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Instructional Focus Document
Physics
TITLE : Introduction: Processes of Physics Investigations SUGGESTED DURATION : 1 day

Unit Overview

Introduction (describes the focus and purpose of the unit)

This IFD serves two purposes:

     1.  An introduction to the course through the lens of Overarching Understandings and the processes used to engage with and explore the content.
     2.  A guide for educators to navigate Instructional Focus Documents during instructional planning for the units of this course. (See parenthetical notes in each section.)

 

Prior to this Unit (list of TEKS in previous courses or previous units of this course that align with the content of this unit)

Many of the process TEKS from K-12 science courses are similar. We are only listing TEKS from a likely recent science course.

  • Biology
    • B.1A – Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.
    • B.1B – Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.
    • B.2A – Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.
    • B.2B – Know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.
    • B.2C – Know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.
    • B.2D – Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.
    • B.2E – Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.
    • B.2F – Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as data-collecting probes, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettes, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.
    • B.2G – Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.
    • B.2H – Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.
    • B.3A – Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
    • B.3B – Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.
    • B.3C – Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.
    • B.3D – Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment.
    • B.3E – Evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events.
    • B.3F – Research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.

 

During this Unit (an overview of the content in this unit)

The scientific processes are very similar throughout every science course, beginning in Kindergarten. Students may need some direct instruction on the purpose and properties of scientific processes; however, it is intended for students to develop a deep understanding of the scientific processes by using them in the context of the content of this course throughout every unit of this course.

 

Streamlining Note (a statement describing the changes in relevant TEKS in current and previous courses implemented in the 2018-2019 school year)

Former TEKS P.2D, P.2I, and P.3C were removed, and subsequent TEKS in the same number were recoded to account for the removal (e.g., P.2E was recoded to P.2D). Students no longer are expected to distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories in this course due to repetition in previous courses. Students no longer are expected to quantify uncertainty in measured data, but are still expected to identify causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data. Students are no longer expected to draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services in this course due to repetition in previous courses. Some equipment has moved from new TEKS P.2E and P.2F (formerly P.2F and P.2G), causing the equipment to be considered suggested (since the TEKS uses the phrase “such as”) instead of required.

 

After this Unit ( a statement that may describe the content that will be studied next in the course, how the content aligns with future courses, or how the content of this unit may be used in the real world)

Students will use scientific processes to investigate the Physics concepts of this course.

 

Research (a list of research-based Student Expectations that align with the TEKS of this unit)

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Science is based on the assumption that the universe is a vast single system in which the basic rules are everywhere the same and that the things and events in the universe occur in consistent patterns that are comprehensible through careful, systematic study.
  • From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how things work. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Continuity and change are persistent features of science.
  • No matter how well one theory fits observations, a new theory might fit them just as well or better, or might fit a wider range of observations.
  • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth.
  • In matters that can be investigated in a scientific way, evidence for the value of a scientific approach is given by the improving ability of scientists to offer reliable explanations and make accurate predictions.
  • Investigations are conducted for different reasons, including to explore new phenomena, to check on previous results, to test how well a theory predicts, and to compare theories.
  • Hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available).
  • Sometimes, scientists can control conditions in order to obtain evidence. When that is not possible, practical, or ethical, they try to observe as wide a range of natural occurrences as possible to discern patterns.
  • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence.
  • Scientists in any one research group tend to see things alike, so even groups of scientists may have trouble being entirely objective about their methods and findings. For that reason, scientific teams are expected to seek out the possible sources of bias in the design of their investigations and in their data analysis. Checking each other's results and explanations helps, but that is no guarantee against bias.
  • In the short run, new ideas that do not mesh well with mainstream ideas in science often encounter vigorous criticism.
  • In the long run, theories are judged by the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how useful they are in making accurate predictions.
  • New ideas in science are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often rejected by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring from unexpected findings; and usually grow slowly, through contributions from many investigators.
  • Scientists' nationality, sex, ethnic origin, age, political convictions, and so on may incline them to look for or emphasize one or another kind of evidence or interpretation.
  • To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it. A hypothesis that cannot, in principle, be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it may not be scientifically useful.
  • Bias attributable to the investigator, the sample, the method, or the instrument may not be completely avoidable in every instance, but scientists want to know the possible sources of bias and how bias is likely to influence evidence.
  • To avoid biased observations, scientific studies sometimes use observers who don't know what the results are "supposed" to be.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/bolintro.htm.


(Overarching Understandings and Questions are the big ideas that encompass the investigation of scientific concepts. They align to scientific processes and the Overarching Concepts. They may be used to help students make connections between unit-level, topical ideas and the bigger ideas in science. The application and alignment of these may vary across content areas due to the unique nature of each discipline.)

 

Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

(Unit Understandings and Questions are the unit-level, topical big ideas. They represent what students should understand at the end of the unit of study. Therefore, they may be used to develop unit learning outcomes. There is a direct relationship between Unit Understandings, Concepts, Performance Assessments, and Unit Assessment Items.)

 

Scientific investigations provide a valid method for scientists to gain understanding about phenomena.

  • What is the value of scientific investigations?

(Overarching Concepts are directly related to the Overarching Understandings, and Unit Concepts are directly related to the Unit Understandings. The list shows how the two are related.)

 

Systems 

  • Scientific investigation 

 

Classifications 

  • Laboratory
  • Field

 

Properties 

  • Asking questions
  • Formulating testable hypotheses
  • Selecting equipment and technology
  • Collect data
  • Organize data
  • Analyze data
  • Evaluate data
  • Make inferences from data
  • Predict trends from data
  • Communicate valid conclusions supported by data

 

Patterns 

  • Investigative procedures

 

Models 

  • Scientific explanations

 

Constancy 

  • Safe practices
  • Conservation of resources

 

Change 

  • Society
  • Environment
  • History of science
  • Contributions of scientists
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions: (a view or opinion that is incorrect because it is based on faulty thinking or lack of understanding)

  • Students may think that scientific investigations are something that scientists do rather than understanding that they can engage in scientific investigations throughout the course.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts: (an inadequate, superficial, or partial understanding of a conceptual idea or skill)

  • Students may only have an understanding of theory in layman’s terms.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary: (unit-specific terms, such as major content terminology that will or may be introduced to students)

  • Science – use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process

 

Related Vocabulary: (general terminology that may have high-yield impacts when utilized in combination with Key Content Vocabulary and may have been previously taught)

  • Scientific inquiry

 

 

Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – OnTRACK Scientific Process Skills

https://www.texasgateway.org/binder/ontrack-scientific-process-skills


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
P.1 Scientific processes. The student conducts investigations, for at least 40% of instructional time, using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:
P.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.

(The clarification of Student Expectations; only applicable specificity is included in each unit.)

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Following classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
  • Handling and wearing appropriate safety equipment
  • Equipment

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
P.1B Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
  • Disposal or recycling of materials
P.2 Scientific processes. The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:
P.2A Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE AND UNDERSTAND THAT IT HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the “use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process”.
  • …”some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.”
P.2B Know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence.

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS THAT MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Tentative and testable statements
  • Supported or not supported by observational evidence

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
P.2C Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but may be subject to change.

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ARE BASED ON NATURAL AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA AND ARE CAPABLE OF BEING TESTED BY MULTIPLE INDEPENDENT RESEARCHERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Based on natural and physical phenomena
  • Capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers
  • Well established, highly reliable explanations
  • Subject to change as new areas or science and new technologies are developed

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
P.2D Design and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking well defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, identifying variables, selecting appropriate equipment and technology, evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness, and identifying causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data.

Design, Implement

INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making observations
  • Asking well defined questions
  • Formulating testable hypotheses
  • Identifying variables
  • Selecting appropriate equipment and technology
  • Evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness
  • Identifying causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data
    • Instrument errors
    • Reading errors
    • User errors

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
P.2E Demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), balances, batteries, dynamics demonstration equipment, collision apparatus, lab masses, magnets, plane mirrors, convex lenses, stopwatches, trajectory apparatus, graph paper, magnetic compasses, protractors, metric rulers, spring scales, thermometers, slinky springs, and/or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results.

Demonstrate

THE USE OF COURSE APPARATUS, EQUIPMENT, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Multimeters (current, voltage, resistance)
  • Balances
  • Batteries
  • Dynamics demonstration equipment
  • Collision apparatus
  • Lab masses
  • Magnets
  • Plane mirrors
  • Convex lenses
  • Stopwatches
  • Trajectory apparatus
  • Graph paper
  • Magnetic compasses
  • Protractors
  • Metric rulers
  • Spring scales
  • Thermometers
  • Slinky springs
P.2F

Use a wide variety of additional course apparatus, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as ripple tank with wave generator, wave motion rope, tuning forks, hand-held visual spectroscopes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), electromagnetic spectrum charts, laser pointers, micrometer, caliper, computer, data acquisition probes, scientific calculators, graphing technology, electrostatics kits, electroscope, inclined plane, optics bench, optics kit, polarized film, prisms, pulley with table clamp, motion detectors, photogates, friction blocks, ballistic carts or equivalent, resonance tube, stroboscope, resistors, copper wire, switches, iron filings, and/or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results.

Use

A WIDE VARIETY OF ADDITIONAL COURSE APPARATUS, EQUIPMENT, TECHNIQUES, MATERIALS, AND PROCEDURES AS APPROPRIATE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Ripple tank with wave generator
  • Wave motion rope
  • Tuning forks
  • Hand-held visual spectroscopes
  • Discharge tubes with power supply
    • H
    • He
    • Ne
    • Ar
  • Electromagnetic spectrum charts
  • Laser pointers
  • Micrometer
  • Caliper
  • Computer
  • Data acquisition probes
  • Scientific calculators
  • Graphing technology
  • Electrostatic kits
  • Electroscope
  • Inclined plane
  • Optics bench
  • Optics kit
  • Polarized film
  • Prisms
  • Pulley with table clamp
  • Motion detectors
  • Photogates
  • Friction blocks
  • Ballistic carts (or equivalent)
  • Resonance tube
  • Stroboscope
  • Resistors
  • Copper wire
  • Switches
  • Iron filings
P.2G Make measurements with accuracy and precision and record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) units.

Make

MEASUREMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Accuracy
  • Precision

Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific notation
  • International System (SI) units
  • Significant Digits (TxCCRS)

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – A2 – Use exponents and scientific notation.
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – F2 – Use appropriate significant digits.
P.2H Organize, evaluate, and make inferences from data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs.

Organize, Evaluate, Make inferences

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Tables
  • Charts
  • Graphs

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
P.2I Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through various methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY THE DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lab reports
  • Labeled drawings
  • Graphic organizers
  • Journals (science notebooks)
  • Summaries
  • Oral reports
  • Technology-based reports 

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • III. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Communication – A1 – Use correct applications of writing practices in scientific communication.
P.2J Express relationships among physical variables quantitatively, including the use of graphs, charts, and equations.

Express

RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PHYSICAL VARIABLES QUANTITATIVELY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Graphs
  • Charts
  • Equations

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • II. Foundation Skills: Scientific Applications of Mathematics – 2B – Carry out formal operations using standard algebraic symbols and formulae.
    • VIII. Physics – A4 – Understand the concept of density.
P.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
P.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how things work. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Continuity and change are persistent features of science. 1A/H2
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
P.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION EXTRACTED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Current events
  • News reports
  • Published journal articles
  • Marketing materials
P.3C Explain the impacts of the scientific contributions of a variety of historical and contemporary scientists on scientific thought and society.

Explain

THE IMPACTS OF SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS ON SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Historical and contemporary scientists
    • Newton
    • Einstein
    • Galileo
    • Maxwell
    • Coulomb
    • Ørsted
    • Ampere
    • Faraday
    • Lenz
P.3D Research and describe the connections between physics and future careers.

Research, Describe

THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PHYSICS AND FUTURE CAREERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • How physics is used in various careers
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Medical physicist
      • Radiation therapist
      • Astronomer
      • Teacher
      • Geophysicist
      • Equipment designer
      • Telecommunications engineer
      • Materials designer
      • Engineer
P.3E Express, manipulate, and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically.

Express, Manipulate, Interpret

RELATIONSHIPS SYMBOLICALLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACCEPTED THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make predictions
  • Solve problems mathematically
    • Manipulation of equations algebraically
    • Proportional reasoning

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – B1 – Understand how vectors are used to represent physical quantities.
    • VIII. Physics – B2 – Demonstrate knowledge of vector mathematics using a graphical representation.
    • VIII. Physics – B3 – Demonstrate knowledge of vector mathematics using a numerical representation.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 07/31/2019
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