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 Instructional Focus DocumentPhysics
 TITLE : Unit 07: Thermodynamics SUGGESTED DURATION : 7 days

#### Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit focuses on everyday examples of the laws of thermodynamics.

Prior to this Unit

• Grade 6
• 6.9A – Investigate methods of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation.
• 6.9B – Verify through investigations that thermal energy moves in a predictable pattern from warmer to cooler until all the substances attain the same temperature such as an ice cube melting.
• Integrated Physics and Chemistry
• I.5E – Investigate and demonstrate the movement of thermal energy through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation such as in weather, living, and mechanical systems.

During this Unit

Students apply and expand their prior understand thermal energy transfer to explain everyday examples that illustrate the four laws of thermodynamics.

Streamlining Note

Former TEKS P.6E and P.6F have been removed; however, the concepts from former P.6F have been incorporated into new TEKS P.6E (formerly P.6G). Students no longer describe how the macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system are related to the molecular level. Students no longer analyze examples that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics. New TEKS P.6E (formerly P.6G) explicitly mentions the four laws of thermodynamics.

After this Unit

Students will recognize thermodynamics in action in their environment.

Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

• …although the various forms of energy appear very different, each can be measured in a way that makes it possible to keep track of how much of one form is converted into another. Whenever the amount of energy in one place diminishes, the amount in other places or forms increases by the same amount.
• …in any system of atoms or molecules, the statistical odds are that the atoms or molecules will end up with less order than they originally had and that the thermal energy will be spread out more evenly. The amount of order in a system may stay the same or increase, but only if the surrounding environment becomes even less ordered. The total amount of order in the universe always tends to decrease.
• …as energy spreads out, whether by conduction, convection, or radiation, the total amount of energy stays the same. However, since it is spread out, less can be done with it.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993, 2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php?chapter=4.

 Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems. What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena? How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification? How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?   Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible. Why is credibility so important in the scientific field? How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?   Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions. What gives meaning to data? What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?   Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations. How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim? In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time? What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Every physical interaction of matter involves one or more forms of heat transfer at the molecular level that conserves energy in the universe (1st law of thermodynamics) and disperses energy unless obstructed (2nd law of thermodynamics).

• In what ways can you describe the process of thermal energy transfer given a real world example of matter interacting?
• Given a real world example of matter interacting, in what ways can the interaction be described in terms of the laws of thermodynamics at the molecular level?

Systems

• Energy

Classifications

• Thermal

Properties

• Zeroth law of thermodynamics
• First law of thermodynamics
• Second law of thermodynamics
• Third law of thermodynamics

Patterns

• Entropy always increases

Models

• Closed thermodynamic systems

Constancy

• Conservation of energy

Change

• Thermal energy transfer
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

#### MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

• Students may think that energy gets “used up” because energy is often converted to heat and may be difficult to identify.
• Students may think heat and temperature are the same instead of heat being a transfer of energy and temperature measuring average kinetic energy of particles.
• Students may think that thermal energy often moves from “cold” areas to “warm” areas instead of conforming to the second law of thermodynamics.
• Students may think of “cold” as an entity opposite to heat that transfers in the same way as heat instead of “cold” describing a medium that has less energy than another.
• Students may think that only objects that feel hot have thermal energy rather than all matter with temperature above absolute zero has thermal energy.
• Students may think that heat is a substance that is transferred rather than energy transferred without the transfer of matter necessarily.

#### Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

• 0th law of thermodynamics – if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in equilibrium with each other
• 1st law of thermodynamics – energy is conserved in the universe when it is transferred from one medium to another
• 2nd law of thermodynamics – energy disperses unless it is obstructed physically or chemically
• 3rd law of thermodynamics – as temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a constant value
• Entropy – a quantitative measure of the amount of energy dispersed or how widely spread out the energy becomes
• Thermodynamics – the study of the relationship between heat, work, and energy for a system

Related Vocabulary:

 Closed system Conduction Convection Heat Law of conservation of energy Law of entropy Radiation Temperature Thermal energy Thermal equilibrium
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – OnTRACK Scientific Process Skills

https://www.texasgateway.org/binder/ontrack-scientific-process-skills

General:

Frank L. Lambert – Entropy Is Simple If We Avoid The Briar Patches!

http://entropysimple.oxy.edu/content.htm

TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
• A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
P.1 Scientific processes. The student conducts investigations, for at least 40% of instructional time, using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:
P.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Following classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
• Handling and wearing appropriate safety equipment
• Equipment

Note(s):

• TxCCRS:
• I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
P.2 Scientific processes. The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:
P.2C Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but may be subject to change.

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ARE BASED ON NATURAL AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA AND ARE CAPABLE OF BEING TESTED BY MULTIPLE INDEPENDENT RESEARCHERS

Including, but not limited to:

• Based on natural and physical phenomena
• Capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers
• Well established, highly reliable explanations
• Subject to change as new areas or science and new technologies are developed

Note(s):

• TxCCRS:
• I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
• I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
P.2D Design and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking well defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, identifying variables, selecting appropriate equipment and technology, evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness, and identifying causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data.

Design, Implement

INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

• Making observations
• Asking well-defined questions
• Formulating testable hypotheses
• Identifying variables
• Selecting appropriate equipment and technology
• Evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness
• Identifying causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data
• Instrument errors
• Reading errors
• User errors

Note(s):

• TxCCRS:
• I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
P.2E

Demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), balances, batteries, dynamics demonstration equipment, collision apparatus, lab masses, magnets, plane mirrors, convex lenses, stopwatches, trajectory apparatus, graph paper, magnetic compasses, protractors, metric rulers, spring scales, thermometers, slinky springs, and/or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results.

Demonstrate

THE USE OF COURSE APPARATUS, EQUIPMENT, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

• Thermometers
P.2F

Use a wide variety of additional course apparatus, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as ripple tank with wave generator, wave motion rope, tuning forks, hand-held visual spectroscopes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), electromagnetic spectrum charts, laser pointers, micrometer, caliper, computer, data acquisition probes, scientific calculators, graphing technology, electrostatics kits, electroscope, inclined plane, optics bench, optics kit, polarized film, prisms, pulley with table clamp, motion detectors, photogates, friction blocks, ballistic carts or equivalent, resonance tube, stroboscope, resistors, copper wire, switches, iron filings, and/or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results.

Use

A WIDE VARIETY OF ADDITIONAL COURSE APPARATUS, EQUIPMENT, TECHNIQUES, MATERIALS, AND PROCEDURES AS APPROPRIATE

Including, but not limited to:

• Computer
• Data acquisition probes
• Scientific calculators
• Graphing technology
P.2I Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through various methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY THE DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Lab reports
• Labeled drawings
• Graphic organizers
• Journals (science notebooks)
• Summaries
• Oral reports
• Technology-based reports

Note(s):

• TxCCRS:
• III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – A1 – Use correct applications of writing practices in scientific communication.
P.2J Express relationships among physical variables quantitatively, including the use of graphs, charts, and equations.

Express

RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PHYSICAL VARIABLES QUANTITATIVELY

Including, but not limited to:

• Graphs
• Charts
• Equations

Note(s):

• TxCCRS:
• II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – 2B – Carry out formal operations using standard algebraic symbols and formulae.
• VIII. Physics – A4 – Understand the concept of density.
P.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
P.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

• Use
• Empirical evidence
• Logical reasoning
• Experimental and observational testing

Note(s):

• Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
• Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
• Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
• Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
• If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
• Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
• From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how things work. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Continuity and change are persistent features of science. 1A/H2
• TxCCRS:
• I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
• I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
P.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION EXTRACTED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

• Current events
• News reports
• Published journal articles
• Marketing materials
P.3C Explain the impacts of the scientific contributions of a variety of historical and contemporary scientists on scientific thought and society.

Explain

THE IMPACTS OF SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS ON SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

• Historical and contemporary scientists
• Newton
• Galileo
• Maxwell
P.3D Research and describe the connections between physics and future careers.

Research, Describe

THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PHYSICS AND FUTURE CAREERS

Including, but not limited to:

• How physics is used in various careers
• Possible examples may include:
• Medical physicist
• Radiation therapist
• Astronomer
• Teacher
• Geophysicist
• Equipment designer
• Telecommunications engineer
• Materials designer
• Engineer
P.3E Express, manipulate, and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically.

Express, Manipulate, Interpret

RELATIONSHIPS SYMBOLICALLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACCEPTED THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

• Make predictions
• Solve problems mathematically
• Manipulation of equations algebraically
• Proportional reasoning

Note(s):

• TxCCRS:
• VIII. Physics – B1 – Understand how vectors are used to represent physical quantities.
• VIII. Physics – B2 – Demonstrate knowledge of vector mathematics using a graphical representation.
• VIII. Physics – B3 – Demonstrate knowledge of vector mathematics using a numerical representation.
P.6 Science concepts. Science concepts. The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and applies the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. The student is expected to:
P.6E Explain everyday examples that illustrate the four laws of thermodynamics and the processes of thermal energy transfer.

Explain

EVERYDAY EXAMPLES THAT ILLUSTRATE THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

Including, but not limited to:

• The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in equilibrium with each other
• Establishes the basis for the mathematical relationships in the other laws of thermodynamics
• Establishes the foundation for the measurement of temperature
• The first law of thermodynamics restates the law of conservation of energy as it relates to thermal systems
• The relationship between temperature, heat, and work
• Heat engine
• Refrigerator
• Mechanical energy to heat
• Geothermal
• The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy always increases
• Melting and boiling
• Relating molecular kinetic energy change to disorder
• The third law of thermodynamics states that as temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a constant value

Explain

EVERYDAY EXAMPLES THAT ILLUSTRATE THE PROCESS OF THERMAL ENERGY TRANSFER

Including, but not limited to:

• Heat in terms of the transfer of molecular motion within a system
• The concept of thermal equilibrium
• Conduction
• Convection
• Radiation

Note(s):

• In Grade 6, students investigate the way that thermal energy moves, specifically, conduction, convection, and radiation (6.9A, 6.9B).
• TxCCRS:
• VIII. Physics – D2 – Understand conservation of energy.
• VIII. Physics – H1 – Understand the gain and loss of heat energy in matter.
• VIII. Physics – H2 – Understand the basic laws of thermodynamics.
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
P.1 Scientific processes. The student conducts investigations, for at least 40% of instructional time, using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:
P.1B Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

• Use and conservation of resources
• Disposal or recycling of materials
P.2 Scientific processes. The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:
P.2A Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE AND UNDERSTAND THAT IT HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the “use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process”.
• …”some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.”
P.2B Know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence.

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS THAT MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

• Tentative and testable statements
• Supported or not supported by observational evidence

Note(s):

• TxCCRS Note:
• I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
• I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
P.2G Make measurements with accuracy and precision and record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) units.

Make

MEASUREMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

• Accuracy
• Precision

Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Scientific notation
• International System (SI) units
• Significant Digits (TxCCRS)

Note(s):

• TxCCRS:
• II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A2 – Use exponents and scientific notation.
• II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – F2 – Use appropriate significant digits.
P.2H Organize, evaluate, and make inferences from data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs.

Organize, Evaluate, Make inferences

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Tables
• Charts
• Graphs

Note(s):

• TxCCRS:
• I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
P.4 Science concepts. The student knows and applies the laws governing motion in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:
P.4A Generate and interpret graphs and charts describing different types of motion, including investigations using real-time technology such as motion detectors or photogates.

Generate, Interpret

GRAPHS AND CHARTS DESCRIBING DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOTION

Including, but not limited to:

• Linear motion
• Constant velocity
• Accelerated motion (positive and negative acceleration)
• Information illustrated on graphs
• Position-time
• Distance
• Displacement
• Average velocity
• Describe motion
• Velocity-time
• Displacement
• Instantaneous velocity
• Average velocity
• Acceleration
• Describe motion
• Acceleration-time
• Constant acceleration (no slope)
• Describe motion
• Investigation using real-time technology
• Motion detectors
• Photogates
• Ticker timer

Note(s):

• Students in Grade 6 calculate average speed using distance and time measurements, measure and graph changes in motion, and investigate how inclined planes can be used to change the amount of force to move an object (6.8C, 6.8D).
• Students in Grade 8 differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration (8.6B).
• TxCCRS:
• I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
• VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
• VIII. Physics – A1 – Demonstrate familiarity with length scales from sub-atomic particles through macroscopic objects.
P.4B Describe and analyze motion in one dimension using equations and graphical vector addition with the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, frames of reference, and acceleration.

Describe, Analyze

MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION

Including, but not limited to:

• Vectors vs. scalars
• Magnitude and direction
• Displacement
• Distance
• Displacement vs. distance
• Velocity vs. speed
• Graphical vector addition
• Vector quantities of displacement and vector sum
• Manipulate equations to solve for an unknown
• d = vit + ½a∆t2
• Displacement = (initial velocity)(change in time) + ½ (acceleration)(change in time)2
• vavg = ∆d / ∆t
• Average velocity = displacement / change in time
• Find the average velocity given two or more velocities
• a = (vfvi)  / ∆t
• Acceleration = (final velocity – initial velocity) / change in time
• a = vf2vi2 / 2∆d
• Acceleration = [(final velocity)2 – (initial velocity)2] / [2(displacement)]
• Instantaneous velocity (find initial or final velocity)
• Frames of reference
• Motion with respect to a specified position
• Situations in which velocities add and subtract relative to an observer

Note(s):

• The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formulas for average velocity, acceleration, and displacement as listed above.
• Students in Grade 6 calculate average speed using distance and time measurements, measure and graph changes in motion, and investigate how inclined planes can be used to change the amount of force to move an object (6.8C, 6.8D, 6.8E).
• Students in Grade 8 differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration (8.6B).
• TxCCRS:
• VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
• VIII. Physics – E1 – Understand rotational kinematics. [Possible Pre-AP Extension]
P.4C Analyze and describe accelerated motion in two dimensions, including using equations, graphical vector addition, and projectile and circular examples.

Analyze, Describe

ACCELERATION MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Projectile motion
• Launched upwards at an angle (conceptual understanding)
• Path of a projectile comparing velocity and acceleration at any point on the path
• Launched horizontally (conceptual understanding and calculations)
• Path of a projectile comparing velocity and acceleration at any point on the path
• Analyze projectile motion in terms of its horizontal and vertical components
• Use data from one of the components to find time and use that value to find the unknown quantity
• Acceleration = (final velocity)– (initial velocity)/ 2 x (displacement)
• a = vfvi2 / 2∆d
• Circular motion
• ac = vt2 / r
• Centripetal acceleration = (tangential velocity)2 / radius
• Direction of acceleration and velocity
• Graphical vector addition in two dimensions
• Pythagorean Theorem
• Sine, cosine, tangent functions

Note(s):

• The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formulas for centripetal acceleration as listed above.
• TxCCRS:
• VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
P.4D Calculate the effect of forces on objects, including the law of inertia, the relationship between force and acceleration, and the nature of force pairs between objects using methods, including free-body force diagrams.

Calculate

THE EFFECT OF FORCES ON OBJECTS

Including, but not limited to:

• Net force
• Fnet = ma
• Net force = (mass)(acceleration)
• Relationship between force and acceleration
• Problems involving force, mass, and acceleration using Newton’s 2nd law
• Friction forces
• The differences between friction-free and friction-inclusive systems
• Law of inertia
• The relationship between mass and inertia using Newton’s 1st law
• Nature of force pairs
• Interpreting real-life situations using Newton’s 3rd law
• Nature of force pairs between objects
• Action-reaction pairs
• Problems involving forces on each object
• Mass vs. weight
• Distinguish between mass and weight
• Calculate the weight of an object
• Fnet = ma (a = g)
• Torque
• τ = Fr
• Torque = (force)(lever arm)
• Compare torque to the net force on an object
• Free-body diagrams of force analysis

Note(s):

• The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formulas for net force, torque, and acceleration due to gravity as listed above.
• Students are introduced to the concepts of force in Grades 6 and 8 by observing change in the motion of an object that is acted upon by an unbalanced force (6.8B, 8.6A).
• In Grade 6, students investigate how inclined planes can be used to change the force applied to an object (6.8E).
• In Grade 7, students consider how forces affect motion in organisms (7.7B).
• In Grade 8, students are introduced to Newton’s laws of motion (8.6C).
• TxCCRS:
• I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
• VIII. Physics – A3 – Understand the concepts of mass and inertia.
• VIII. Physics – A5 – Understand the concepts of gravitational force and weight.
• VIII. Physics – C2 – Understand forces and Newton’s laws.
• VIII. Physics – E3 – Apply the concept of static equilibrium. [Possible Pre-AP Extension]
ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills. The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum. School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency. Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction. Click here to collapse or expand this section. ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to: ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known) ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations. ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to: ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs. ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to: ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment. ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to: ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs. ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to: ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as: ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 04/27/2020

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