Hello, Guest!

Instructional Focus Document
Chemistry
TITLE : Introduction: Processes of Chemistry Investigations SUGGESTED DURATION : 1 day

Unit Overview

Introduction (describes the focus and purpose of the unit)

This IFD serves two purposes:

     1.  An introduction to the course through the lens of Overarching Understandings and the processes used to engage with and explore the content.
     2.  A guide for educators to navigate Instructional Focus Documents during instructional planning for the units of this course. (See parenthetical notes in each section.)

 

Prior to this Unit (list of TEKS in previous courses or previous units of this course that align with the content of this unit)

Many of the process TEKS from K-12 science courses are similar. We are only listing TEKS from the most likely recent science course.

  • Biology
    • B.1A – Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations.
    • B.1B – Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.
    • B.2A – Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.
    • B.2B – Know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.
    • B.2C – Know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.
    • B.2D – Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.
    • B.2E – Plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.
    • B.2F – Collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as data-collecting probes, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettes, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures.
    • B.2G – Analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.
    • B.2H – Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.
    • B.3A – Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
    • B.3B – Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.
    • B.3C – Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.
    • B.3D – Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment.
    • B.3E – Evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events.
    • B.3F – Research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.

 

During this Unit (an overview of the content in this unit)

The scientific processes are very similar throughout every science course, beginning in Kindergarten. Students may need some direct instruction on the purpose and properties of scientific processes; however, it is intended for students to develop a deep understanding of the scientific processes by using them in the context of the content of this course throughout every unit of this course.

 

Streamlining Note (a statement describing the changes in relevant TEKS in current and previous courses implemented in the 2018-2019 school year)

TEKS C.1B replaces Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) with the current standard Safety Data Sheets (SDS). TEKS C.3F was revised to remove research in order to save instructional time. TEKS C.1A, C.3A, and C.3B were revised in alignment with revisions to process standards in other science courses.

 

After this Unit (a statement that may describe the content that will be studied next in the course, how the content aligns with future courses, or how the content of this unit may be used in the real world)

Students will use scientific processes to investigate the Chemistry concepts of this course.

 

Research (a list of research-based Student Expectations that align with the TEKS of this unit)

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Science is based on the assumption that the universe is a vast single system in which the basic rules are everywhere the same and that the things and events in the universe occur in consistent patterns that are comprehensible through careful, systematic study.
  • From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how things work. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Continuity and change are persistent features of science.
  • No matter how well one theory fits observations, a new theory might fit them just as well or better, or might fit a wider range of observations.
  • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth.
  • In matters that can be investigated in a scientific way, evidence for the value of a scientific approach is given by the improving ability of scientists to offer reliable explanations and make accurate predictions.
  • Investigations are conducted for different reasons, including to explore new phenomena, to check on previous results, to test how well a theory predicts, and to compare theories.
  • Hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available).
  • Sometimes, scientists can control conditions in order to obtain evidence. When that is not possible, practical, or ethical, they try to observe as wide a range of natural occurrences as possible to discern patterns.
  • There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all share a commitment to the use of logical arguments based on empirical evidence.
  • Scientists in any one research group tend to see things alike, so even groups of scientists may have trouble being entirely objective about their methods and findings. For that reason, scientific teams are expected to seek out the possible sources of bias in the design of their investigations and in their data analysis. Checking each other's results and explanations helps, but that is no guarantee against bias.
  • In the short run, new ideas that do not mesh well with mainstream ideas in science often encounter vigorous criticism.
  • In the long run, theories are judged by the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how useful they are in making accurate predictions.
  • New ideas in science are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often rejected by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring from unexpected findings; and usually grow slowly, through contributions from many investigators.
  • Scientists' nationality, sex, ethnic origin, age, political convictions, and so on may incline them to look for or emphasize one or another kind of evidence or interpretation.
  • To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it. A hypothesis that cannot, in principle, be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it may not be scientifically useful.
  • Bias attributable to the investigator, the sample, the method, or the instrument may not be completely avoidable in every instance, but scientists want to know the possible sources of bias and how bias is likely to influence evidence.
  • To avoid biased observations, scientific studies sometimes use observers who don't know what the results are "supposed" to be.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/bolintro.htm.


(Overarching Understandings and Questions are the big ideas that encompass the investigation of scientific concepts. They align to scientific processes and the Overarching Concepts. They may be used to help students make connections between unit-level, topical ideas and the bigger ideas in science. The application and alignment of these may vary across content areas due to the unique nature of each discipline.)

 

Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

(Unit Understandings and Questions are the unit-level, topical big ideas. They represent what students should understand at the end of the unit of study. Therefore, they may be used to develop unit learning outcomes. There is a direct relationship between Unit Understandings, Concepts, Performance Assessments, and Unit Assessment Items.)

 

Scientific investigations provide a valid method for scientists to gain understanding about phenomena.

  • What is the value of scientific investigations?

(Overarching Concepts are directly related to the Overarching Understandings, and Unit Concepts are directly related to the Unit Understandings. The list shows how the two are related.)

 

Systems 

  • Scientific investigation 

 

Classifications 

  • Laboratory
  • Field

 

Properties 

  • Asking questions
  • Formulating testable hypotheses
  • Selecting equipment and technology
  • Collect data
  • Organize data
  • Analyze data
  • Evaluate data
  • Make inferences from data
  • Predict trends from data
  • Communicate valid conclusions supported by data

 

Patterns 

  • Investigative procedures

 

Models 

  • Scientific explanations

 

Constancy 

  • Safe practices
  • Conservation of resources

 

Change 

  • Society
  • Environment
  • History of science
  • Contributions of scientists
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions: (a view or opinion that is incorrect because it is based on faulty thinking or lack of understanding)

  • Students may think that scientific investigations are something that scientists do rather than understanding that they can engage in scientific investigations throughout the course.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts: (an inadequate, superficial, or partial understanding of a conceptual idea or skill)

  • Students may only have an understanding of theory in layman’s terms.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary: (unit-specific terms, such as major content terminology that will or may be introduced to students)

  • Science – use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Scientific inquiry

 

 

Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

(Other Resources may be from the state or other sources that are not created by TEKS Resource System, e.g., TEA, NOAA, NASA, TPWD, etc.)

 

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – OnTRACK Scientific Process Skills

https://www.texasgateway.org/binder/ontrack-scientific-process-skills


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
C.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
C.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and fire extinguishers.

(The clarification of Student Expectations; only applicable specificity is included in each unit.)

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use safety equipment appropriately
    • Safety showers
    • Eyewash fountains
    • Safety goggles
    • Chemical splash goggles
    • Fire extinguishers
    • Protective clothing (aprons, gloves)
  • Follow classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
  • Use chemicals and equipment appropriately
C.1B Know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS).

Know

SPECIFIC HAZARDS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • As summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
    • Hazards
      • Flammability
      • Corrosiveness
      • Radioactivity
      • Toxicity
    • Hazard scale (hazard identification / statements)
    • Signal word
    • Pictogram
    • Precautionary statements
C.1C Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
    • Use mole calculations to measure precise amounts of reactants
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials
    • Disposal
      • Solid and liquid chemical waste
      • Broken glassware
    • Spill cleanup
    • Recycling
      • Paper products
      • Plastics
      • Glass
      • Metals
C.2 Scientific processes. Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to:
C.2A Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the “use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process”.
  • According to the introductory material of the TEKS for Chemistry, “This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models.”

Understand

SCIENCE HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • …”some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.”
  • Scientific inquiry may be limited by current technology
C.2B Know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS THAT MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine if statements represent testable hypotheses
  • Analyze data to determine whether the data support or do not support hypotheses
  • Widely tested hypotheses
    • Can have durable explanatory power
    • May be incorporated into theories
C.2C Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena
  • Scientific theories are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers
  • Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly reliable explanations
  • Scientific theories may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
    • A scientific theory may be subject to change when new evidence is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of chemistry and the evidence that supports them
    • Possible examples of related scientific theories may include:
      • Atomic theory
      • Quantum theory
      • VSEPR theory
      • Kinetic molecular theory
C.2D Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.

Distinguish

BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish between scientific hypotheses, theories, or laws
  • Use statements and supporting evidence to determine whether statements are scientific hypotheses, scientific theories, or scientific laws
  • Examine examples of hypotheses, theories, and laws in the field of chemistry 

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
C.2E Plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, electronic balances, an adequate supply of consumable chemicals, and sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, and burettes.

Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observing physical and chemical phenomena
  • Asking questions
  • Formulating testable hypotheses
  • Planning and conducting investigations
    • Descriptive
    • Comparative
    • Experimental
  • Selecting and using appropriate materials, equipment, and technology
    • Graphing calculators (may include probes)
    • Computers and probes
    • Safety goggles and other safety equipment
    • Electronic balances
    • Consumable chemicals
    • Scientific glassware
      • Beakers
      • Erlenmeyer flasks
      • Pipettes
      • Graduated cylinders
      • Volumetric flasks
      • Burettes
    • May include other supplies, equipment, and technology

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
    • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
    • Experimental investigations involve designing a fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a controlled experiment.
    • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
C.2F Collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision.

Collect

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observations (qualitative)
  • Measurements (quantitative)
  • Record measurements using appropriate units

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH ACCURACY AND PRECISION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Data collecting probes for pH, etc.
  • Glassware for volume (e.g., graduated cylinders, pipettes, burettes)
  • Electronic balances for mass
  • Meter sticks and rulers for length or distance
  • Stopwatches for time
C.2G Express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures.

Express, Manipulate

CHEMICAL QUANTITIES USING SCIENTIFIC CONVENTIONS AND MATHEMATICAL PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific conventions
    • SI units
  • Mathematical procedures
    • Dimensional analysis
    • Scientific notation
    • Rules for Significant Figures
        1. Non-zero digits and zeros between non-zero digits are always significant.
        2. Leading zeros are not significant.
        3. Zeros to the right of all non-zero digits are only significant if a decimal point is shown.
        4. For values written in scientific notation, the digits in the coefficient are significant.
        5. In a common logarithm, there are as many digits after the decimal point as there are significant figures in the original number.

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include the Rules for Significant Figures as listed above.
C.2H Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Organize, Analyze, Evaluate, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
  • Organize, analyze, and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Extrapolate and interpolate

Note(s):

  • Students may be asked to interpret data in multiple contexts in order to make inferences and predict trends.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
C.2I Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Use equations to represent data and conclusions
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Various methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports
    • Charts
    • Tables

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
C.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
C.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations 

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
C.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
      • News reports
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools 
C.3C Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.

Draw

INFERENCES BASED ON DATA RELATED TO PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine data from promotional materials for products and services described in print, on television, and on the Internet
  • Evaluate data for quality and accuracy
  • Evaluate completeness and reliability of information from sources
C.3D Evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment.

Evaluate

IMPACT OF RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read scientific articles to gain understanding of the impact of research
  • Evaluate the impact of research on society, everyday life, and the environment
  • Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Understand how scientific research and technology have an impact on ethical and legal practices
  • Understand how commonly held ethical beliefs impact scientific research
  • Understand how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
C.3E Describe the connection between chemistry and future careers.

Describe

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN CHEMISTRY AND FUTURE CAREERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Importance of the role of chemistry and chemicals in many jobs and professions
  • Identify levels of training necessary for future careers using chemistry
C.3F Describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

Describe

HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conduct research on significant events in the history of chemistry
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Alchemy
      • Phlogiston
      • Discovery of various elements
      • Development of the Periodic Table
      • Development of modern atomic theory
  • Conduct research on contributions of various chemists
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Robert Boyle (Boyle’s law)
      • Jacques Charles (Charles’ law)
      • Antoine Lavoisier (conservation of mass)
      • Joseph Priestly and Carl Scheele (discovery of oxygen)
      • Joseph Proust (law of definite proportions)
      • John Dalton (law of multiple proportions, law of partial pressures, atomic theory)
      • Ernest Rutherford (model of nucleus)
      • Henry Moseley (Periodic Table)
      • Dimitri Mendeleev (Periodic Table)
      • J. J. Thomson (electron discovery)
      • Niels Bohr (atomic structure)
      • Marie and Pierre Curie (radioactivity)
      • Robert Millikan (charge on electron)
      • Amedeo Avogadro (Avogadro’s law and number)
      • Svante Arrhenius (ionization, acid-base theory)
      • Johannes Brønsted and Thomas Lowry (acid-base theory)
      • Gilbert Lewis (covalent bond, acid-base theory)
      • Wolfgang Pauli (Pauli exclusion principle)
      • Friedrich Hund (Hund’s rule)
      • Erwin Schrödinger (quantum theory)
  • Conduct research on historical development of major theories in chemistry
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Atomic theory
      • Acid-base theory
      • Kinetic molecular theory
      • VSEPR theory
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 07/31/2019
Loading
Data is Loading...