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Instructional Focus Document
Biology Systems Macro to Micro
TITLE : Unit 03: Plant Systems SUGGESTED DURATION : 6 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit focuses on the interactions that occur among plant systems.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Grade 7
    • 7.5A – Recognize that radiant energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.
    • 7.7B – Demonstrate and illustrate forces that affect motion in organisms such as emergence of seedlings, turgor pressure, geotropism, and circulation of blood.
    • 7.12A – Investigate and explain how internal structures of organisms have adaptations that allow specific functions such as gills in fish, hollow bones in birds, or xylem in plants.
    • 7.12C – Recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms.
    • 7.12D – Differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole.
    • 7.13A – Investigate how organisms respond to external stimuli found in the environment, such as phototropism and fight or flight.
    • 7.13B – Describe and relate responses in organisms that may result from internal stimuli such as wilting in plants and fever or vomiting in animals that allow them to maintain balance.

 

During this Unit

Students describe the interactions that occur among plant systems that transport water from the roots and sugar from the leaves. Students describe plant reproduction by identifying structures and functions of the parts of a flower. Students describe the interactions occurring within plants as they respond to changes with various types of tropism. Students analyze the levels of organization within an organism and relate the levels to each other.

 

Streamlining Note

Former TEKS B.5B, B.11A, and B.11B were removed. Students are no longer expected to examine specialized cells of plants and animals. Students are no longer expected to describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis. Former TEKS B.11C and B.11D were recoded to new TEKS B.11A and B.11B respectively.

 

After this Unit

Students will apply their understanding of plant system interactions to recognize phenomena in their ecosystems and make informed ethical and social decisions.

 

Additional Notes

STAAR Note

The Biology STAAR will directly assess Student Expectations in the following Reporting Categories:

  • Reporting Category 4: Biological Processes and Systems
    • B.10B – Readiness Standard
    • B.10C – Supporting Standard

 

Research

”By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:

  • ...the degree of relatedness between organisms or species can be estimated from the similarity of their DNA sequences, which often closely match their classification based on anatomical similarities.
  • …similar patterns of development and internal anatomy suggest relatedness among organisms.
  • …most complex molecules of living organisms are built up from smaller molecules. The various kinds of small molecules are much the same in all life forms, but the specific sequences of components that make up the very complex molecules are characteristic of a given species.
  • …a classification system is a framework created by scientists for describing the vast diversity of organisms, indicating the degree of relatedness between organisms and framing research questions.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The structures within the root and shoot systems in plants interact to transport water and nutrients through vascular tissue.

  • What is the process that a plant uses to transport water to leaves?
  • What is the process that a plant uses to transport nutrients throughout the organism?

 

Plants develop specialized structures that perform unique functions for reproduction.

  • What is the process of reproduction in flowering plants?

 

Plants respond to stimuli in order to benefit the organism or population including maximizing photosynthesis, maintaining the health of the organism, and increasing the viability of offspring.

  • In what ways do plants respond to their environment?

Systems

  • Organ systems

 

Classifications

  • Root system
  • Shoot system

 

Properties

  • Transport
  • Reproduction
  • Response

 

Patterns

  • Levels of organization

 

Models

  • Plant system diagrams
  • Flower diagrams
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that only animals have organs and organ systems that work together to perform functions within an organism, rather than realizing that these levels of organization also exist in plants.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Student may not understand that plants maintain homeostasis, just as animals and other organisms do (by responding to external and internal factors).
  • Students may not understand that plants are capable of sexual reproduction.
  • Students may not understand that flowers are reproductive adaptations for plants.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Carpel – female reproductive structure in plants that includes the stigma, style, and ovary
  • Phloem – conducting tissue in plants that transports nutrients through the plant
  • Root system – below-ground part of a plant that includes the organs such as roots, tubers, and rhizomes
  • Shoot system – above-ground part of a plant that includes the organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers (if the plant has any), and fruits (if the plant has any)
  • Stamen – male reproductive structure in plants that includes the anther and filament
  • Stomata – tiny pores in the epidermis of a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor pass
  • Transpiration – process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation primarily from stomata on leaves but also from stems and flowers
  • Tropism – turning of all or part of an organism in a particular direction in response to an external stimulus
  • Xylem – vascular tissue in plants that transports fluid through the plant

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Absorption
  • Anther
  • Filament
  • Fruit
  • Geotropism (gravitropism)
  • Germination
  • Ground tissues
  • Guard cell
  • Leaves
  • Meristematic tissues
  • Ovary
  • Ovule
  • Phototropism
  • Pollination
  • Root cap
  • Root hairs
  • Root tip
  • Roots
  • Seed
  • Spores
  • Stems
  • Stigma
  • Stolons / runners
  • Stomata
  • Style
  • Thigmotropism
  • Vascular tissue
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

General:

PBS Learning Media – Plants-in-Motion

http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/lsps07.sci.life.reg.plantmovies/plants-in-motion/


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
B.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
B.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment, such as goggles, aprons, and gloves
  • Know location of safety equipment, such as fire extinguisher, safety shower, and eye wash
  • Follow classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
  • Handle organisms appropriately
  • Use lab equipment appropriately

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.1B Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
  • Reducing pollution
  • Being a wise consumer
  • Decreasing reliance on fossil fuels
  • Preserving habitats
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
B.2E Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

DESCRIPTIVE, COMPARATIVE, AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observe natural phenomena
  • Ask questions
  • Formulate testable hypotheses
  • Plan and implement investigations
    • Descriptive
    • Comparative
    • Experimental
  • Select appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations–FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Experimental investigations involve designing a ―fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a ―controlled experiment.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
B.2F

Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as data-collecting probes, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettes, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.


Process Standard

Collect, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:           

  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Data collecting probes
  • Standard laboratory glassware
  • Microscopes
  • Various prepared slides
  • Stereoscopes
  • Metric rulers
  • Balances
  • Hand lenses
  • Celsius thermometers
  • Lab notebooks or journals (science notebooks)
  • Timing devices
  • Dissection equipment
  • Models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures  

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
    • Students will be allowed to utilize 4 function, scientific, or graphing calculators on the STAAR Biology Assessment.
B.2G Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Averaging
      • Percent change
      • Probabilities and ratios
      • Rate of change
  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible data format examples may include:
      • Data and fact tables
      • Graphs
      • Maps
      • Graphic organizers
      • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
    • Students may be asked to interpret data in multiple contexts in order to make inferences and predict trends.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
B.2H Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.
Process Standard

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
B.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
B.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
B.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.
Process Standard

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
    • Possible ways of communicating information:
      • Graphic organizer
      • Graphs
      • Written or verbal reports
      • Data tables
      • Advertisements
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • News reports
      • Product or food labels
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.3E Evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events.
Process Standard

Evaluate

MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine and evaluate various biological models (including physical, mathematical, and conceptual)
  • Identify advantages and limitations in biological models

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.3F Research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.
Process Standard

Research, Describe

THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conduct research on significant events in the history of biology
  • Conduct research on contributions of various biologists

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories in science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
B.10 Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:
B.10B Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport, reproduction, and response in plants.
Readiness Standard

Describe

INTERACTIONS THAT OCCUR AMONG SYSTEMS IN PLANTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Plant systems and their structures
    • Shoot system
      • Leaves (phloem, xylem, stoma, guard cells, mesophyll cells, cuticle)
      • Stems (phloem, xylem, pith)
      • Flowers (if the plant has any)
    • Root system
  • Interactions of structures within plant systems that perform the function of transport (water, minerals, and food)
    • Roots (phloem, xylem, root hairs, root cap, root tip)
    • Stems (phloem, xylem, pith)
    • Leaves (phloem, xylem, stoma, guard cells, mesophyll cells, cuticle)
  • Interactions of structures within plant systems that perform the function of reproduction
    • Sexual reproduction
      • Structures
        • Flowers
          • Carpel (stigma, style, ovary)
          • Stamen (anther, filament, pollen)
          • Petals
        • Seeds
        • Fruit
      • Stages of sexual reproduction
        • Pollination
        • Germination
        • Seed dispersal
    • Asexual reproduction
      • Stems (rhizomes, bulbs, stolons / runners, tubers)
      • Roots (tuberous roots)
      • Leaves (spores, plantlets)
  • Interactions between systems of transport and reproduction (e.g., Micronutrients in soil are absorbed by the root system and transported to the shoot system in order for reproduction to occur.)
  • Interactions of structures within plant systems that perform the function of response
    • Leaves
    • Stems
    • Roots
    • Flowers
    • Responses include
      • Geotropism (gravitropism)
      • Phototropism
      • Thigmotropism
      • Hydrotropism
      • Nastic movement
  • Compare plant systems and their functions to animal systems and their functions
  • Relate the gas exchange rates in plants with the rates of photosynthesis and cellular respiration

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time since elementary grades that students are directly exploring and describing plant structures and their functions. Only basic plant parts [root, stem, leaf, flower] and basic functions are explored at the elementary level in Grades K - 2.
    • In Grade 7, students indirectly explore plant structures and functions when studying a wide range of topics including adaptation and survival, levels of organization, and force and motion in everyday life (7.7B, 7.11A, 7.11B, 7.12A, and 7.12C). Students examine organisms [including plants] and their structures when using dichotomous keys (7.11A). Students also compare external features, behaviors, or physiology of organisms [including plants] that enhance their survival. Some plant examples explored include storage of food in bulbs, types of roots, and types of leaves (7.11B). Students explain how internal structures of organisms [including plants] have adaptations that allow specific functions such as xylem in plants (7.12A). Students recognize levels of organization [including plants] including organs and organ systems (7.12C). Students are expected to demonstrate forces that affect motion in organisms such as emergence of seedlings, turgor pressure, and geotropism (7.7B).         
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
B.10C Analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Relationships between levels of organization within biological systems
  • Hierarchy of organization
    • Atom
    • Molecule
    • Organelle
    • Cell
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ system
    • Organism

Relate

LEVELS TO EACH OTHER AND TO THE SYSTEM AS A WHOLE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Relationships between levels of organization within biological systems
  • Differences from one biological level to the next
  • How each level of organization fits into the system as a whole
  • Examples that share the same level of organization

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • In Grade 6, students are introduced to levels of organization within ecosystems, including organism, population, community, and ecosystem (6.12F).
    • In Grade 7, students recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism (7.12C).  
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
B.2A Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.
Process Standard

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process".

Understand

SCIENCE HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • “...some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.”
  • Scientific inquiry may be limited by current technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.2B Know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.
Process Standard

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS THAT MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine if statements represent testable hypotheses
  • Analyze data to determine whether the data supports or does not support hypotheses
  • Widely tested hypotheses
    • Can have durable explanatory power
    • May be incorporated into theories

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.2C Know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.
Process Standard

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ARE BASED ON NATURAL AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA AND ARE CAPABLE OF BEING TESTED BY MULTIPLE INDEPENDENT RESEARCHERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly reliable explanations
  • Scientific theories may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
    • A scientific theory may be subject to change when new evidence is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of biology and the evidence that supports them
    • Possible examples of related scientific theories may include:
      • Cell theory
      • Theory of evolution
      • Gene theory (Mendel)
      • Germ theory of disease
      • Endosymbiotic theory

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
B.2D Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.
Process Standard

Distinguish

BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories
  • Use statements and supporting evidence to determine whether a statement is a hypothesis or a scientific theory
  • Examine examples of hypotheses and theories in the field of biology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
B.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
B.3C Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.
Process Standard

Draw

INFERENCES BASED ON DATA RELATED TO PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine data from promotional materials for products and services described in print, on television, and on the Internet
  • Evaluate data for quality and accuracy  
  • Evaluate completeness and reliability of information from sources

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
B.3D Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment.
Process Standard

Evaluate

IMPACT OF RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read scientific articles to gain understanding of the impact of research
  • Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Understand how scientific research and technology have an impact on ethical and legal practices
  • Understand how commonly held ethical beliefs impact scientific research
  • Understand how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
B.4 Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:
B.4A Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity.
Supporting Standard

Compare, Contrast

PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify structures and processes common to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    • Structures
      • Cell wall
      • Cell membrane
      • Ribosomes
      • Genetic material
      • Cytoplasm
      • Flagella or cilia
    • Processes
      • Photosynthesis
      • Cellular respiration
      • Transcription
      • Translation
      • Homeostasis
      • Cell division
        • DNA replication
  • Recognize how the above processes are carried out differently between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells
  • Recognize structures and processes unique to eukaryotic cells
    • Membrane-bound organelles
      • Nucleus (including nuclear membrane and nucleolus)
      • Chloroplast (although some prokaryotes may contain chlorophyll)
      • Golgi apparatus
      • Lysosome
      • Mitochondrion (contains mitochondrial DNA)
      • Plastid
      • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
      • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
      • Vacuole
      • Vesicle
    • Meiosis

Compare, Contrast

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS FOR CELLULAR COMPLEXITY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Abiogenesis theory of the origin of prokaryotic cells
  • Cell theory
  • Endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells
    • Special characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplasts
      • Contain genetic material (e.g., mtDNA, ctDNA)
      • Reproduced by binary fission
      • Contain ribosomes

Compare, Contrast

PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify structures and processes common to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    • Structures
      • Cell wall
      • Cell membrane
      • Ribosomes
      • Genetic material
      • Cytoplasm
      • Flagella or cilia
    • Processes
      • Photosynthesis
      • Cellular respiration
      • Transcription
      • Translation
      • Homeostasis
      • Cell division
        • DNA replication
  • Recognize how the above processes are carried out differently between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells
  • Recognize structures and processes unique to eukaryotic cells
    • Membrane-bound organelles
      • Nucleus (including nuclear membrane and nucleolus)
      • Chloroplast (although some prokaryotes may contain chlorophyll)
      • Golgi apparatus
      • Lysosome
      • Mitochondrion (contains mitochondrial DNA)
      • Plastid
      • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
      • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
      • Vacuole
      • Vesicle
    • Meiosis

Compare, Contrast

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS FOR CELLULAR COMPLEXITY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Abiogenesis theory of the origin of prokaryotic cells
  • Cell theory
  • Endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells
    • Special characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplasts
      • Contain genetic material (e.g., mtDNA, ctDNA)
      • Reproduced by binary fission
      • Contain ribosomes

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students are introduced to prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells in Grade 6 (6.12B) and to cell organelles in Grade 7 (7.12D). Organelles, included in middle school content, include the cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole.
    • Students may be assessed by identifying examples of organisms as prokaryotic or eukaryotic.
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to scientific explanations concerning the complexity of the cell.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • Every cell is covered by a membrane that controls what can enter and leave the cell. 5C/H1a
    • In all but quite primitive cells, a complex network of proteins provides organization and shape and, for animal cells, movement. 5C/H1b
    • Within the cells are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, passing information, and even movement. 5C/H2a
    • In addition to the basic cellular functions common to all cells, most cells in multicellular organisms perform some special functions that others do not. 5C/H2b
    • The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from 20 different kinds of amino acid molecules. The function of each protein molecule depends on its specific sequence of amino acids and its shape. The shape of the chain is a consequence of attractions between its parts. 5C/H3
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A2 – Explain in your own words how cells can be categorized into two major types: prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and describe major features that distinguish one from the other.
    • VI. Biology – A3 – Describe the structure and function of major sub-cellular organelles.
B.4B Investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules.
Readiness Standard

Investigate, Explain

CELLULAR PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Homeostasis
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Osmotic balance
      • Maintain equilibrium through balanced concentrations of molecules (e.g., sugar, salt, ions, etc.)
  • Transport of molecules
    • Concentration gradients
    • Permeability
    • Active transport
      • Uses energy released from breaking a chemical bond in ATP
      • Often moves chemicals from an area of comparatively low concentration to an area of comparatively high concentration (against the concentration gradient)
      • Types
        • Membrane proteins that act as an enzyme to break down ATP and use the energy (e.g., sodium-potassium pump)
        • Membrane proteins that use the energy of the cell’s resting potential (negative charge inside a cell relative to extracellular environment) caused by the sodium – potassium pump and diffusion (e.g., villi cells in intestines, root hair cells in plants)
        • Endocytosis – process where large molecules are brought into the cell by wrapping the cell membrane around the molecules to form a vacuole (e.g., macrophage white blood cells engulfing pathogens)
        • Exocytosis – a vacuole formed around cellular waste or cellular products such as hormones or neurotransmitters fuses with the cell membrane to release the waste or products into the extracellular environment (e.g., release of neurotransmitters by neurons)
      • Examples
        • Sodium – potassium pump is a membrane protein common in all animal cells to maintain homeostasis and induce cellular conditions that allow other active transport activities including impulses in nerve cells
        • Villi cells in the intestines of animals use active transport through membrane proteins to increase the amount of nutrient absorption
        • Root hair cells in plants use active transport through membrane proteins to absorb minerals from the soil
    • Passive transport
      • Occurs without action or energy from the cell
      • Some chemicals can pass through the cell membrane causing it to be semi-permeable
      • Chemicals will naturally move from areas of relatively high concentration to areas of relatively low concentration (with the concentration gradient)
      • Examples
        • Diffusion 
        • Facilitated diffusion
        • Osmosis

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • In Grade 7, students are introduced to some cellular structures and their functions (7.12D). Students are asked to differentiate between the structures and functions in plant and animal cell organelles.
    • In Grade 7, students are introduced to the concept of organisms maintaining balance in stable internal conditions [homeostasis] (7.13A, 7.13B). Students compare functions of a cell organelles to functions of organ systems (7.12E), investigate how organisms respond to external stimuli found in the environment (7.13A), and describe and relate responses in organisms that may result from internal stimuli that allow them to maintain balance (7.13B).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – A6 – Know the structure of membranes and how this relates to permeability.
    • VI. Biology – F1 – Know that organisms possess various structures and processes (feedback loops) that maintain steady internal conditions.
    • VI. Biology – F2 –Describe, compare, and contrast structures and processes that allow gas exchange, nutrient uptake and processing, waste excretion, nervous and hormonal regulation, and reproduction in plants, animals, and fungi; give examples of each.
B.4C Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.
Readiness Standard

Compare

THE STRUCTURES OF VIRUSES TO CELLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Viral structures
    • Capsid (all viruses)
    • Nucleic acid (all viruses)
    • Envelope (some viruses)
    • Surface membrane proteins (some viruses)
  • Similarities to cell structure
    • Contain nucleic acid
    • Contain proteins
    • Lack membrane-bound organelles (common with prokaryotes only)
  • Viral diversity (e.g., morphology, modes of replication, and chemical composition)
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Bacteriophage
      • Tobacco mosaic virus
      • HIV
      • Rabies virus
      • Polio virus
      • Influenza virus
      • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
  • Compare nonliving viruses to living cells
  • Compare the effects of antibiotics on viruses and bacteria

Describe

VIRAL REPRODUCTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Most viruses are cell-specific
    • Viral structure allows attachment and / or entrance to target cell for reproduction
  • Stages of viral reproduction (e.g., entry, replication, release, and latency)
    • Possible examples may include:
      • DNA viruses
      • RNA viruses
        • Retroviruses
      • Bacteriophages
  • Viral reproductive cycles
    • Lytic cycle
    • Lysogenic cycle
    • Relationship of cycles to viral latency

Describe

THE ROLE OF VIRUSES IN CAUSING DISEASES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Role of viruses in causing diseases
    • Viruses cause disease by destroying cells and / or disrupting cellular processes during the viral replication process
    • Infection, spread, and transfer of viruses
      • Latency
      • Hosts
      • Viral reservoirs
    • Host defense to viral infection
      • Immune response
      • Role of vaccines in prevention of viral diseases
      • Mechanisms of antiviral drugs
    • Examples of viral diseases
      • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
      • Influenza
    • Possible additional examples of viral diseases may include:
      • Common colds
      • Smallpox
      • Hepatitis
      • Warts
      • Chickenpox / shingles
      • Herpes

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the student’s first experience with viruses, viral structure, viral reproduction, and the role of viruses in causing diseases.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 04/24/2020
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