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Instructional Focus Document
Chemistry
TITLE : Unit 03: Chemical Bonding SUGGESTED DURATION : 14 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit focuses on a conceptual understanding of chemical bonding.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Grade 6
    • 6.6A – Compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using physical properties such as luster, conductivity, or malleability.
  • Grade 8
    • 8.5A – Describe the structure of atoms, including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud.
    • 8.5B – Identify that protons determine an element's identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, including reactivity.
  • Unit 02: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
    • C.5A – Explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical development of the Periodic Table.
    • C.5C – Interpret periodic trends, including atomic radius, electronegativity, and ionization energy, using the Periodic Table.
    • C.6A – Understand the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory, including Dalton's Postulates, Thomson's discovery of electron properties, Rutherford's nuclear atom, and Bohr's nuclear atom.

 

During this Unit

Students will continue to explore the characteristics of elements demonstrated by the structure of the Periodic Table by expressing electron configurations of representative elements and Lewis valence electron dot structures. Students use ionization energy and electronegativity of elements to construct electron dot formulas for ionic and covalent bonds. Students relate the known properties of metals to metallic bonding. Finally, students classify molecular structure based on VSEPR theory based on models; however, they do not need to predict the structure based on chemical formulas.

 

Streamlining Notes

The verb for TEKS C.7E was changed from “predict” to “classify” to reduce the instructional time needed for students to master the student expectation. TEKS C.6D was formerly coded C.6E.

 

After this Unit

Students will apply the conceptual understanding of chemical bonding to naming compounds and formula writing in the next unit of this course.

 

Additional Notes

Safety Note

Chemistry is the High School science course where students are most likely to use chemicals and equipment that could harm the health of themselves and others. It is imperative that students and teachers plan and conduct laboratory investigations with a high level of focus and professionalism that ensures the safety of everyone.

 

Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that atoms form bonds to other atoms by transferring or sharing electrons”, and that “some atoms and molecules are highly effective in encouraging the interaction of others.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Atoms form systems of ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds through the interactions of their valence electrons.

  • How are electron dot formulas used to model bonds?
  • How does the nature of metallic bonding apply to metallic properties?
  • How is Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory used to predict molecular structure for molecules?

Systems

  • Chemical bonds

 

Classifications

  • Covalent
  • Ionic
  • Metallic

 

Properties

  • Shared electrons
  • Transferred electrons
  • Free electrons

 

Patterns

  • Linear
  • Trigonal planar
  • Tetrahedral

 

Models

  • Ball and stick
  • Lewis dot structures
  • Electron dot formulas

 

Constancy

  • Conservation of mass
  • Electron quantity

 

Change

  • Electron orbit
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think atoms “want” to gain, share, or lose electrons, rather than understanding that chemical bonds result in more stable (less reactive) products.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may have difficulty understanding how and why ionization energy and electronegativity vary on the Periodic Table.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Aufbau principle – the configuration (order of filling) of the s, p, d, and f orbitals; electrons fill the lowest energy levels first
  • Covalent bond – a bond in which electrons are shared, equally or unequally
  • Electron affinity – energy released when an electron is added to an atom to form an ion 
  • Electron orbitals (s, p, d, and f) – the different energy levels filled by electrons within an atom
  • Hund’s rule – electrons fill empty orbitals before they pair up
  • Ion – a negatively or positively charged atom (monatomic) or group of atoms (polyatomic)
  • Ionic bond – a bond in which one or more electrons are given by one atom to another
  • Lewis dot structure – an atomic symbol with dots showing valence electrons
  • Metallic bond – a bond in which the valence electrons are shared among all of the atoms in the metal
  • Molecular geometry – the 3D shape of a covalent molecule, as determined by shared and unshared electrons
  • Octet rule – elements, other than transition metals, that tend to react so that each atom has eight electrons in its outer (valence) shell (e.g., orbitals are full)
  • Oxidation number – for atoms of pure elements, the oxidation number is zero; for monatomic ions, it is the charge on the ion; in polyatomic ions, the oxidation numbers of the component atoms add up to the charge on the ion; in a neutral molecule, the oxidation numbers add up to zero
  • Pauli exclusion principle – electrons in the same orbital, and the value must have opposite spins
  • Polar and nonpolar molecules – because of differences in electronegativity, different types of atoms in covalent molecules do not share electrons equally; in a 3D symmetrical molecule, the unequal sharing cancels out, and the molecule is nonpolar; in a 3D nonsymmetrical molecule, the unequal sharing does NOT cancel out, so that there is partial positive area and a partial negative area
  • VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory – unshared electron pairs of atoms in covalent molecules repel each other; thus, the shape of the molecule will tend to minimize the net repulsions

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Bent
  • Conductivity
  • Electronegativity
  • Excited state
  • Ground state
  • Ionization energy
  • Lattice
  • Linear
  • Tetrahedral
  • Trigonal planar
  • Valence electrons
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency  Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
C.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
C.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and fire extinguishers.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use safety equipment appropriately
    • Safety showers
    • Eyewash fountains
    • Safety goggles
    • Chemical splash goggles
    • Fire extinguishers
    • Protective clothing (aprons, gloves)
  • Follow classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
  • Use chemicals and equipment appropriately
C.1B Know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS).

Know

SPECIFIC HAZARDS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • As summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
    • Hazards
      • Flammability
      • Corrosiveness
      • Radioactivity
      • Toxicity
    • Hazard scale (hazard identification / statements)
    • Signal word
    • Pictogram
    • Precautionary statements
C.1C Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
    • Use mole calculations to measure precise amounts of reactants
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials
    • Disposal
      • Solid and liquid chemical waste
      • Broken glassware
    • Spill cleanup
    • Recycling
      • Paper products
      • Plastics
      • Glass
      • Metals
C.2 Scientific processes. Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to:
C.2C Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena
  • Scientific theories are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers
  • Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly reliable explanations
  • Scientific theories may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
    • A scientific theory may be subject to change when new evidence is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of chemistry and the evidence that supports them
    • Possible examples of related scientific theories may include:
      • VSEPR theory
C.2E Plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, electronic balances, an adequate supply of consumable chemicals, and sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, and burettes.

Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observing physical and chemical phenomena
  • Asking questions
  • Formulating testable hypotheses
  • Planning and conducting investigations
    • Descriptive
    • Comparative
    • Experimental
  • Selecting and using appropriate materials, equipment, and technology
    • Graphing calculators (may include probes)
    • Computers and probes
    • Safety goggles and other safety equipment
    • Electronic balances
    • Consumable chemicals
    • Scientific glassware
      • Beakers
      • Erlenmeyer flasks
      • Pipettes
      • Graduated cylinders
      • Volumetric flasks
      • Burettes
    • May include other supplies, equipment, and technology

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
    • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
    • Experimental investigations involve designing a fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a controlled experiment.
    • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
C.2F Collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision.

Collect

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observations (qualitative)
  • Measurements (quantitative)
  • Record measurements using appropriate units

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Data collecting probes for pH, etc.
  • Glassware for volume (e.g., graduated cylinders, pipettes, burettes)
  • Electronic balances for mass
  • Meter sticks and rulers for length or distance
  • Stopwatches for time
C.2H Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Organize, Analyze, Evaluate, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
  • Organize, analyze, and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Extrapolate and interpolate

Note(s):

  • Students may be asked to interpret data in multiple contexts in order to make inferences and predict trends.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
C.2I Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Use equations to represent data and conclusions
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports
    • Charts
    • Tables

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
C.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
C.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations 

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
C.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
      • News reports
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools 
C.3D Evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment.

Evaluate

IMPACT OF RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read scientific articles to gain understanding of the impact of research
  • Evaluate the impact of research on society, everyday life, and the environment
  • Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Understand how scientific research and technology have an impact on ethical and legal practices
  • Understand how commonly held ethical beliefs impact scientific research
  • Understand how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
C.3E Describe the connection between chemistry and future careers.

Describe

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN CHEMISTRY AND FUTURE CAREERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Importance of the role of chemistry and chemicals in many jobs and professions
  • Identify levels of training necessary for future careers using chemistry
C.3F Describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

Describe

HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conduct research on significant events in the history of chemistry
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Alchemy
      • Phlogiston
      • Discovery of various elements
      • Development of the Periodic Table
      • Development of modern atomic theory
  • Conduct research on contributions of various chemists
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Gilbert Lewis (covalent bond, acid-base theory)
      • Wolfgang Pauli (Pauli exclusion principle)
      • Friedrich Hund (Hund’s rule)
  • Conduct research on historical development of major theories in chemistry
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Atomic theory
      • Acid-base theory
      • Kinetic molecular theory
      • VSEPR theory
C.6 Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The student is expected to:
C.6D Express the arrangement of electrons in atoms of representative elements using electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures.

Express

THE ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRONS IN ATOMS OF REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lewis valence electron dot structures
    • The octet rule and its influence on chemical reactivity
    • Common exceptions to octet rule
  • Electron orbitals and properties such as
    • Shape (s and p)
    • Location within energy levels
    • Number of electrons
    • Sublevels
  • Write expanded and abbreviated electron configurations
    • At ground state
    • Aufbau principle (order of filling)
    • Pauli exclusion principle
    • Hund’s rule

Note(s):

  • In Grade 8, students are introduced to the concepts of protons determining an element’s identity and valence electrons determining chemical properties, including reactivity (8.5B).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – B1 – Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help us understand the properties of elements and compounds.
C.7 Science concepts. The student knows how atoms form ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds. The student is expected to:
C.7C Construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic and covalent bonds.

Construct

ELECTRON DOT FORMULAS TO ILLUSTRATE IONIC AND COVALENT BONDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use the Periodic Table to identify
    • Ion formation
    • Oxidation numbers
    • Covalent elements
  • Lewis electron dot formulas
    • Ionic bonds
      • Electron transfer
    • Covalent bonds
      • Electron sharing
      • Single, double, and triple bonds

Note(s): 

  • Students may be assessed by being asked to identify the correct electron dot formula.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – D1 – Characterize ionic bonds, metallic bonds, and covalent bonds. Describe the properties of metals and ionic and covalent compounds.
    • VII. Chemistry – I7 – Describe intermolecular forces.
C.7D Describe metallic bonding and explain metallic properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability, and ductility.

Describe

METALLIC BONDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Metallic bonding theory
    • Electron cloud
    • Lattice

Explain

METALLIC PROPERTIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thermal conductivity
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Malleability
  • Ductility

Note(s):

  • In Grade 6, students are introduced to the Periodic Table through a comparison of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids (6.6A).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – D1 – Characterize ionic bonds, metallic bonds, and covalent bonds. Describe the properties of metals and ionic and covalent compounds.
    • VII. Chemistry – I7 – Describe intermolecular forces.
C.7E Classify molecular structure for molecules with linear, trigonal planar, and tetrahedral electron pair geometries as explained by Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory.

Classify

MOLECULAR STRUCTURE FOR MOLECULES AS EXPLAINED BY VALENCE SHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION (VSEPR) THEORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Electron pair geometries
    • Trigonal planar
    • Tetrahedral
    • Linear
  • Covalent bonds
    • Nonpolar
    • Polar 

Note(s):

  • Students may be assessed on bent (water), trigonal pyramid (ammonia), and other shapes.
  • TxCCRS: 
    • VII. Chemistry – D1 – Characterize ionic bonds, metallic bonds, and covalent bonds. Describe the properties of metals and ionic and covalent compounds.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 09/13/2019
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