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Instructional Focus Document
Biology Systems Macro to Micro
TITLE : Unit 06: Cell Structure SUGGESTED DURATION : 8 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit focuses on the structures of cells and viruses.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Grade 6
    • 6.12B – Recognize the presence of a nucleus determines whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic.
  • Grade 7
    • 7.12C – Recognize the levels of organization in plants and animals, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms.
    • 7.12D – Differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole.
    • 7.12F – Recognize that according to cell theory all organisms are composed of cells and cells carry on similar functions such as extracting energy from food to sustain life.

 

During this Unit

Students compare and contrast prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells, and viruses based on structures present or absent in each. Students compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity such as abiogenesis theory, cell theory, and endosymbiosis theory. Students analyze the levels of organization within cells and relate the levels to each other.

 

Streamlining Note

Former TEKS B.7G was removed, but comparing and contrasting scientific explanations of cellular complexity was included in new TEKS B.4A.

 

After this Unit

Students will apply their understanding of cell structure to investigations into cell processes in subsequent units.

 

Additional Notes

STAAR Note

The Biology STAAR will directly assess Student Expectations in the following Reporting Categories:

  • Reporting Category 1: Cell Structure and Function
    • B.4A – Supporting Standard
    • B.4C – Readiness Standard
  • Reporting Category 4: Biological Processes and Systems
    • B.10C – Supporting Standard

 

Research

  • The individual cell can be considered as a system itself and as part of larger systems, sometimes as part of a multicellular organism, always as part of an ecosystem. The cell membrane serves as a boundary between the cell and its environment, containing for its own use the proteins it makes, equipment to make them, and stockpiles of fuel. Students should be asked to consider the variety of functions cells serve in the organism and how needed materials and information get to and from the cells. It may help students to understand the interdependency of cells if they think of an organism as a community of cells, each of which has some common tasks and some special jobs.
  • The idea that protein molecules assembled by cells conduct the work that goes on inside and outside the cells in an organism can be learned without going into the biochemical details.
  • Students should acquire a general picture of the functions of the cell and know that the cell has specialized parts that perform these functions.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions.

  • How have cells become more complex?
  • How does the structure of a given cell part relate to its function?

 

Biological systems are composed of multiple levels of interacting systems.

  • How do cells relate to other levels in a biological system and to the biological system as a whole?

 

Viruses are nonliving structures that have similarities with living cells.

  • How do viruses compare and differ from cells?

Systems

  • Cell
  • Virus

 

Classifications

  • Prokaryotic cell
  • Eukaryotic cell
  • DNA virus
  • RNA virus

 

Properties

  • Location of nucleic acid
  • Membrane bound organelles
  • Cell membrane
  • Viral capsid

 

Models

  • Cell structure
  • Viral structure

 

Constancy

  • Presence of proteins
  • Presence of nucleic acids
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Scientific theories of cellular complexity are well established and highly reliable scientific explanations based on natural and physical phenomena that are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers.

  • What are the properties of the scientific explanations for cellular complexity?

Systems

  • Scientific theories

 

Classifications

  • Abiogenesis theory
  • Cell theory
  • Endosymbiosis theory

 

Properties

  • Well established
  • Highly reliable
  • Based on natural and physical phenomena
  • Capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers
  • May be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think in terms of only two kinds of cells- plant and animal, rather than knowing that there are many types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  • Students may think all cells look exactly the same or that animal cells always have a circular shape and plant cells always have a rectangular shape, rather than knowing that there is diversity in cell structure and that this structure is closely related to the cell’s function.
  • Students may think viruses are living organisms, rather than understanding that viruses are very small, nonliving, infectious particles.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Cell – a system of molecules that form structures that perform all of the functions of life
  • Eukaryote – a living organism whose cell or cells contain nuclei and membrane-bound organelles
  • Prokaryote – a single-celled living organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
  • Virus – a nonliving, infective agent composed of nucleic acids surrounded by a protein coat

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Abiogenesis
  • Bacteriophage
  • Capsid
  • Cell membrane
  • Cell theory
  • Cell wall
  • Chloroplast
  • Cilia
  • Cytoplasm
  • DNA virus
  • Endosymbiosis
  • Flagella
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Influenza
  • Lysosome
  • Membrane-bound
  • Mitochondrion
  • Nuclear membrane
  • Nucleolus
  • Nucleus
  • Organelle
  • Plastid
  • Retrovirus
  • Ribosomes
  • RNA virus
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Semi-permeable membrane / selectively permeable membrane
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • Surface membrane proteins (projections)
  • Vacuole
  • Vesicle
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – OnTRACK Scientific Process Skills

https://www.texasgateway.org/binder/ontrack-scientific-process-skills

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Cell Comparisons

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/cell-comparisons

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Virus: Structure

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/virus-structure

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Biological Systems: System Organization

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/biological-systems-system-organization


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
B.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
B.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment, such as goggles, aprons, and gloves
  • Know location of safety equipment, such as fire extinguisher, safety shower, and eye wash
  • Follow classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
  • Handle organisms appropriately
  • Use lab equipment appropriately

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.1B Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
  • Reducing pollution
  • Being a wise consumer
  • Decreasing reliance on fossil fuels
  • Preserving habitats
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
B.2B Know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.
Process Standard

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS THAT MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine if statements represent testable hypotheses
  • Analyze data to determine whether the data supports or does not support hypotheses
  • Widely tested hypotheses
    • Can have durable explanatory power
    • May be incorporated into theories

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.2C Know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.
Process Standard

 

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ARE BASED ON NATURAL AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA AND ARE CAPABLE OF BEING TESTED BY MULTIPLE INDEPENDENT RESEARCHERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly reliable explanations
  • Scientific theories may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
    • A scientific theory may be subject to change when new evidence is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of biology and the evidence that supports them
    • Possible examples of related scientific theories may include:
      • Cell theory
      • Endosymbiotic theory

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
B.2D Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.
Process Standard

Distinguish

BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories
  • Use statements and supporting evidence to determine whether a statement is a hypothesis or a scientific theory
  • Examine examples of hypotheses and theories in the field of biology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
B.2E Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

DESCRIPTIVE, COMPARATIVE, AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observe natural phenomena
  • Ask questions
  • Formulate testable hypotheses
  • Plan and implement investigations
    • Descriptive
    • Comparative
    • Experimental
  • Select appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations–FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Experimental investigations involve designing a ―fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a ―controlled experiment.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
B.2F

Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as data-collecting probes, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettes, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.


Process Standard

Collect, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:           

  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Data collecting probes
  • Standard laboratory glassware
  • Microscopes
  • Various prepared slides
  • Micropipettes
  • Hand lenses
  • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
  • Timing devices
  • Petri dishes
  • Lab incubators
  • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures  

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
    • Students will be allowed to utilize 4 function, scientific, or graphing calculators on the STAAR Biology Assessment.
B.2G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Averaging
      • Percent change
      • Probabilities and ratios
      • Rate of change
  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible data format examples may include:
      • Data and fact tables
      • Graphs
      • Graphic organizers
      • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
    • Students may be asked to interpret data in multiple contexts in order to make inferences and predict trends.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
B.2H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.
Process Standard

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
B.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
B.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
B.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.
Process Standard

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
    • Possible ways of communicating information:
      • Graphic organizer
      • Graphs
      • Written or verbal reports
      • Data tables
      • Advertisements
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • News reports
      • Product or food labels
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.3D Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment.
Process Standard

Evaluate

IMPACT OF RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read scientific articles to gain understanding of the impact of research
  • Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Understand how scientific research and technology have an impact on ethical and legal practices
  • Understand how commonly held ethical beliefs impact scientific research
  • Understand how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
B.3E Evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events.
Process Standard

Evaluate

MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine and evaluate various biological models (including physical, mathematical, and conceptual)
  • Identify advantages and limitations in biological models
    • Possible examples of biological models may include:
      • Cell models
      • Viral models

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.3F Research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.
Process Standard

Research, Describe

THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conduct research on significant events in the history of biology
  • Conduct research on contributions of various biologists
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Robert Hooke (discovery of cells)
      • Antoine van Leeuwenhoek (observed first living cells)
      • Matthias Schleiden (cell theory)
      • Theodor Schwann (cell theory)
      • Rudolph Virchow  (cell theory)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories in science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
B.4 Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
B.4A Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity.
Supporting Standard

Compare, Contrast

PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify structures and processes common to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    • Structures
      • Cell wall
      • Cell membrane
      • Ribosomes
      • Genetic material
      • Cytoplasm
      • Flagella or cilia
    • Processes
      • Photosynthesis
      • Cellular respiration
      • Transcription
      • Translation
      • Homeostasis
      • Cell division
        • DNA replication
  • Recognize how the above processes are carried out differently between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells
  • Recognize structures and processes unique to eukaryotic cells
    • Membrane-bound organelles
      • Nucleus (including nuclear membrane and nucleolus)
      • Chloroplast (although some prokaryotes may contain chlorophyll)
      • Golgi apparatus
      • Lysosome
      • Mitochondrion (contains mitochondrial DNA)
      • Plastid
      • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
      • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
      • Vacuole
      • Vesicle
    • Meiosis

Compare, Contrast

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS FOR CELLULAR COMPLEXITY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Abiogenesis theory of the origin of prokaryotic cells
  • Cell theory
  • Endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells
    • Special characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplasts
      • Contain genetic material (e.g., mtDNA, ctDNA)
      • Reproduced by binary fission
      • Contain ribosomes

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students are introduced to prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells in Grade 6 (6.12B) and to cell organelles in Grade 7 (7.12D). Organelles, included in middle school content, include the cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole.
    • Students may be assessed by identifying examples of organisms as prokaryotic or eukaryotic.
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to scientific explanations concerning the complexity of the cell.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Every cell is covered by a membrane that controls what can enter and leave the cell. 5C/H1a
    • In all but quite primitive cells, a complex network of proteins provides organization and shape and, for animal cells, movement. 5C/H1b
    • Within the cells are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, passing information, and even movement. 5C/H2a
    • In addition to the basic cellular functions common to all cells, most cells in multicellular organisms perform some special functions that others do not. 5C/H2b
    • The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from 20 different kinds of amino acid molecules. The function of each protein molecule depends on its specific sequence of amino acids and its shape. The shape of the chain is a consequence of attractions between its parts. 5C/H3
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A2 – Explain in your own words how cells can be categorized into two major types: prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and describe major features that distinguish one from the other.
    • VI. Biology – A3 – Describe the structure and function of major sub-cellular organelles.
B.4C

Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.


Readiness Standard

Compare

THE STRUCTURES OF VIRUSES TO CELLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Viral structures
    • Capsid (all viruses)
    • Nucleic acid (all viruses)
    • Envelope (some viruses)
    • Surface membrane proteins (some viruses)
  • Similarities to cell structure
    • Contain nucleic acid
    • Contain proteins
    • Lack membrane-bound organelles (common with prokaryotes only)
  • Viral diversity (e.g., morphology, modes of replication, and chemical composition)
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Bacteriophage
      • Tobacco mosaic virus
      • HIV
      • Rabies virus
      • Polio virus
      • Influenza virus
      • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
  • Compare nonliving viruses to living cells
  • Compare the effects of antibiotics on viruses and bacteria

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the student’s first experience with viruses, viral structure, viral reproduction, and the role of viruses in causing diseases.
B.10 Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
B.10C Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Relationships between levels of organization within biological systems
  • Hierarchy of organization
    • Atom
    • Molecule
    • Organelle
    • Cell

Relate

LEVELS TO EACH OTHER AND TO THE SYSTEM AS A WHOLE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Relationships between levels of organization within biological systems
  • Differences from one biological level to the next
  • How each level of organization fits into the system as a whole
  • Examples that share the same level of organization

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • In Grade 6, students are introduced to levels of organization within ecosystems, including organism, population, community, and ecosystem (6.12F).
    • In Grade 7, students recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism (7.12C).  
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
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ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 10/07/2019
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