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Instructional Focus Document
Physics
TITLE : Unit 08: Waves SUGGESTED DURATION : 18 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit focuses on the properties and classifications of waves. Students may have very limited understanding of waves unless they completed Integrated Physics and Chemistry (IPC) prior to this course. Students investigate, analyze, and calculate the characteristics that all waves have in common. Students compare characteristics of different classifications of waves by examining the oscillatory motion and comparing behaviors by examining wave propagation in various types of media. Students investigate phenomena that demonstrate changes in the behavior of waves. Students use plane mirrors and convex lenses to describe and predict image formation.

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Grade 8
    • 8.8C – Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as visible light and radio waves are used to gain information about components in the universe.
  • Integrated Physics and Chemistry
    • I.5G – Explore the characteristics and behaviors of energy transferred by waves, including acoustic, seismic, light, and waves on water, as they reflect, refract, diffract, interfere with one another, and are absorbed by materials.

 

After this Unit

Students will recognize waves in their many forms in their everyday lives.

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • …the observed wavelength of a wave depends upon the relative motion of the source and the observer. If either is moving toward the other, the observed wavelength is shorter; if either is moving away, the wavelength is longer.
  • …waves can superpose on one another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, be absorbed by materials they enter, and change direction when entering a new material. All these effects vary with wavelength.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993, 2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/bolintro.htm.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Waves behave in predictable patterns, and the properties can be measured and calculated.

  • In what ways can we determine the properties of waves?
  • In what ways can we predict the behaviors of waves when they encounter a change?
  • In what ways can we predict the behaviors of waves when the source of the wave is moving?

Systems

  • Wave

 

Classifications

  • Mechanical
  • Electromagnetic
  • Transverse
  • Longitudinal

 

Properties

  • Medium
  • Wavelength
  • Velocity
  • Amplitude
  • Crest
  • Trough

 

Patterns

  • Frequency
  • Period

 

Models

  • Unit concept

 

Constancy

  • Speed of electromagnetic waves
  • v=fλ

 

Change

  • Reflection
  • Refraction
  • Diffraction
  • Interference
  • Resonance
  • Doppler effect
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Mechanical waves are propagated by the oscillation of matter, which transfers energy from particle to particle without transferring matter beyond the range of the oscillations.

  • In what ways can mechanical waves be described in terms of matter and energy?

 

Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves propagated by the concurrent oscillations of electric current and charge, which transfers energy through space regardless of the presence of a medium.

  • In what ways can electromagnetic waves be described in terms of matter and energy?

 

The direction of oscillation of a medium relative to the direction of energy transport determines the behavior and classification of waves.

  • How do the characteristics that distinguish transverse and longitudinal waves determine their behavior?

 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think particles in a medium relocate as the energy travels through the medium, rather than energy being transferred without transferring matter.
  • Students may think sound waves can travel in a vacuum, rather than sound waves requiring a medium.
  • Student may think a wave moves faster if it carries more energy, rather than the amount of energy affecting the amplitude of the wave.
  • Students may think waves move matter instead of energy.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may have little background knowledge regarding waves.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Amplitude – distance from the equilibrium line of a wave to the point of maximum vertical displacement (crest or trough)
  • Constructive interference – the interference of two or more waves of equal frequency and phase, resulting in their mutual reinforcement and producing a single amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves
  • Destructive interference – the interference of two waves of equal frequency and opposite phase, resulting in their cancellation where the negative displacement of one always coincides with the positive displacement of the other
  • Diffraction – the bending of a wave around a small obstacle and formation of new wave fronts as it expands outward from a small opening
  • Electromagnetic wave – wave propagated at the speed of light resulting from oscillations in electrical charge and current; electromagnetic waves include light as well as other types of radiation
  • Focal point – the point to which all of the light of a converging lens is directed toward
  • Frequency – number of complete cycles or oscillations per second
  • Longitudinal wave – oscillations are parallel to the direction of the wave (slinky, sound waves)
  • Medium – matter with consistent composition that can propagate a wave
  • Oscillatory motion – movement that occurs in a repeating and predictable pattern (e.g., up and down, back and forth, round and round)
  • Period – time required to complete a cycle of motion
  • Reflection – change in direction of a wave resulting from interaction with a boundary
  • Refraction – change in direction of a wave as it moves from one medium to another
  • Resonance – the state of a system in which an abnormally large vibration is produced in response to an external stimulus, occurring when the frequency of the stimulus is the same, or nearly the same, as the natural vibration frequency of the system
  • Transverse wave – oscillations are perpendicular to direction of the waves (string, water)
  • Wave – a disturbance or variation which travels through a medium
  • Wavelength – linear distance between identical points on successive waves

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Angle of incidence
  • Angle of reflection
  • Angle of refraction
  • Crest
  • Cycle
  • Oscillate
  • Rarefaction
  • Trough
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – OnTRACK Scientific Process Skills

https://www.texasgateway.org/binder/ontrack-scientific-process-skills

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Waves: Properties

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/waves—properties

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Wave Behavior: Doppler Effect

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/wave-behavior-doppler-effect

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Waves: Practical Applications

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/waves-practical-applications

 

General:

Get Your Physics On “Resonance” (Audio Podcast)

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/get-your-physics-on/id628043458?mt=2  (available as a free podcast on iTunes U in the K-12 section under Texas Education)

 

Get Your Physics On “Converging Lens–Find the Focal Length” (Audio Podcast)

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/get-your-physics-on/id628043458?mt=2  (available as a free podcast on iTunes U in the K-12 section under Texas Education)

 

Get Your Physics On “Guess the Gas & Line Spectra” (Audio Podcast)

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/get-your-physics-on/id628043458?mt=2  (available as a free podcast on iTunes U in the K-12 section under Texas Education)


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
P.1 Scientific processes. The student conducts investigations, for at least 40% of instructional time, using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:
P.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Following classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
  • Handling and wearing appropriate safety equipment
  • Equipment

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
P.2 Scientific processes. The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:
P.2D Design and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking well defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, identifying variables, selecting appropriate equipment and technology, evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness, and identifying causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data.

Design, Implement

INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making observations
  • Asking well-defined questions
  • Formulating testable hypotheses
  • Identifying variables
  • Selecting appropriate equipment and technology
  • Evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness
  • Identifying causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data
    • Instrument errors
    • Reading errors
    • User errors

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
P.2E

Demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), balances, batteries, dynamics demonstration equipment, collision apparatus, lab masses, magnets, plane mirrors, convex lenses, stopwatches, trajectory apparatus, graph paper, magnetic compasses, protractors, metric rulers, spring scales, thermometers, slinky springs, and/or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results.

Demonstrate

THE USE OF COURSE APPARATUS, EQUIPMENT, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Plane mirrors
  • Convex lenses
  • Stopwatches
  • Graph paper
  • Metric rulers
  • Spring scales
  • Slinky springs
P.2F

Use a wide variety of additional course apparatus, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as ripple tank with wave generator, wave motion rope, tuning forks, hand-held visual spectroscopes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), electromagnetic spectrum charts, laser pointers, micrometer, caliper, computer, data acquisition probes, scientific calculators, graphing technology, electrostatics kits, electroscope, inclined plane, optics bench, optics kit, polarized film, prisms, pulley with table clamp, motion detectors, photogates, friction blocks, ballistic carts or equivalent, resonance tube, stroboscope, resistors, copper wire, switches, iron filings, and/or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results.

Use

A WIDE VARIETY OF ADDITIONAL COURSE APPARATUS, EQUIPMENT, TECHNIQUES, MATERIALS, AND PROCEDURES AS APPROPRIATE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Ripple tank with wave generator
  • Wave motion rope
  • Tuning forks
  • Hand-held visual spectroscopes
  • Discharge tubes with power supply
    • H
    • He
    • Ne
    • Ar
  • Electromagnetic spectrum charts
  • Laser pointers
  • Computer
  • Data acquisition probes
  • Scientific calculators
  • Graphing technology
  • Electrostatics kits
  • Electroscope
  • Optics bench
  • Optics kit
  • Polarized film
  • Prisms
  • Resonance tube
  • Stroboscope
P.2G Make measurements with accuracy and precision and record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) units.

Make

MEASUREMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Accuracy
  • Precision

Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific notation
  • International System (SI) units
  • Significant Digits (TxCCRS)

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A2 – Use exponents and scientific notation.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – F2 – Use appropriate significant digits.
P.2H Organize, evaluate, and make inferences from data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs.

Organize, Evaluate, Make inferences

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Tables
  • Charts
  • Graphs

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
P.2I Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through various methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY THE DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lab reports
  • Labeled drawings
  • Graphic organizers
  • Journals (science notebooks)
  • Summaries
  • Oral reports
  • Technology-based reports 

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – A1 – Use correct applications of writing practices in scientific communication.
P.2J Express relationships among physical variables quantitatively, including the use of graphs, charts, and equations.

Express

RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PHYSICAL VARIABLES QUANTITATIVELY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Graphs
  • Charts
  • Equations

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – 2B – Carry out formal operations using standard algebraic symbols and formulae.
    • VIII. Physics – A4 – Understand the concept of density.
P.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
P.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how things work. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Continuity and change are persistent features of science. 1A/H2
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
P.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION EXTRACTED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Current events
  • News reports
  • Published journal articles
  • Marketing materials
P.3D Research and describe the connections between physics and future careers.

Research, Describe

THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PHYSICS AND FUTURE CAREERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • How physics is used in various careers
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Medical physicist
      • Radiation therapist
      • Astronomer
      • Teacher
      • Geophysicist
      • Equipment designer
      • Telecommunications engineer
      • Materials designer
      • Engineer
P.3E Express, manipulate, and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically.

Express, Manipulate, Interpret

RELATIONSHIPS SYMBOLICALLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACCEPTED THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make predictions
  • Solve problems mathematically
    • Manipulation of equations algebraically
    • Proportional reasoning

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – B1 – Understand how vectors are used to represent physical quantities.
    • VIII. Physics – B2 – Demonstrate knowledge of vector mathematics using a graphical representation.
    • VIII. Physics – B3 – Demonstrate knowledge of vector mathematics using a numerical representation.
P.7 Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and behavior of waves. The student is expected to:
P.7A Examine and describe oscillatory motion and wave propagation in various types of media.

Examine, Describe

OSCILLATORY MOTION IN VARIOUS TYPES OF MEDIA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Oscillatory motion (include simple harmonic motion – TxCCRS)
    • Spring
    • Pendulum
    • Tuning fork

Examine, Describe

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VARIOUS TYPES OF MEDIA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Waves terms
    • Propagation
    • Transverse
    • Longitudinal
    • Surface
    • Seismic
    • Pulses
    • Periodic
    • Medium / media
  • Describe and compare propagation of various types of waves through a variety of media and in the absence of a medium (vacuum)

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – G1 – Understand basic oscillatory motion and simple harmonic motion.
    • VIII. Physics – G2 – Understand the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves.
    • VIII. Physics – G3 – Understand wave terminology wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude.
P.7B Investigate and analyze characteristics of waves, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength, and calculate using the relationship between wavespeed, frequency, and wavelength.

Investigate, Analyze

CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frequency (f)
  • Wavelength (ג)
  • Velocity
  • Amplitude
  • Crest
  • Trough
  • Equilibrium line
  • Period
  • Understand relationship between frequency, wavelength, and velocity (conceptual understanding)
  • Energy

Calculate

USING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

Including, but not limited to:

  • v = f ג
    • Velocity = (frequency)(wavelength)
  • Wave speed
  • Frequency
  • Wavelength

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formula for wave velocity as listed above.
  • In Grade 8, students identify how the wavelengths of certain electromagnetic waves can be used to gain information about components in the universe (8.8C).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – G1 – Understand basic oscillatory motion and simple harmonic motion.
    • VIII. Physics – G2 – Understand the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves.
    • VIII. Physics – G3 – Understand wave terminology wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude.
P.7C Compare characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves, including electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic spectrum, and characteristics and behaviors of longitudinal waves, including sound waves.

Compare

CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIORS OF TRANSVERSE AND LONGITUDINAL WAVES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Electromagnetic waves
    • Transverse waves
    • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Mechanical waves
    • Transverse waves
      • Only travels in solid media
    • Longitudinal waves
      • Travels in solid, liquid, and gas media
      • Sound waves
    • Motion of media particles
    • Direction of energy flow versus media particle vibrations

Note(s):

  • In Grade 8, students identify how the wavelengths of certain electromagnetic waves can be used to gain information about components in the universe (8.8C).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – G2 – Understand the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves.
    • VIII. Physics – G4 – Understand the properties and behavior of sound waves.
P.7D Investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, resonance, and the Doppler effect.

Investigate

BEHAVIORS OF WAVES

Including, but not limited to:

  • At a boundary
    • Reflection
    • Refraction
    • Diffraction
  • Wave interaction
    • Interference
      • Constructive
      • Destructive
    • Resonance
  • Doppler effect in terms of apparent amplitude and frequency (conceptual understanding)

Note(s):

  • In Grade 5, students are introduced to reflection and refraction of light waves (5.6C).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – G4 – Understand the properties and behavior of sound waves.
P.7E Describe and predict image formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex lens.

Describe, Predict

IMAGE FORMATION AS A CONSEQUENCE OF REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Reflection from a plane mirror
  • Refraction through a thin convex lens
  • 1 / f = 1 / di + 1 / do  
    • 1 / focal length = 1 / distance to image + 1 / distance to object
  • Image location
  • Object location
  • Focal length
  • Magnification
  • Real images
  • Virtual images
  • Orientation of image (upright or inverted) 

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formula for focal length as listed above.
  • In Grade 5, students are introduced to reflection and refraction of light waves (5.6C).
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • VIII. Physics – J3 – Understand concepts of geometric optics.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 11/27/2018
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