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IPC Chemistry First
TITLE : Unit 10: Waves SUGGESTED DURATION : 14 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit focuses on the characteristics and behaviors of waves.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Grade 5
    • 5.6C – Demonstrate that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object and is reflected or travels through one medium to another and is refracted.
  • Grade 8
    • 8.8C – Identify how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as visible light and radio waves are used to gain information about components in the universe.

 

During this Unit

Students will explore the characteristics of transverse and longitudinal waves, which include wavelength, amplitude, crest, trough, frequency, and period. Students will investigate the behaviors of waves as they encounter a change, which include reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, and absorption. Students will explore the characteristics and behaviors of waves using real world examples, including acoustic, seismic, light, and ocean waves.

 

After this Unit

Students will recognize the movement of energy through waves in everyday systems. Students will study waves in greater depth in High School Physics.

 

Research

By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:

  • …waves can superpose on one another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, be absorbed by materials they enter, and change direction when entering a new material. All these effects vary with wavelength. 4F/H6ab
  • …the energy of waves (like any form of energy) can be changed into other forms of energy. 4F/H6c”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Waves transfer energy in predictable patterns that can be measured and described.

  • In what ways can we determine the properties of waves?
  • In what ways can we describe the behaviors of waves when they encounter a change?

Systems

  • Waves

 

Classifications

  • Transverse
  • Longitudinal
  • Acoustic
  • Seismic
  • Light
  • Ocean

 

Properties

  • Wavelength
  • Amplitude
  • Crest
  • Trough

 

Patterns

  • Frequency
  • Period

 

Constancy

  • v=fλ

 

Change

  • Reflection
  • Refraction
  • Diffraction
  • Interference
  • Absorption
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think you can see and hear a distinct event at the same moment, rather than sound waves traveling slower than light waves.
  • Students may think sounds can travel through empty space (a vacuum), rather than sound requiring a medium through which to travel. 
  • Students may think sounds cannot travel through liquids and solids, rather than different media only altering the behavior of the waves.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Amplitude – total distance a wave moves from its resting position
  • Compression – where the wave pushes the matter closer together
  • Crest – highest point of a wave
  • Diffraction – bending of a wave through an opening or around the edge of an object
  • Frequency – the number of times a wave passes a certain point in a given amount of time
  • Interference – when two or more waves arrive at the same point and occupy the same space
  • Longitudinal wave – oscillations (vibrations of the wave) are in the same direction as the wave (slinky, sound waves)
  • Mechanical wave – energy that travels through matter (e.g., sound, ocean waves, and earthquake waves)
  • Oscillation – vibration or movement of waves
  • Period – the time needed for one complete cycle of vibration to pass a given point
  • Rarefaction – where the wave pushes matter farther apart
  • Refraction – bending of a wave as it crosses the boundary between one medium and another
  • Transverse wave – oscillations (vibrations of the wave) are perpendicular to direction of the waves (string, water)
  • Trough – lowest point of a wave

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Doppler effect
  • Echolocation
  • Electromagnetic wave
  • Gamma ray
  • Hertz
  • Infrared
  • Microscope
  • Microwaves
  • P Waves
  • Propagation
  • Radio
  • Reflection
  • S Waves
  • Sonar
  • Superimpose
  • Superposition
  • Telescope
  • Ultrasound
  • Ultraviolet
  • Velocity
  • Visible light
  • Wavelength
  • X-ray
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – OnTRACK Scientific Process Skills

https://www.texasgateway.org/binder/ontrack-scientific-process-skills


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
I.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
I.1A

Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and fire extinguishers.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment, such as goggles, aprons, and gloves
  • Know location of safety equipment, such as fire extinguisher, safety shower, and eye wash
  • Follow classroom guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Read or study the science activity or laboratory investigation prior to conducting the investigation
      • Know and follow all safety rules prior to and during the investigation
      • Be alert during the laboratory time
      • Do not attempt unauthorized activities
      • Keep your area clean
      • Do not enter preparatory or equipment storage rooms or chemical storerooms
      • Always wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water before leaving the laboratory
  • Use lab equipment appropriately
    • Safety goggles
I.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
I.2B Plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observe natural phenomena
  • Ask questions
  • Formulate testable hypotheses
  • Plan and implement investigations
  • Select appropriate equipment and technology
I.2C Collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision.

Collect

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observations
  • Measurements
  • Demonstrate use of appropriate equipment to collect data
    • Possible equipment for use in data collection may include:
      • Calculator
      • Spring scale
      • Meter stick
      • Metric ruler

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH PRECISION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Accuracy
  • Precision 

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
I.2D Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Organize, Analyze, Evaluate, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Averaging
      • Percent change
      • Probabilities and ratios
      • Rate of change
  • Analyze data using different modes of expression (narrative, numerical, graphical)
  • Accurately predict trends from data

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
I.2E Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Various methods for communicating conclusions may include:
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
I.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:
I.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations.
I.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
      • News reports
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools
I.5 Science concepts. The student recognizes multiple forms of energy and knows the impact of energy transfer and energy conservation in everyday life. The student is expected to:
I.5G Explore the characteristics and behaviors of energy transferred by waves, including acoustic, seismic, light, and waves on water, as they reflect, refract, diffract, interfere with one another, and are absorbed by materials.

Explore

THE CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIORS OF ENERGY TRANSFERRED BY WAVES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Types of waves
    • Transverse
    • Longitudinal (compression)
  • Examples of waves
    • Acoustic
    • Seismic
    • Light
    • Water
  • Characteristics of waves
    • Frequency (hertz)
    • Amplitude
    • Wavelength
    • Period
    • Crest
    • Trough
    • Velocity
  • The relationship between the classification of electromagnetic waves and their characteristics
  • Behaviors of waves when entering new materials (media)
    • Interference
    • Refraction
    • Reflection
    • Diffraction
    • Absorbed by materials
  • Solve problems including velocity, frequency, and wavelength
    • v = fλ
    • Velocity = (frequency)(wavelength)

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formula for velocity of a wave as listed above.
  • Students in Grade 5 demonstrate that light can be reflected and refracted (5.6C).
  • Students in Grade 8 identify how the wavelengths of certain electromagnetic waves can be used to gain information about components in the universe (8.8C).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – G2 – Understand the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves.
    • VIII. Physics – G3 – Understand wave terminology wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude.
    • VIII. Physics – G4 – Understand the properties and behavior of sound waves.
    • VIII. Physics – J1 – Know the electromagnetic spectrum.
    • VIII. Physics – J2 – Understand the wave/particle duality of light.
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
I.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
I.1B Know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS).

Know

SPECIFIC HAZARDS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES SUMMARIZED ON THE SDS

Including but not limited to:

  • Hazard information
    • Hazard pictograms
    • Signal words
    • Hazard statements
    • Precautionary statements
  • First aid measures
  • Fire – fighting measures
  • Accidental release measures
  • Handling and storage
  • Exposure controls / personal protection
    • PPE pictograms
  • Stability and reactivity
  • Toxicological information
  • Ecological information
  • Disposal considerations
I.1C Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE PROPER DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
    • Reducing pollution
    • Being a wise consumer
    • Awareness of reliance on fossil fuels
    • Preserving habitats
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials
I.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
I.2A Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

Understand

SCIENCE HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • “...some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.”
  • Scientific inquiry may be limited by current technology
I.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:
I.3C Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.

Draw

INFERENCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine data from promotional materials for products and services described in print, on television, and on the Internet
  • Evaluate data for quality and accuracy
  • Evaluate completeness and reliability of information from sources
I.3D Evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment.

Evaluate

IMPACT OF RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read scientific articles to gain understanding of the impact of research
  • Evaluate the impact of research on society, everyday life, and the environment
  • Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Understand how scientific research and technology have an impact on ethical and legal practices
  • Understand how commonly held ethical beliefs impact scientific research
  • Understand how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
I.3E Describe connections between physics and chemistry and future careers.

Describe

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY AND FUTURE CAREERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • How physics and chemistry are used in various careers
  • Physics
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Medical physicist
      • Radiation therapist
      • Astronomer
      • Teacher
      • Geophysicist
      • Equipment designer
      • Telecommunications engineer
      • Materials designer
      • Engineer
  • Chemistry
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Medical chemist
      • Ceramics industry
      • Chemical engineer
      • Plastics industry chemist
      • Environmental chemistry
      • Food chemist
      • Make up and perfume chemist
      • Pharmacologist
      • Teacher
I.3F Research and describe the history of physics and chemistry and contributions of scientists.

Research, Describe

HISTORY OF PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conduct research on significant events in the history of physics and chemistry
  • Conduct research on contributions of various physicists and chemists
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Dmitri Mendeleev (work on the periodic table)
      • Niels Bohr (atomic structure)
      • Marie Curie (research on radioactivity)
      • Nikola Tesla (developed the modern alternating current)
      • Newton (developed theories of gravitation and mechanics; invented differential calculus)
      • Antoine Lavoisier (law of conservation of mass)
      • Michael Faraday (discovered a relationship between magnetism and rays of light)
      • Christian Doppler (experimented with sound waves; derived an expression for the apparent change in wavelength of a wave due to relative motion between the source and observer)
      • Georg Ohm (discovered that current flow is proportional to potential difference and inversely proportional to resistance [Ohm's law])
      • Willebrod Snell (discovered law of refraction [Snell's law])
      • Count Alessandro Volta (pioneer in study of electricity; invented the first electric battery)
I.4 Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to:
I.4A Describe and calculate an object's motion in terms of position, displacement, speed, and acceleration.

Describe, Calculate

OBJECT’S MOTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Position
  • Displacement
    • Differentiate between displacement and distance
    • Displacement = change in position = final position – initial position
    • d = ∆x = x– xi
  • Speed
    • Average speed = total distance / total time
    • s = d / t
    • Speed = distance traveled / time
  • Acceleration
    • Acceleration = final velocity – initial velocity / change in time
    • a = vf – vi / ∆t
    • Acceleration = (final velocity)2 – (initial velocity)2 / 2(displacement)
    • a = vf2 – vi2 / 2∆d
  • Velocity
    • Velocity = distance / time
    • v = d / t
    • Instantaneous speed

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Grade 8 Science Reference Materials include the formula for average speed as listed above.
  • The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formulas for acceleration and displacement as listed above.
  • Students in Grade 6 calculate average speed using distance and time measurements, measure and graph changes in motion, and investigate how inclined planes can be used to change the amount of force to move an object (6.8C, 6.8D, 6.8E).
  • Students in Grade 8 differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration (8.6B).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
I.4B Measure and graph distance and speed as a function of time.

Measure, Graph

DISTANCE AND SPEED AS A FUNCTION OF TIME

Including, but not limited to:

  • Interpretation and construction of graphs that relate to change in motion
    • Distance vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs
    • Slope
    • Negative and positive acceleration
    • Direction of motion (toward or away from a reference point)
    • Apply distance vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs to scenarios

Note(s):

  • Students in Grade 6 measure and graph changes in motion, in terms of distance over time and velocity over time (6.8C, 6.8D).
I.4C Investigate how an object's motion changes only when a net force is applied, including activities and equipment such as toy cars, vehicle restraints, sports activities, and classroom objects.

Investigate

HOW AN OBJECT’S MOTION CHANGES ONLY WHEN A NET FORCE IS APPLIED

Including, but not limited to:

  • The effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on objects
    • Forces
      • Gravity
        • g = 9.8 m / s2
        • g = acceleration due to gravity
      • Friction
      • Magnetism
  • Newton’s laws of motion
    • Inertia
    • Mass
    • Net force
      • Fnet = ma
      • Net force = (mass)(acceleration)
  • Activities and equipment such as
    • Toy cars
    • Vehicle restraints
    • Sports activities
    • Classroom objects

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formula for Net force and the constant for gravity as listed above.
  • Students are introduced to the concepts of force in Grades 6 and 8 by observing change in the motion of an object that is acted upon by an unbalanced force (6.8B, 8.6A).
  • Students in Grade 6 investigate how inclined planes can be used to change the force applied to an object (6.8E). 
  • Students in Grade 7 consider how forces affect motion in organisms (7.7B).
  • Students in Grade 8 are introduced to Newton’s Laws of Motion (8.6C).
  • TxCCRS:  
    • VIII. Physics – A3 – Understand the concepts of mass and inertia.
    • VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
    • VIII. Physics – C2 – Understand forces and Newton’s Laws.
I.4D Describe and calculate the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration using equipment such as dynamic carts, moving toys, vehicles, and falling objects.

Describe, Calculate

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FORCE, MASS, AND ACCELERATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Relationship is independent of the nature of the force
  • The greater the force acting on an object, the greater the acceleration or change in motion of that object (constant mass)
  • The greater the mass of an object, the less the acceleration or change in motion of that object (constant force)
  • The greater the mass of an object, the greater the force needed to accelerate it to a given acceleration
  • Newton’s second law of motion
    • Force = mass x acceleration
    • F = ma
  • Newton (N) = kg • m / s
  • Gravity
    • g = 9.8 m / s2
    • g = acceleration due to gravity
  • Friction
  • Equipment such as
    • Dynamic carts
    • Moving toys
    • Vehicles
    • Falling objects

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Grade 8 Science Reference Materials include the formula for Net force as listed above.
  • The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the constants for gravity and newton as listed above.
  • Students in Grade 8 are introduced to Newton’s laws of motion (8.6C).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – A3 – Understand the concepts of mass and inertia.
    • VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
    • VIII. Physics – C2 – Understand forces and Newton’s Laws.
I.4E Explain the concept of conservation of momentum using action and reaction forces.

Explain

CONCEPT OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

Including, but not limited to:

  • p = mv
    • Momentum = (mass)(velocity)
  • Law of conservation of momentum
    • The sum of the momentum of two colliding objects will be the same before and after the collision because the action and reaction forces are equal.
    • Initial Momentum of Object 1 + Initial Momentum of Object 2 = Final Momentum of Object 1 + Final Momentum of Object 2
    • m1v1i + m2v2i = m1v1f + m2v2f
  • Action and reaction forces
    • Newton’s third law

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formula for momentum as listed above.
  • Students in Grade 8 are introduced to Newton’s Laws of Motion (8.6C).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
    • VIII. Physics – C3 – Understand the concept of momentum.
I.4F Describe the gravitational attraction between objects of different masses at different distances.

Describe

THE GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION BETWEEN OBJECTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Relationship between mass and the force of gravity
    • Planets or moons
  • Relationship between distance and the force of gravity
    • Inverse squared relationship between distance and the force of gravity
  • Newton’s law of universal gravitation

Note(s):

  • Students may use the equation for gravitational attraction in order to understand the relationship between mass / distance and gravitational attraction, but are not required to calculate gravitational attraction using the equation. The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formula for gravitational attraction.
  • Students in Grade 6 study gravity as the force that controls the motion of the components of our solar system (6.11B).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – A5 – Understand the concepts of gravitational force and weight.
I.4G Examine electrical force as a universal force between any two charged objects.

Examine

ELECTRICAL FORCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • A universal force between any two charged objects
    • Factors affecting electrical force
      • Charge
      • Distance

Note(s):

  • This is the first time students have been directly introduced to the concept of universal force.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – I1 – Discuss electric charge and electric force.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 04/28/2020
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