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Instructional Focus Document
Biology Systems Macro to Micro
TITLE : Unit 10: The Role of Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis SUGGESTED DURATION : 16 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit focuses on the structures and processes involved in protein synthesis.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Grade 7
    • 7.14C – Recognize that inherited traits of individuals are governed in the genetic material found in the genes within chromosomes in the nucleus.

 

During this Unit

Students identify the function of DNA through investigating the protein synthesis processes and mutations. Students explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation. Students identify and illustrate DNA mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes through examining changes in transcription and translation. Students compare the functions of the types of biomolecules in the context of the protein synthesis processes.

 

Streamlining Note

TEKS B.4B was revised to move energy conversions to B.9B and remove synthesis of molecules. Synthesis of new molecules is limited to the context of DNA replication during The Cell Cycle unit (B.5A) and transcription and translation during this unit (B.6C).

TEKS B.6A was revised in two ways. Students now “identify” how information for specifying traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, replacing the former verb “describe” to save instructional time. Language was added to the end TEKS B.6A to replace former TEKS B.9D; however, the additional content is not addressed in this unit. Students examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA in the Evolution unit.

 

After this Unit

Students will apply their understanding of protein synthesis and the role of nucleic acids to the following unit focused on genetics and epigenetics.

 

Additional Notes

STAAR Note

The Biology STAAR will directly assess Student Expectations in the following Reporting Categories:

  • Reporting Category 2: Mechanisms of Genetics
    • B.6A – Readiness Standard
    • B.6C – Supporting Standard
    • B.6E – Readiness Standard
  • Reporting Category 4: Biological Processes and Systems
    • B.9A – Readiness Standard

 

Research

“By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:

  • The information passed from parents to offspring is coded in DNA molecules, long chains linking just four kinds of smaller molecules, whose precise sequence encodes genetic information. 5B/H3*
  • Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Inserting, deleting, or substituting segments of DNA molecules can alter genes. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment. 5B/H4*
  • Gene mutations can be caused by such things as radiation and chemicals. When they occur in sex cells, they can be passed on to offspring; if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only. The experiences an organism has during its lifetime can affect its offspring only if the genes in its own sex cells are changed by the experience. 5B/H5”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993, 2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The sequence of nitrogenous bases / nucleotides in a gene determines the sequence of amino acids, which determine the function of a protein.

  • How would you describe the structures and their interactions during the processes of protein synthesis?
  • Why is the sequence of nitrogenous bases / nucleotides important to an organism?

Systems

  • Cellular processes

 

Classifications

  • Transcription
  • Translation

 

Properties

  • Proteins
  • Amino acids
  • DNA
  • mRNA
  • rRNA
  • tRNA
  • Ribosome

 

Patterns

  • Nucleotide sequence
  • Amino acid sequence

 

Models

  • Protein synthesis diagrams

 

Constancy

  • Base pairing rules
  • Codon / anticodon / amino acid relationships

 

Change

  • Mutations
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Mutations change DNA and affect the organism in a variety of ways including helping, harming, or having no noticeable effect.

  • In what ways can an organism be impacted by changes in its DNA?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think all mutations are harmful to the organism, rather than understanding that mutations are not always harmful and in some cases can be beneficial or simply silent.
  • Students may think that protein synthesis is carried out differently in each species, rather than understanding that the basics of protein synthesis are the same for all organisms.
  • Students may think the process of protein synthesis is the same as DNA replication, rather than understanding that they are two separate processes serving different purposes.
  • Students may think amino acids are produced by the process of translation, rather than understanding that those building blocks are either obtained from diet or synthesized in other biochemical processes.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Amino acids – a group of 20 chemicals that are the building blocks of proteins
  • Codon – sequence of three nitrogen bases in DNA or mRNA that codes for an amino acid
  • mRNA (messenger RNA) – coding strand of RNA that carries genetic information from the DNA to ribosomes where it then specifies how to build proteins
  • Mutation – change in DNA sequence
  • Nucleic acids – a group of organic molecules that includes DNA and RNA, which store and transmit genetic information used for protein synthesis
  • Nucleotide – the building blocks of nucleic acids consisiting of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
  • Protein synthesis – cellular process used to make proteins, which includes transcription and translation
  • Proteins a group of organic molecules that perform many functions throughout organisms including providing structure and facilitating chemical reactions (enzymes)
  • rRNA (ribosomal RNA) – non-coding strands of RNA that serves as the subunits of ribosomes
  • Ribosome – complex molecule made up of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) subunits and proteins; it serves as the site of protein synthesis (translation) where amino acids are linked together to build proteins as specified by the messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • Transcription – process of copying DNA into mRNA in gene expression
  • tRNA (transfer RNA) – non-coding strands of RNA that carry amino acids to protein-building ribosomes
  • Translation – process by which mRNA is used to synthesize proteins

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Adenine
  • Amino acid
  • Anticodon
  • Chromosomal mutation
  • Codon chart
  • Cytosine
  • Deletion mutation (chromosomal)
  • Deletion mutation (gene)
  • DNA triplet (codon)
  • Duplication mutation (chromosomal)
  • Frameshift mutation (gene)
  • Gene mutation
  • Guanine
  • Helicase
  • Insertion mutation (gene)
  • Inversion mutation (chromosomal)
  • Missense mutation
  • Nonsense mutation
  • Nuclear pore
  • Point mutation (gene)
  • Production
  • Protein folding
  • RNA polymerase
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Silent mutation
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • Substitution mutation (gene)
  • Synthesis
  • Thymine
  • Translocation mutation (chromosomal)
  • Uracil
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Genetic Mutations

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/genetic-mutations

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Mechanisms of Genetics: DNA Changes

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/mechanisms-genetics-dna-changes

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Mechanisms of Genetics: Protein Synthesis

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/mechanisms-genetics-protein-synthesis

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – OnTRACK Scientific Process Skills

https://www.texasgateway.org/binder/ontrack-scientific-process-skills

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Protein Synthesis

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/protein-synthesis


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
B.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
B.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment, such as goggles, aprons, and gloves
  • Know location of safety equipment, such as fire extinguisher, safety shower, and eye wash
  • Follow classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
  • Handle organisms appropriately
  • Use lab equipment appropriately

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.1B Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
  • Reducing pollution
  • Being a wise consumer
  • Decreasing reliance on fossil fuels
  • Preserving habitats
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
B.2E Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

DESCRIPTIVE, COMPARATIVE, AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observe natural phenomena
  • Ask questions
  • Formulate testable hypotheses
  • Plan and implement investigations
    • Descriptive
    • Comparative
    • Experimental
  • Select appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations–FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Experimental investigations involve designing a ―fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a ―controlled experiment.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
B.2F

Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as data-collecting probes, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettes, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.


Process Standard

Collect, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:           

  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Data collecting probes
  • Standard laboratory glassware
  • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
  • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures  

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
    • Students will be allowed to utilize 4 function, scientific, or graphing calculators on the STAAR Biology Assessment.
B.2G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Averaging
      • Percent change
      • Probabilities and ratios
      • Rate of change
  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible data format examples may include:
      • Data and fact tables
      • Graphs
      • Graphic organizers
      • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
    • Students may be asked to interpret data in multiple contexts in order to make inferences and predict trends.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
B.2H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.
Process Standard

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
B.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
B.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
B.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.
Process Standard

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
    • Possible ways of communicating information:
      • Graphic organizer
      • Graphs
      • Written or verbal reports
      • Data tables
      • Advertisements
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • News reports
      • Product or food labels
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.3E Evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events.
Process Standard

Evaluate

MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine and evaluate various biological models (including physical, mathematical, and conceptual)
  • Identify advantages and limitations in biological models
    • Possible examples of biological models may include:
      • DNA
      • Cell models
      • Simulations
      • Molecular models

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.6 Science concepts. The student knows the mechanisms of genetics such as the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics. The student is expected to:
B.6A

Identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA.


Readiness Standard



Identify

HOW INFORMATION FOR SPECIFYING THE TRAITS OF AN ORGANISM IS CARRIED IN THE DNA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Nitrogenous base sequence makes up the genetic code, which determines traits
  • Genes code for polypeptides which are processed, folded, and sometimes linked together to form proteins
    • DNA triplets (codons) code for one amino acid
    • Amino acids link together to form polypeptides
    • Polypeptides are processed to form proteins
  • Protein presence, absence, and interactions determine an organism’s traits (growth, development, cellular functions, structure, etc.)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students should be exposed to, but not assessed on the classification of nitrogen bases as purines and pyrimidines. This information may assist in explaining base pairing rules.
    • In Grade 7, students are introduced to the concept that information for specifying traits of an organism is governed by genetic material (7.14C). 
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to the components and structure of DNA.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • The information passed from parents to offspring is coded in DNA molecules, long chains linking just four kinds of smaller molecules, whose precise sequence encodes genetic information. 5B/H3*
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – D3 – Understand the molecular structures and functions of nucleic acids.
B.6C Explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation using models of DNA and RNA.
Supporting Standard

Explain

THE PURPOSE AND PROCESS OF TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION USING MODELS OF DNA AND RNA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Purpose of transcription – synthesize mRNA
  • Purpose of translation – synthesize protein
  • Differences between DNA and RNA
    • Number of strands
    • Type of sugar
    • Nitrogen bases
    • Location in cell
    • Function
  • Base pairing between DNA and RNA
    • DNA adenine pairs with RNA uracil
    • DNA thymine pairs with RNA adenine
    • DNA cytosine pairs with RNA guanine
    • DNA guanine pairs with RNA cytosine
  • Differentiation among
    • mRNA
    • tRNA
    • rRNA
  • Describe the process (steps) of transcription
  • Describe the process (steps) of translation
  • Differentiate between transcription and translation
    • Location within the cell
    • End product
  • Translate a sequence of DNA or RNA given a codon chart (various charts including rectangular or circular models)
  • Use models of transcription and translation
    • Labeled diagrams
    • Drawings
    • Computer simulations
    • Video animations
    • Student-constructed models

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to transcription and translation.
    • Students may be asked to interpret data in multiple contexts (codon charts) in order to make inferences and predict trends (B.2G).
    • Students should understand that “weak” hydrogen bonds along with enzyme action causes DNA to unzip between the bases creating the template strand for RNA transcription and DNA replication.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – D3 – Understand the molecular structures and functions of nucleic acids.
B.6E Identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes.
Readiness Standard

Identify, Illustrate

CHANGES IN DNA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Gene mutation [changes that occur at the gene level during the DNA replication stage of the cell cycle (mitosis and meiosis)]
    • Insertion
    • Deletion
    • Substitution
    • Frameshift
    • Point
  • Chromosomal mutations (changes that occur at the chromosomal level during the recombination and segregation stages of meiosis)
    • Duplication
    • Deletion
    • Inversion
    • Translocation
    • Non-disjunction

Evaluate

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THESE CHANGES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mutations may affect the survival of an individual due to natural selection
  • Genetic changes may be harmless or can lead to diseases
  • Evaluate significance of changes occurring in somatic cells and germ-line cells
    • If a change occurs in the genetic material of a germ-line cell including gametes, an offspring made from that gamete will have the change in every cell of their body, including the germ-line cells that affect future generations
      • Increases genetic variation within a population which may lead to differential reproductive success through natural selection
    • Changes that occur in the somatic cells rather than the germ-line cells will not be passed on to offspring

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to mutations and their significance.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Some new gene combinations make little difference, some can produce organisms with new and perhaps enhanced capabilities, and some can be deleterious. 5B/H1
    • Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Inserting, deleting, or substituting segments of DNA molecules can alter genes. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment. 5B/H4*
    • Gene mutations can be caused by such things as radiation and chemicals. When they occur in sex cells, they can be passed on to offspring; if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only. The experiences an organism has during its lifetime can affect its offspring only if the genes in its own sex cells are changed by the experience. 5B/H5
B.9 Science concepts. The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:
B.9A

Compare the functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.


Readiness Standard



Note: This is the fourth and final unit that includes this Student Expectation. Students will focus on the functions of biomolecules involved in protein synthesis during this unit.

Compare

FUNCTIONS OF BIOMOLECULES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Proteins
    • Proteins selectively bind to other molecules
    • The wide variety of proteins that are determined by nucleic acids perform most of the actions carried out by organisms
    • Some of the major functions of proteins relevant to this course may include:
      • Binding / unbinding of DNA in chromosomes and chromatin (histones)
      • Enzymes
        • DNA polymerase
        • Helicase
  • Functions of nucleic acids
    • Encode genes
    • Gene expression

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Most complex molecules of living organisms are built up from smaller molecules. The various kinds of small molecules are much the same in all life forms, but the specific sequences of components that make up the very complex molecules are characteristic of a given species. 5A/H4** (SFAA)
    • The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from 20 different kinds of amino acid molecules. The function of each protein molecule depends on its specific sequence of amino acids and its shape. The shape of the chain is a consequence of attractions between its parts. 5C/H3
    • A living cell is composed of a small number of chemical elements mainly carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur. Carbon, because of its small size and four available bonding electrons, can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules. 5C/H8
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – B1 – Understand the major categories of biological molecules: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids.
    • VII. Chemistry – J1 – Understand the major categories of biological molecules: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 10/07/2019
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