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Chemistry
TITLE : Unit 02: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit focuses on the historical development of atomic theory and the Periodic Table.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Grade 6
    • 6.5A – Know that an element is a pure substance represented by a chemical symbol and that a compound is a pure substance represented by a chemical formula.
  • Grade 8
    • 8.5A – Describe the structure of atoms, including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud.
    • 8.5B – Identify that protons determine an element’s identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, including reactivity.
    • 8.5C – Interpret the arrangement of the Periodic Table, including groups and periods, to explain how properties are used to classify elements.
    • 8.8C – Identify how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as visible light and radio waves are used to gain information about components in the universe.

 

During this Unit

Students focus on the experiments of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr to describe how the understanding of atomic properties changed over time. While investigating Thomson’s discovery of electron properties, students describe the mathematic relationships of electromagnetic wave properties. Students trace the development of atomic theory to the development of the Periodic Table and learn to recognize all of the properties of sets of elements that can be determined by the structure of the Periodic Table. Students calculate the average atomic mass of elements in different scenarios.

 

Streamlining Note

The TEKS formerly identified as C.6C has been removed, and subsequent TEKS under the knowledge statement C.6 have been recoded (former C.6D is now C.6C; former C.6E is now C.6D). Students no longer are expected to calculate the wavelength, frequency, and energy of light using Planck's constant and the speed of light. TEKS C.5C no long includes ionic radii as a trend to interpret.

 

After this Unit

Students will use their understanding of the properties of elements and trends of the Periodic Table to engage in the process of inquiry throughout the rest of this course.

 

Additional Notes

Safety Note

Chemistry is the high school science course where students are most likely to use chemicals and equipment that could harm the health of themselves and others. It is imperative that students and teachers plan and conduct laboratory investigations with a high level of focus and professionalism that ensures the safety of everyone.

 

Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that atoms form bonds to other atoms by transferring or sharing electrons”, and that “some atoms and molecules are highly effective in encouraging the interaction of others.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The historic scientific discoveries of the nature of the atom have fundamentally changed scientific understanding of the nature of matter.

  • In what ways can analysis of the atom further define our understanding of the chemical and physical properties of matter?
  •  How has each historic scientific discovery changed our understanding of the chemical and physical properties of matter and our use of the Periodic Table?
  • In what ways can mathematical relationships between properties of light be demonstrated?

Systems

  • Atoms

 

Classifications

  • Elements

 

Properties

  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Electrons
  • Energy levels
  • Atomic mass

 

Patterns

  • Atomic structure

 

Models

  • Bohr’s nuclear atom
  • Rutherford’s nuclear atom

 

Constancy

  • Nuclear components

 

Change

  • Electron location
  • Isotopes
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The historic scientific discoveries of the nature of the atom have fundamentally changed scientific understanding of the nature of matter.

  • In what ways can analysis of the atom further define our understanding of the chemical and physical properties of matter?

Systems

  • Atoms

 

Classifications

  • Elements

 

Properties

  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Atomic mass

 

Patterns

  • Atomic structure

 

Models

  • Bohr’s nuclear atom

 

Constancy

  • Nuclear components

 

Change

  • Electron location
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The historic scientific discoveries of the nature of the atom have fundamentally changed scientific understanding of the nature of matter.

  • In what ways can analysis of the atom further define our understanding of the chemical and physical properties of matter?
  • In what ways can the Periodic Table be used to demonstrate chemical and physical patterns?
  • How has each historic scientific discovery changed our understanding of the chemical and physical properties of matter and our use of the Periodic Table?

System

  • Periodic Table

 

Classifications

  • Elements
  • Families
  • Groups

 

Properties

  • Atomic mass
  • Atomic number
  • Energy levels

 

Patterns

  • Periodicity of elements
  • Atomic radius
  • Electronegativity
  • Ionization energy

 

Constancy

  • Atomic structure

 

Change

  • Historical discoveries of elements
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom in a plane similar to planets orbiting the Sun, rather than understanding the electron cloud model.
  • Students may think atoms disappear during a physical or chemical change rather than being conserved.  
  • Students may think atoms have properties just like their elements.
  • Students may think atoms “want” to gain, share, or lose electrons, rather than understanding that chemical bonds result in more stable (less reactive) products.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may not understand most elements have isotopes and that not all isotopes are radioactive.
  • Students may not understand that the only subatomic particles important in understanding the Periodic Table and bonding are electrons, protons, and neutrons.
  • Students may not understand the Periodic Table has not always looked like it does now.
  • Students may not understand the important trends within the Periodic Table.
  • Students may not understand there is more than one model of the atom.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Atomic emission spectrum – the variety of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (light) seen through a spectroscope that are emitted by electrons as they transition from higher to lower energy levels; unique for each element
  • Atomic radius – a measure of the size of an atom of an element from the nucleus to the outer electrons
  • Chemical family – a group of elements with similar chemical properties
  • Electromagnetic spectrum – all of the frequencies of electromagnetic radiation / light
  • Electronegativity – a chemical property that describes the extent to which an atom attracts electrons towards itself; cannot be directly measured
  • Frequency – the number of cycles of an event per unit time; one Hertz (Hz) means one cycle per second
  • Hyphen notation – a way of designating the isotopes of an element using its name (or symbol), a hyphen, and the mass number (example: uranium-238)
  • Ionic radius – a measureof the size of an ion of an element in a crystal (usually measured by taking half the distance between two nuclei)
  • Ionization energy – a chemical property that describes the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom
  • Isotopes – atoms of an element that have the same atomic number (protons) but different mass numbers due to different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei
  • Planck’s constant – a constant value that relates the energy of a photon of light to its frequency
  • Valence electrons – those electrons involved in the formation of chemical bonds
  • Wavelength – the length between successive peaks (or troughs) of a wave

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Alkali metals
  • Alkaline earth metals
  • Atom
  • Atomic number
  • Average atomic mass
  • Electron affinity
  • Electrons
  • Families
  • Halogens
  • Mass number
  • Neutrons
  • Noble gases
  • Nuclear symbol
  • Nucleus
  • Oxidation numbers
  • Photon
  • Protons
  • Spectroscope
  • Speed of light
  • Subatomic particles
  • Transition metals
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson and Rutherford

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/atomic-theory-dalton-thomson-and-rutherford

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Atomic Theory: Electromagnetic Spectrum

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/atomic-theory-electromagnetic-spectrum

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Average Atomic Mass

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/average-atomic-mass

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Electromagnetic Spectrum

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/electromagnetic-spectrum

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Periodic Table Families

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/periodic-table-families

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Periodic Table Trends

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/periodic-table-trends

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – The Bohr Model

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/bohr-model

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – What’s Trending with the Elements?

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/what’s-trending-elements


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
C.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
C.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and fire extinguishers.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use safety equipment appropriately
    • Safety showers
    • Eyewash fountains
    • Safety goggles
    • Chemical splash goggles
    • Fire extinguishers
    • Protective clothing (aprons, gloves)
  • Follow classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
  • Use chemicals and equipment appropriately
C.1B Know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS).

Know

SPECIFIC HAZARDS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • As summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
    • Hazards
      • Flammability
      • Corrosiveness
      • Radioactivity
      • Toxicity
    • Hazard scale (hazard identification / statements)
    • Signal word
    • Pictogram
    • Precautionary statements
C.1C Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
    • Use mole calculations to measure precise amounts of reactants
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials
    • Disposal
      • Solid and liquid chemical waste
      • Broken glassware
    • Spill cleanup
    • Recycling
      • Paper products
      • Plastics
      • Glass
      • Metals
C.2 Scientific processes. Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to:
C.2A Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the “use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process”.
  • According to the introductory material of the TEKS for Chemistry, “This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models.”

Understand

SCIENCE HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • …”some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.”
  • Scientific inquiry may be limited by current technology
C.2B Know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS THAT MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine if statements represent testable hypotheses
  • Analyze data to determine whether the data support or do not support hypotheses
  • Widely tested hypotheses
    • Can have durable explanatory power
    • May be incorporated into theories
C.2C Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena
  • Scientific theories are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers
  • Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly reliable explanations
  • Scientific theories may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
    • A scientific theory may be subject to change when new evidence is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of chemistry and the evidence that supports them
    • Possible examples of related scientific theories may include:
      • Atomic theory
      • Quantum theory
C.2D Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.

Distinguish

BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish between scientific hypotheses, theories, or laws
  • Use statements and supporting evidence to determine whether statements are scientific hypotheses, scientific theories, or scientific laws
  • Examine examples of hypotheses, theories, and laws in the field of chemistry 

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
C.2E Plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, electronic balances, an adequate supply of consumable chemicals, and sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, and burettes.

Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observing physical and chemical phenomena
  • Asking questions
  • Formulating testable hypotheses
  • Planning and conducting investigations
    • Descriptive
    • Comparative
    • Experimental
  • Selecting and using appropriate materials, equipment, and technology
    • Graphing calculators (may include probes)
    • Computers and probes
    • Safety goggles and other safety equipment
    • Electronic balances
    • Consumable chemicals
    • Scientific glassware
      • Beakers
      • Erlenmeyer flasks
      • Pipettes
      • Graduated cylinders
      • Volumetric flasks
      • Burettes
    • May include other supplies, equipment, and technology

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
    • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
    • Experimental investigations involve designing a fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a controlled experiment.
    • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
C.2G Express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures.

Express, Manipulate

CHEMICAL QUANTITIES USING SCIENTIFIC CONVENTIONS AND MATHEMATICAL PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific conventions
    • SI units
  • Mathematical procedures
    • Dimensional analysis
    • Scientific notation
    • Rules for Significant Figures
        1. Non-zero digits and zeros between non-zero digits are always significant.
        2. Leading zeros are not significant.
        3. Zeros to the right of all non-zero digits are only significant if a decimal point is shown.
        4. For values written in scientific notation, the digits in the coefficient are significant.
        5. In a common logarithm, there are as many digits after the decimal point as there are significant figures in the original number.

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include the Rules for Significant Figures as listed above.
C.2H Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Organize, Analyze, Evaluate, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
  • Organize, analyze, and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Extrapolate and interpolate

Note(s):

  • Students may be asked to interpret data in multiple contexts in order to make inferences and predict trends.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
C.2I Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Use equations to represent data and conclusions
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports
    • Charts
    • Tables

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
C.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
C.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations 

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
C.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
      • News reports
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools 
C.3D Evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment.

Evaluate

IMPACT OF RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read scientific articles to gain understanding of the impact of research
  • Evaluate the impact of research on society, everyday life, and the environment
  • Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Understand how scientific research and technology have an impact on ethical and legal practices
  • Understand how commonly held ethical beliefs impact scientific research
  • Understand how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
C.3F Describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

Describe

HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conduct research on significant events in the history of chemistry
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Alchemy
      • Phlogiston
      • Discovery of various elements
      • Development of the Periodic Table
      • Development of modern atomic theory
  • Conduct research on contributions of various chemists
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Joseph Priestly and Carl Scheele (discovery of oxygen)
      • Joseph Proust (law of definite proportions)
      • John Dalton (law of multiple proportions, law of partial pressures, atomic theory)
      • Ernest Rutherford (model of nucleus)
      • Henry Moseley (Periodic Table)
      • Dimitri Mendeleev (Periodic Table)
      • J. J. Thomson (electron discovery)
      • Niels Bohr (atomic structure)
      • Robert Millikan (charge on electron)
  • Conduct research on historical development of major theories in chemistry
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Atomic theory
C.5 Science concepts. The student understands the historical development of the Periodic Table and can apply its predictive power. The student is expected to:
C.5A Explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical development of the Periodic Table.

Explain

THE USE OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Atomic weights and observed patterns of physical and chemical properties of elements in the 19th century
  • The work of Mendeleev and Mosley in creating the modern Periodic Table, including:
    • Properties
    • Valences
    • Atomic numbers

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include a Periodic Table of the Elements.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – A1 – Know that physical and chemical properties can be used to describe and classify matter.
    • VII. Chemistry – C1 – Know the organization of the periodic table.
C.5B Identify and explain the properties of chemical families, including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals, using the Periodic Table.

Identify, Explain

THE PROPERTIES OF CHEMICAL FAMILIES USING THE PERIODIC TABLE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Names of the periods (rows) and families / groups (columns) of the Periodic Table
  • Chemical and physical properties of:
    • Alkali metals
    • Alkaline earth metals
    • Halogens
    • Noble gases
    • Transition metals
    • Intertransitional metals (optional)
    • Properties of chemical families
      • Valence electrons
      • Reactivities
      • Thermal conductivities
      • Electrical conductivities
      • Appearances – color, luster
      • Physical states at room or other temperatures
      • Other physical or chemical properties
    • Compare properties of chemical families
    • Identifying a family based on a description of properties

Notes(s):

  • In Grade 6, students are introduced to the Periodic Table through a comparison of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids (6.6A). In Grade 8, students interpret the arrangement of the Periodic Table, including groups and periods, to explain how properties are used to classify elements (8.5C).
  • Students may be assessed by comparing properties of chemical families or by identifying families based on properties.
  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include a Periodic Table of the Elements.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – C1 – Know the organization of the periodic table.
    • VII. Chemistry – C2 – Recognize the trends in physical and chemical properties as one moves across a period or vertically through a group.
C.5C Interpret periodic trends, including atomic radius, electronegativity, and ionization energy, using the Periodic Table.

Interpret

PERIODIC TRENDS USING THE PERIODIC TABLE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify periodic trends across periods and within families / groups
    • Atomic radius
    • Electronegativity
    • Ionization energy
  • Explain trends in terms of nuclear charges (atomic number) and electron configurations 

Note(s):

  • In Grade 6, students are introduced to the concept that an element is a pure substance represented by chemical symbols and additionally students are introduced to the Periodic Table through a comparison of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids (6.5A, 6.6A). In Grade 8, students describe the structure of atoms (mass, charge, protons, neutrons, electrons) and identify that protons determine an element’s identity and determine its chemical properties, including reactivity (8.5A, 8.5B).
  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include a Periodic Table of the Elements and the Activity Series for Metals.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • VII. Chemistry – C1 – Know the organization of the periodic table.
    • VII. Chemistry – C2 – Recognize the trends in physical and chemical properties as one moves across a period or vertically through a group.
C.6 Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The student is expected to:
C.6A Describe the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory, including Dalton's Postulates, Thomson's discovery of electron properties, Rutherford's nuclear atom, and Bohr's nuclear atom.

Describe

THE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND CONCLUSIONS USED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ATOMIC THEORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dalton’s Postulates on atomic theory
  • Thomson’s discovery of electron properties
  • Rutherford’s positively charged nucleus
  • Bohr’s energy level model

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – B1 – Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help us understand the properties of elements and compounds.
    • VIII. Physics – J1 – Understand the wave/particle duality of light.
C.6B Describe the mathematical relationships between energy, frequency, and wavelength of light using the electromagnetic spectrum.

Describe

THE MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ENERGY, FREQUENCY, AND WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT

Including, but not limited to:

  • The electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., radio, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma)
  • Relationship of energy and frequency as wavelength increases or decreases
  • Atomic emission spectra and their relationship to the Bohr model of the atom and energy levels
    • Ground state
    • Excited states
  • Mathematical relationships among energy, frequency, and wavelength of light
    • c = fλ
      • Speed of light = (frequency)(wavelength)
    • c = 3.00 x 108 m/s
      • c = speed of light (as a wave) 

Note(s):

  • In Grade 8, students identify how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as visible light and radio waves, are used to gain information about components in the universe (8.8C). This is the only time the electromagnetic spectrum is addressed in elementary or middle school grades.
  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include the formula for the speed of light under Atomic Structure, and the value for the speed of light under Constants and Conversions.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – B1 – Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help us understand the properties of elements and compounds.
    • VIII. Physics – G3 – Understand wave terminology wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude.
    • VIII. Physics – J1 – Know the electromagnetic spectrum. 
C.6C Calculate average atomic mass of an element using isotopic composition.

Calculate

AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS OF AN ELEMENT USING ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Isotopic percent composition
    • Common isotopes and relative abundance in percent
    • Mass number
    • Hyphen notation
    • Nuclear notation / isotopic notation (superscript mass number and subscript atomic number)
  • Calculating average atomic mass
      1. Multiply the mass of each isotope by the relative abundance percentage (represented in decimal form)
      2. Find the sum of a the calculated values of isotopic mass and relative abundance
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 08/14/2019
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