (e.g., enzymes, non-coding RNA, chemicals in cytoplasm, transcription factors)
      • Signals from other cells in the organisms (e.g., proteins and other signaling molecules)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Although Grade 7 students have been introduced to the role of genetic material (DNA) in governing traits of individuals (7.14C), this is the first time students have been directly introduced to the concept of cell differentiation and the role DNA, RNA, and the environment play in that process.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from 20 different kinds of amino acid molecules. The function of each protein molecule depends on its specific sequence of amino acids and its shape. The shape of the chain is a consequence of attractions between its parts. 5C/H3
    • The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules. 5C/H4a
    • The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules is virtually the same for all life forms. 5C/H4b
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – D3 – Understand the molecular structures and functions of nucleic acids.
B.6 Science concepts. The student knows the mechanisms of genetics such as the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics. The student is expected to:
B.6D Recognize that gene expression is a regulated process.
Supporting Standard

Recognize

THAT GENE EXPRESSION IS A REGULATED PROCESS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Expression of genes can be influenced by the organisms internal and external environments
    • Internal environmental factors
      • Hormones
      • Metabolism
      • Gender
    • External environmental factors
      • Drugs
      • Temperature
      • Chemicals
      • Light

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to the regulation processes of gene expression.
    • In Grade 7, students are introduced to the concept that information for specifying traits of an organism is governed by genetic material (7.14C).
B.6F Predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-Mendelian inheritance.
Readiness Standard

Predict

POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF VARIOUS GENETIC COMBINATIONS SUCH AS MONOHYBRID CROSSES, DIHYBRID CROSSES, AND NON-MENDELIAN INHERITANCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Representations of outcomes of genetic combinations
    • Ratios of expected genotypes or phenotypes
    • Percentages of expected genotypes or phenotypes
    • Pictures of phenotypes
    • Graphs or charts of genotypes or phenotypes
  • Use Punnett squares or other methods to calculate possible outcomes of the F2 generation based on genotype information about the F1 generation
  • Infer genotype information of the F1 generation based on genotype or phenotype information about the F2 generation
  • Genetic combinations
    • Mendelian genetics
      • Monohybrid crosses
        • Single gene trait on autosomal chromosomes with one dominant allele and one recessive allele
        • Genotypes include homozygous dominant (GG), homozygous recessive (gg), or heterozygous (Gg)
        • Possible examples may include:
          • Albinism (recessive)
          • Cystic fibrosis (recessive)
          • Achondroplasia (dominant)
          • Sickle cell anemia (recessive)
          • Tay-Sachs disease (recessive)
          • Huntington’s disease (dominant)
          • Polycystic kidney disease (dominant)
          • Widow’s peak (dominant)
        • Dihybrid crosses
          • Two traits caused by two separate genes on the same or different autosomal chromosome
          • Each gene follows the dominant, recessive, homozygous, and heterozygous conventions independent of the other gene
          • Possible examples may include any combination two single gene traits
        • Laws and conclusions of Mendelian Genetics
          • Principle of dominance
          • Law of segregation
          • Law of independent assortment
    • Non-Mendelian inheritance
      • Incomplete dominance (one allele does not completely mask the action of the other allele, so a completely dominant allele does not occur)
        • Possible examples may include:
          • Pink coloration in snapdragons
      • Codominance (both alleles are expressed equally in a heterozygous genotype)
        • Possible examples may include:
          • Roan cattle (red and white hairs expressed equally)
          • White and red spotted flowers
          • Human blood types (also multiple alleles)
      • Multiple alleles (more than 2 alleles affect the trait)
        • Possible examples may include:
          • Human blood types
      • Sex-linked traits (genes that are located on the sex chromosome, usually the X chromosome)
        • Possible examples may include:
          • Hemophilia (x-linked recessive)
          • Color blindness (x-linked recessive)
      • Recognize that phenotypic expression is often the result of a complex interaction of many genes, gene products (proteins), and environmental factors
        • Polygenic traits
          • Possible examples may include:
            • Eye color
            • Skin color
            • Height
        • Epistasis
      • Recognize that some traits can be a result of mitochondrial DNA gene expression (e.g., Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been expected to predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations using Punnett squares.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in the offspring of any two parents. 5B/H2
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – D1 – Understand Mendel’s laws of inheritance.
    • VI. Biology – D2 – Know modifications to Mendel’s laws.
B.6G Recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction.
Supporting Standard

Recognize

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MEIOSIS TO SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Difference between sexual and asexual reproduction
  • Events of meiosis and the significance of these events to maintaining chromosome number in a species
  • Meiosis results in gamete formation (haploid cells)
  • How meiosis introduces genetic variability
    • Law of segregation
    • Law of independent assortment
    • Crossing over or homologous recombination
  • Differences between Meiosis I and Meiosis II
    • Separation of homologous pairs vs. separation of sister chromatids
  • How the events of meiosis produce the genetic effects described by Mendel’s laws of inheritance
  • Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • In Grade 7, students compare the results of uniform or diverse offspring from asexual or sexual reproduction (7.14B). 
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to meiosis and its significance in sexual reproduction.
    • Students may be asked to recognize illustrations of the major events of meiosis (e.g., crossing over, independent assortment)
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – D5 – Describe the major feature of meiosis and relate this process to Mendel’s laws of inheritance.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 10/07/2019
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