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Instructional Focus Document
Chemistry
TITLE : Unit 08: Gases SUGGESTED DURATION : 13 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit focuses on the behavior of gases. Students explore the ideal gas law and all of the gas laws used to derive the ideal gas law. Students add gas volume to the stoichiometric calculations performed given different scenarios. Students explore the postulates of the kinetic molecular theory through experiences that reinforce the theory.

 

Streamlining Note

New TEKS C.9B was formerly coded as C.9C. New TEKS C.8G includes the concepts that were in former TEKS C.9B.

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Grade 3
    • 3.5B – Describe and classify samples of matter as solids, liquids, and gases and demonstrate that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container.
  • Grade 5
    • 5.5A – Classify matter based on physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy.
  • Integrated Physics and Chemistry
    • I.6A – Examine differences in physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases as explained by the arrangement and motion of atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances and the strength of the forces of attraction between those particles.
    • I.6B – Relate chemical properties of substances to the arrangement of their atoms or molecules.

 

After this Unit

Students will apply their understanding of the behavior of gases to their everyday interactions with gas.

 

Safety Note

Chemistry is the high school science course where students are most likely to use chemicals and equipment that could harm the health of themselves and others. It is imperative that students and teachers plan and conduct laboratory investigations with a high level of focus and professionalism that ensures the safety of everyone.

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • …a mathematical model uses rules and relationships to describe and predict objects and events in the real world.
  • …a mathematical model may give insight about how something really works or may fit observations very well without any intuitive meaning.
  • …the behavior of a physical model cannot ever be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied. The inappropriateness of a model may be related to differences between the model and what is being modeled.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993, 2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/bolintro.htm.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

There is an observable and measurable relationship between the behavior of ideal gases and the conditions that influence the behavior.

  • In what ways are the properties of ideal gases related?
  • In what ways are the properties of ideal gases calculated?
  • How does kinetic molecular theory explain the behavior of ideal gas systems?

Systems

  • Matter

 

Classifications

  • Gas

 

Properties

  • Volume
  • Pressure
  • Moles
  • Temperature

 

Patterns

  • Proportional relationships between properties

 

Models

  • Kinetic molecular theory

 

Constancy

  • Boyle’s law
  • Charles’ law
  • Avogadro’s law
  • Dalton’s law
  • Ideal gas law
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

There is an observable and measurable relationship between the behavior of ideal gases and the conditions that influence the behavior.

  • In what ways are the properties of ideal gases related?
  • In what ways are the properties of ideal gases calculated?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think gases do not have mass, rather than understanding that all matter has mass.
  • Students may think air and oxygen are the same gas, rather than understanding that the air in our atmosphere is a mixture that includes oxygen.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may not understand how to use dimensional analysis.
  • Students may not understand significant figures.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Avogadro’s law – at constant temperature and pressure, the number of atoms or molecules in any gases is always the same for equal volumes, or always proportional to the volumes
  • Boyle’s law – at constant temperature, the product of the volume and pressure of a gas is constant
  • Charles’ law – at constant pressure, the temperature and volume of a gas are directly proportional
  • Dalton’s law of partial pressures – the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the individual pressures of the gases in the mixture
  • Ideal gas law – mathematical formula that describes the relationships among temperature, pressure, volume, and moles in ideal gases

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Ideal gas constant, R
  • Ideal gas law
  • Kinetic molecular theory
  • Molar volume
  • Pressure (mm Hg, kPa, atm)
  • Standard temperature and pressure (STP)
  • Temperature (Kelvin)
  • Volume
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – OnTRACK Scientific Process Skills

https://www.texasgateway.org/binder/ontrack-scientific-process-skills

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Ideal Gas Law

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/ideal-gas-law

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Ideal Gas Law Behavior: Dalton's Law

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/ideal-gas-behavior-daltons-law

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Ideal Gas Behavior: Avogadro’s Law

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/ideal-gas-behavior-avogadro’s-law

 


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
C.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
C.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and fire extinguishers.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use safety equipment appropriately
    • Safety showers
    • Eyewash fountains
    • Safety goggles
    • Chemical splash goggles
    • Fire extinguishers
    • Protective clothing (aprons, gloves)
  • Follow classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
  • Use chemicals and equipment appropriately
C.1B Know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS).

Know

SPECIFIC HAZARDS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • As summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
    • Hazards
      • Flammability
      • Corrosiveness
      • Radioactivity
      • Toxicity
    • Hazard scale (hazard identification / statements)
    • Signal word
    • Pictogram
    • Precautionary statements
C.1C Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
    • Use mole calculations to measure precise amounts of reactants
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials
    • Disposal
      • Solid and liquid chemical waste
      • Broken glassware
    • Spill cleanup
    • Recycling
      • Paper products
      • Plastics
      • Glass
      • Metals
C.2 Scientific processes. Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to:
C.2B Know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS THAT MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine if statements represent testable hypotheses
  • Analyze data to determine whether the data support or do not support hypotheses
  • Widely tested hypotheses
    • Can have durable explanatory power
    • May be incorporated into theories
C.2C Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena
  • Scientific theories are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers
  • Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly reliable explanations
  • Scientific theories may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
    • A scientific theory may be subject to change when new evidence is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of chemistry and the evidence that supports them
    • Possible examples of related scientific theories may include:
      • Kinetic molecular theory
C.2D Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.

Distinguish

BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish between scientific hypotheses, theories, or laws
  • Use statements and supporting evidence to determine whether statements are scientific hypotheses, scientific theories, or scientific laws
  • Examine examples of hypotheses, theories, and laws in the field of chemistry 

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
C.2E Plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, electronic balances, an adequate supply of consumable chemicals, and sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, and burettes.

Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observing physical and chemical phenomena
  • Asking questions
  • Formulating testable hypotheses
  • Planning and conducting investigations
    • Descriptive
    • Comparative
    • Experimental
  • Selecting and using appropriate materials, equipment, and technology
    • Graphing calculators (may include probes)
    • Computers and probes
    • Safety goggles and other safety equipment
    • Electronic balances
    • Consumable chemicals
    • Scientific glassware
      • Beakers
      • Erlenmeyer flasks
      • Pipettes
      • Graduated cylinders
      • Volumetric flasks
      • Burettes
    • May include other supplies, equipment, and technology

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
    • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
    • Experimental investigations involve designing a fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a controlled experiment.
    • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
C.2F Collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision.

Collect

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observations (qualitative)
  • Measurements (quantitative)
  • Record measurements using appropriate units

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Data collecting probes for pH, etc.
  • Glassware for volume (e.g., graduated cylinders, pipettes, burettes)
  • Electronic balances for mass
  • Meter sticks and rulers for length or distance
  • Stopwatches for time
C.2G Express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures.

Express, Manipulate

CHEMICAL QUANTITIES USING SCIENTIFIC CONVENTIONS AND MATHEMATICAL PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific conventions
    • SI units
  • Mathematical procedures
    • Dimensional analysis
    • Scientific notation
    • Rules for Significant Figures
        1. Non-zero digits and zeros between non-zero digits are always significant.
        2. Leading zeros are not significant.
        3. Zeros to the right of all non-zero digits are only significant if a decimal point is shown.
        4. For values written in scientific notation, the digits in the coefficient are significant.
        5. In a common logarithm, there are as many digits after the decimal point as there are significant figures in the original number.

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include the Rules for Significant Figures as listed above.
C.2H Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Organize, Analyze, Evaluate, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
  • Organize, analyze, and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Extrapolate and interpolate

Note(s):

  • Students may be asked to interpret data in multiple contexts in order to make inferences and predict trends.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
C.2I Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Use equations to represent data and conclusions
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports
    • Charts
    • Tables

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
C.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
C.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations 

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
C.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
      • News reports
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools 
C.3D Evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment.

Evaluate

IMPACT OF RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read scientific articles to gain understanding of the impact of research
  • Evaluate the impact of research on society, everyday life, and the environment
  • Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Understand how scientific research and technology have an impact on ethical and legal practices
  • Understand how commonly held ethical beliefs impact scientific research
  • Understand how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
C.3F Describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

Describe

HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conduct research on contributions of various chemists
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Robert Boyle (Boyle’s law)
      • Jacques Charles (Charles’ law)
      • Joseph Proust (law of definite proportions)
      • Amedeo Avogadro (Avogadro’s law and number)
  • Conduct research on historical development of major theories in chemistry
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Kinetic molecular theory
C.8 Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The student is expected to:
C.8A

Define and use the concept of a mole.

Use

CONCEPT OF A MOLE

Including but not limited to:

  • Perform conversions involving:
    • Avogadro’s number = 6.02 x 1023 (representative) particles per mole
    • Representative particles
      • Atoms
      • Formula units
      • Molecules
      • Ions
    • Molar mass
      • Gram atomic mass
      • Gram molecular mass
      • Gram formula mass
  • Calculate precise amounts and proportions of reactants needed for a chemical reaction
  • Predict the amount of each product in a chemical reaction using stoichiometry

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include Avogadro’s number under Constants and Conversions as listed above.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – G1 – Understand the mole concept.
C.8G Perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass and gas volume relationships between reactants and products and percent yield.

Perform

STOICHIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determination of mass relationships between reactants and products
    • Mole ratio
    • Mole-mole
    • Mass-mass
    • Mole-mass
  • Determination of mole, mass, and volume relationships between reactants and products for reactions involving gases
    • Mole-volume
    • Mole-mass
    • Volume-mass
  • Calculation of percent yield = (actual yield / theoretical yield)(100%)

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include the formula for percent yield under Other Formulas as listed above.
  • Assume the volume of a mole of any gas at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) = 22.4 L/mol.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – G2 – Understand molar relationships in reactions, stoichiometric calculations, and percent yield.
C.9 Science concepts. The student understands the principles of ideal gas behavior, kinetic molecular theory, and the conditions that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:
C.9A Describe and calculate the relations between volume, pressure, number of moles, and temperature for an ideal gas as described by Boyle's law, Charles' law, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure, and the ideal gas law.

Describe, Calculate

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VOLUME, PRESSURE, NUMBER OF MOLES, AND TEMPERATURE FOR AN IDEAL GAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Boyle’s law
    • P1V= P2V2
    • (initial pressure)(initial volume) = (final pressure)(final volume)
  • Charles’ law
    • V1 / T1 = V2 / T2
    • (initial volume) / (initial temperature) = (final volume) / (final temperature)
  • Avogadro’s law
    • V1 / n1 = V2 / n2
    • (initial volume) / (initial moles) = (final volume) / (final moles)
  • Dalton’s law of partial pressure
    • PT = P1 + P2 + P3 +…
    • Total pressure of a gas mixture = sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
  • Temperature (Celsius vs. Kelvin)
    • 0°C = 273 K
  • The importance of and use of standard temperature and pressure (STP) when applying the gas laws
    • Standard temperature = 0°C = 273 K
    • Standard pressure = 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 101.3 kPa
  • Combined gas law
    • P1V1 / n1T1 = P2V2/ n2T2
    • (initial pressure)(initial volume) / (initial moles)(initial temperature) = (final pressure)(final volume) / (final moles)(final temperature)
  • Ideal gas law
    • Definition of an “ideal” gas
    • Volume of ideal gas at STP = 22.4 L / mol
    • The ideal gas equation
      • PV = nRT
      • (pressure)(volume) = (moles)(ideal gas constant)(temperature)
      • R = ideal gas constant = 8.31 L ∙ kPa / mol ∙ K
    • Differences between “ideal” gas and “real” gases

Note(s):

  • The Chemistry Reference Materials include the formulas for Behavior of Gases and the constants for use in calculations.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – G1 – Understand the mole concept.
    • VII. Chemistry – G2 – Understand molar relationships in reactions, stoichiometric calculations, and percent yield.
    • VII. Chemistry – I1 – Understand the behavior of matter in its various states solid, liquid, gas.
    • VII. Chemistry – I4 – Apply the concept of partial pressures in a mixture of gases.
    • VIII. Physics – A2 – Understand states of matter and their characteristics.
C.9B Describe the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.

Describe

THE POSTULATES OF KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • A gas consists of individual particles in constant and random motion – the gas particles obey Newton’s laws
  • The volume of the individual gas molecules is small when compared to the distance between gas molecules
  • Collisions between molecules are perfectly elastic – no energy is gained or lost during the collision
  • The individual particles do not attract or repel one another in any way
  • The pressure of the gas is due entirely to the force of the collisions of the gas particles with the walls of the container

Note(s):

  • Students may be assessed by using the postulates to describe ideal gas behavior.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – E6 – Understand chemical kinetics.
    • VII. Chemistry – I3 – Understand principles of ideal gas behavior and kinetic molecular theory.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 11/27/2018
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