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Instructional Focus Document
IPC Chemistry First
TITLE : Unit 09: Thermal Energy SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit focuses on the movement of thermal energy.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Grade 6
    • 6.9A – Investigate methods of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation.
    • 6.9B – Verify through investigations that thermal energy moves in a predictable pattern from warmer to cooler until all the substances attain the same temperature such as an ice cube melting.

 

During this Unit

Students investigate the types of thermal energy transfer, including identifying the type of thermal energy transfer in a given scenario, recognizing the types of media that facilitate the types of thermal energy transfer, and the conservation of energy that occurs during thermal energy transfer.

 

After this Unit

Students will use an understanding of thermal energy transfer to make informed and responsible ethical decisions related to housing, clothing, and technological changes in society. The concepts of thermal energy transfer and the law of conservation of energy will be studied in greater depth in High School Physics.

 

Research

“By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:

  • …as energy spreads out, whether by conduction, convection, or radiation, the total amount of energy stays the same. However, since it is spread out, less can be done with it. 4E/H3**…
  • …thermal energy in a system is associated with the disordered motions of its atoms or molecules. Gravitational energy is associated with the separation of mutually attracting masses. Electrical potential energy is associated with the separation of mutually attracting or repelling charges. 4E/H7** (BSL)…”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The types of thermal energy transfer depend on the medium present or absent and the method of energy movement.

  • In what ways does thermal energy move?
  • In want ways does the medium affect thermal energy transfer?

 

Energy is conserved when transferred.

  • How does the movement of thermal energy demonstrate the law of conservation of energy?

Systems

  • Thermal energy transfer

 

Classifications

  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Radiation

 

Properties

  • Medium

 

Patterns

  • Hot to cold

 

Constancy

  • Conservation of energy

 

Change

  • Temperature
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think heat and cold are different, rather than being opposite ends of a continuum.
  • Students may think heat is a substance, rather than the transfer of thermal energy from one object or substance to another.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Conduction – transfer of energy through matter by colliding particles (direct contact)
  • Convection – transfer of heat energy by the motion of heated particles in a fluid
  • Heat – transfer of thermal energy between substances that are at different temperatures
  • Law of conservation of energy – states the total amount of energy in any closed system remains constant, but may change from one form to another
  • Radiation – transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves (no direct contact)
  • Thermal energy – energy related to the temperature of an object or a substance

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Celsius
  • Conductor
  • Insulator
  • Temperature
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – OnTRACK Scientific Process Skills

https://www.texasgateway.org/binder/ontrack-scientific-process-skills


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
I.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
I.1A

Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and fire extinguishers.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment, such as goggles, aprons, and gloves
  • Know location of safety equipment, such as fire extinguisher, safety shower, and eye wash
  • Follow classroom guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Read or study the science activity or laboratory investigation prior to conducting the investigation
      • Know and follow all safety rules prior to and during the investigation
      • Be alert during the laboratory time
      • Do not attempt unauthorized activities
      • If a chemical spill occurs, report it immediately, and follow the instructions of the teacher
      • Keep your area clean
      • Do not enter preparatory or equipment storage rooms or chemical storerooms
      • Always wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water before leaving the laboratory
  • Use lab equipment appropriately
    • Safety showers
    • Eyewash fountains
    • Safety goggles
    • Chemical splash goggles
    • Fire extinguishers
I.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
I.2B Plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observe natural phenomena
  • Ask questions
  • Formulate testable hypotheses
  • Plan and implement investigations
  • Select appropriate equipment and technology
I.2C Collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision.

Collect

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observations
  • Measurements
  • Demonstrate use of appropriate equipment to collect data
    • Possible equipment for use in data collection may include:
      • Calculator
      • Spring scale
      • Thermometer
      • Triple beam balance
      • Electronic balance
      • Meter stick
      • Metric ruler
      • Graduated cylinder
      • Beakers

Make

MEASUREMENTS WITH PRECISION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Accuracy
  • Precision 

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
I.2D Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Organize, Analyze, Evaluate, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Averaging
      • Percent change
      • Probabilities and ratios
      • Rate of change
  • Analyze data using different modes of expression (narrative, numerical, graphical)
  • Accurately predict trends from data

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
I.2E Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Various methods for communicating conclusions may include:
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Graphs
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
I.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:
I.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations.
I.3B Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
      • News reports
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools
I.3C Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.

Draw

INFERENCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine data from promotional materials for products and services described in print, on television, and on the Internet
  • Evaluate data for quality and accuracy
  • Evaluate completeness and reliability of information from sources
I.5 Science concepts. The student recognizes multiple forms of energy and knows the impact of energy transfer and energy conservation in everyday life. The student is expected to:
I.5D Investigate the law of conservation of energy.

Investigate

THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thermal Energy
    • Transfer of thermal energy
  • Gravitational potential energy
  • Kinetic energy
  • Conversion between
    • KE = kinetic energy
      • KE = 1/2mv2
    • GPE = gravitational potential energy
      • PEg = mgh
    • How kinetic and potential energy relate to ME (mechanical energy)
      • ME = KE + PE
      • Mechanical energy = kinetic energy + potential energy
      • Total mechanical energy of the system remains constant (in a frictionless environment)
  • Possible examples of kinetic and potential energy conversions may include:
    • Pendulums
    • Ball on an inclined plane
    • Springs
    • Batteries
    • Waterfall
    • Rock on a cliff
    • Roller coaster

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Physics Reference Materials include the formulas for kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and mechanical energy as listed above.
  • Students in Grade 6 compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy (6.8A). Additionally, students investigate how the transformation of energy from one form to another relates to the law of conservation of energy (6.9C).
  • Students in Grade 6 investigate the movement of thermal energy in a predictable pattern from warmer to cooler until all the substances attain the same temperature (6.9B).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – H1 – Understand the law of conservation of energy and processes of heat transfer.
    • VIII. Physics – D2 – Understand conservation of energy.
I.5E Investigate and demonstrate the movement of thermal energy through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation such as in weather, living, and mechanical systems.

Investigate, Demonstrate

THE MOVEMENT OF THERMAL ENERGY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Differentiate between heat and thermal energy
  • Thermal energy moves in a predictable pattern
    • Higher temperature to lower temperature until equilibrium is reached
  • Through
    • Solids
    • Liquids
    • Gases
  • Transfer methods
    • Convection
    • Conduction
    • Radiation
  • Movement of thermal energy in systems
    • Weather systems
      • Sun provides energy
        • Water cycle
        • Atmospheric currents (wind)
        • Ocean currents
    • Living systems
      • Homeostasis by internal feedback mechanisms
        • Sweating
        • Panting
    • Mechanical systems
      • Refrigeration
      • Heating / cooling system
      • Oven
      • Microwave
  • Investigate the thermal conductivity of a variety of materials

Note(s):

  • Students in Grade 6 investigate the way that thermal energy moves, specifically, conduction, convection, and radiation (6.9A, 6.9B).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – H1 – Understand the Law of Conservation of Energy and processes of heat transfer.
    • VII. Chemistry – I1 – Understand the behavior of matter in its various states: solid, liquid, and gas.
    • VIII. Physics – A2 – Understand states of matter and their characteristics.
    • VIII. Physics – H1 – Understand the gain and loss of heat energy in matter.
    • VIII. Physics – H2 – Understand the basic laws of thermodynamics.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 09/16/2019
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