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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Science
TITLE : Unit 08: Investigating Interdependence Among Living Systems SUGGESTED DURATION : 18 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address the interdependence among living systems and the environment and that human activities can affect these systems. Students use scientific practices and a variety of tools to investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic and abiotic factors. They explore how short-term and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations. Students recognize human dependence on ocean systems and explain how human activities have modified these systems. They realize that all modifications to systems may not have negative impacts. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record and organize data in their notebooks. Furthermore, students analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from their investigations and communicate valid conclusions (supported by collected data). Students continue to demonstrate safe practices as outlined in the Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards and consider environmentally appropriate and ethical practices with resources during investigations.

 

Streamlining Note

TEKS 8.11A was removed (food web relationships). Students no longer need to understand parasite / host relationships. However, students may still be assessed on the Grade 8 STAAR for 7.5B (formerly 7.5C) "Diagram the flow of energy through living systems, including food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids" which includes producer / consumer and predator / prey relationships. TEKS 8.11B was recoded to 8.11A and now includes “food” as a “such as” example for biotic factors. 8.11C was recoded to 8.11B, and 8.11D was recoded to 8.11C. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 8 (link in System Resources below).

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Grade 3
    • 3.9A – Observe and describe the physical characteristics of environments and how they support populations and communities within an ecosystem.
    • 3.9B – Identify and describe the flow of energy in a food chain and predict how changes in a food chain affect the ecosystem such as removal of frogs from a pond or bees from a field.
    • 3.9C – Describe environmental changes such as floods and droughts where some organisms thrive and others perish or move to new locations.
  • Grade 4
    • 4.9A – Investigate that most producers need sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make their own food, while consumers are dependent on other organisms for food.
    • 4.9B – Describe the flow of energy through food webs, beginning with the Sun, and predict how changes in the ecosystem affect the food web.
  • Grade 5
    • 5.9A – Observe the way organisms live and survive in their ecosystem by interacting with the living and nonliving components.
    • 5.9B – Describe the flow of energy through food webs, beginning with the Sun, and predict how changes in the ecosystem affect the food web.
    • 5.9C – Predict the effects of changes in ecosystems caused by living organisms, including humans, such as the overpopulation of grazers or the building of highways.
  • Grade 6
    • 6.12E – Describe biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem in which organisms interact.
    • 6.12F – Diagram the levels of organization within an ecosystem, including organism, population, community, and ecosystem.
  • Grade 7
    • 7.10A – Observe and describe how different environments, including microhabitats in schoolyards and biomes, support different varieties of organisms.
    • 7.10B – Describe how biodiversity contributes to the sustainability of an ecosystem.
    • 7.10C – Observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds.
    • 7.11C – Identify some changes in genetic traits that have occurred over several generations through natural selection and selective breeding such as the Galapagos Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) or domestic animals and hybrid plants.

 

After this Unit

In high school Biology, students will continue the study of interdependence within living systems and the relationship of natural selection to adaptation and to the development of diversity within and among species.

 

STAAR Note

The Grade 8 Science STAAR will directly assess student expectations in the following reporting categories:

  • Reporting Category 4: Organisms and Environments
    • 8.11A – Readiness Standard
    • 8.11B – Readiness Standard
    • 8.11C – Supporting Standard

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 8th grade students should know that:

  • In all environments, organisms with similar needs may compete with one another for limited resources, including food, space, water, air, and shelter. 5D/M1a*
  • The world contains a wide diversity of physical conditions, which creates a wide variety of environments: freshwater, marine, forest, desert, grassland, mountain, and others. In any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions. 5D/M1b*
  • Interactions between organisms may be for nourishment, reproduction, or protection and may benefit one of the organisms or both of them. Some species have become so dependent on each other that neither could survive without the other. 5D/M2*
  • One organism may scavenge or decompose another. 5D/M2b”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Organisms in an ecosystem depend on and compete for biotic and abiotic factors. Availability of these factors impacts the numbers of organisms and populations present in ecosystems.

  • In what ways do organisms and populations depend on and compete for biotic and abiotic factors?
  • In what ways might organisms and populations be affected by an abundance or scarcity of biotic and abiotic factors?

Systems

  • Ecosystems

 

Classifications

  • Abiotic factors
  • Biotic factors

 

Properties

  • Interdependence
  • Living
  • Nonliving
  • Competition

 

Change

  • Environmental
  • Organisms
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Organisms and traits in subsequent populations respond to short- and long-term environmental changes, including those caused by human activities.

  • In what ways do short- and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and populations over time?
  • In what ways have human activities modified ocean systems?
  • In what ways are humans dependent on ocean systems?

Systems

  • Ecosystems

 

Classifications

  • Abiotic factors
  • Biotic factors

 

Properties

  • Interdependence

 

Change

  • Environmental
  • Organisms
  • Traits
  • Ocean systems
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:  

  • Students may not believe food is a scarce resource in ecosystems, thinking that organisms can change their food at will according to the availability of particular sources, rather than understanding that organisms may move or perish without the proper food sources.
  • Students may think that some populations of organisms are numerous in order to fulfill a demand for food by another population.
  • Students may think that adaptations result from some overall purpose or design or they describe adaptation as a conscious process to fulfill some need or want, rather than understanding that adaptations occur over many generations as a result of changes in the organism’s environment.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Abiotic – nonliving factors in the environment; physical rather than biological; do not come from living organisms
  • Biotic – living factors in the environment; relating to, produced by, or caused by living organisms
  • Ecosystem – the living and nonliving components of an environment
  • Population – all of the members of a species living in a particular area at a particular time

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Abundance
  • Artificial (man-made) reef
  • Commercial harvesting
  • Competition
  • Dependence
  • Depletion
  • Drought
  • Interdependent
  • Long-term
  • Modified
  • Pollution
  • Runoff
  • Scarcity
  • Short-term
  • Subsequent
  • Trait
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Education Agency – Griddable Questions for Science 

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/staar/science/(look under STAAR Science Resources)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Organisms and Environments – Organisms Interactions

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/organisms-and-environments-organisms-interactions

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Abiotic and Biotic Factors in an Ecosystem

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/abiotic-and-biotic-factors-ecosystem

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Organisms and Environments – Competition of Abiotic and Biotic Factors

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/organisms-and-environments-competition-abiotic-and-biotic-factors

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Organisms and Environments – Environmental Change

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/organisms-and-environments-environmental-change

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Organisms and Environments – Humans and Ocean Systems

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/organisms-and-environments-humans-and-ocean-systems

 

General:

Council for Environmental Education Project Wild-Aquatic

http://www.projectwild.org/%5C/aquatic/index.htm


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
8.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
8.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment
  • Know the location of safety equipment
  • Follow classroom guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Read or study the science activity or laboratory investigation prior to conducting the investigation
      • Know and follow all safety rules prior to the investigation
      • Be alert during the laboratory time
      • Do not attempt unauthorized activities
      • If a chemical spill occurs, report it immediately and follow the instructions of the teacher
      • Keep your area clean
      • Do not enter preparatory or equipment storage rooms or chemical storerooms
      • Always wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water before leaving the laboratory
  • Use lab equipment appropriately

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, or community residents to health or property risks without their prior knowledge and consent. 1C/M5b*
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C2 – Understand and apply safe procedures in the laboratory and field, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety and safe handling of live or preserved organisms.
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
8.1B Practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.
Process Standard

Practice

APPROPRIATE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use of resources
    • Disposal of materials
      • Laboratory materials
  • Conservation of resources
    • Reuse of materials
    • Recycling of materials
      • Paper
      • Glass
      • Plastic
      • Metal

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Recycling materials and the development of substitutes for those materials can reduce the rate of depletion of resources but may also be costly. Some materials are not easily recycled. 4B/M10c*
    • The wasteful or unnecessary use of natural resources can limit their availability for other purposes. Restoring depleted soil, forests, or fishing grounds can be difficult and costly. 4B/M11a*
    • The benefits of Earth's resources—such as fresh water, air, soil, and trees—can be reduced by deliberately or inadvertently polluting them. The atmosphere, the oceans, and the land have a limited capacity to absorb and recycle waste materials. In addition, some materials take a long time to degrade. Therefore, cleaning up polluted air, water, or soil can be difficult and costly. 4B/M11bc*
8.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
8.2A Plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

COMPARATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Comparative and descriptive investigations
  • Making observations
  • Asking well defined questions
  • Using appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Comparative and descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
8.2C Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers.
Process Standard

Collect, Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Quantitative means
    • Using the International System of Units (SI)
  • Qualitative means
    • Labeled drawings
    • Writing
    • Graphic organizers

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.2E Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.
Process Standard

Analyze

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Formulate reasonable explanations
    • Making claims (statements) from data
    • Providing evidence from data in order to support claims
  • Communicate valid conclusions supported by data
    • Using reasoning (argumentation) to explain or justify the claims
  • Predict trends

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as correct. 1A/M1b
8.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:
8.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
8.3D Relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.
Process Standard

Relate

THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH ON SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • History of science
  • Contributions of scientists

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories of science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
8.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
8.4A

Use appropriate tools, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information.


Process Standard

Use

APPROPRIATE TOOLS TO COLLECT, RECORD, AND ANALYZE INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lab journal / (science) notebooks
  • Microscopes
  • Computers
  • Other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.4B Use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.
Process Standard

Use

SAFETY EQUIPMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Preventative safety equipment
    • Chemical splash goggles
    • Aprons
    • Gloves
  • Emergency safety equipment
    • Eye / face wash
    • Fire blanket
    • Fire extinguisher

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
8.11 Organisms and environments. The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems and the environment and that human activities can affect these systems. The student is expected to:
8.11A Investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic factors such as food and abiotic factors such as quantity of light, water, range of temperatures, or soil composition.
Readiness Standard

Investigate

HOW ORGANISMS AND POPULATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM DEPEND ON AND MAY COMPETE FOR BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organisms and populations
  • Abiotic (nonliving [never was living]) and biotic (living) factors
    • Abundance and scarcity
  • Dependence and competition
    • Light
    • Water (availability / salinity)
    • Range of temperatures
    • Soil
    • Space / shelter
    • Food 

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students may be assessed using analysis of a graph.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • The number of hours of daylight and the intensity of the sunlight both vary in a predictable pattern that depends on how far north or south of the equator the place is. This variation explains why temperatures vary over the course of the year and at different locations. 4B/M13**
    • In all environments, organisms with similar needs may compete with one another for limited resources, including food, space, water, air, and shelter. 5D/M1a*
8.11B Explore how short- and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations.
Readiness Standard

Explore

HOW SHORT- AND LONG-TERM ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AFFECT ORGANISMS AND TRAITS IN SUBSEQUENT POPULATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Short- and long-term environmental changes that disrupt, deplete, and / or destroy resources (e.g., food, water, shelter, space, etc.) and, therefore, affect subsequent populations
    • Natural events
      • Climate
      • Natural disasters
    • Human impact
      • Pollution
      • Deforestation
      • Protection of habitat
      • Introduction of invasive species
  • Traits in subsequent populations are most likely to be affected by long term  environmental change (e.g., multiple years or sustained)
  • Identify the environmental change most likely to cause changes in traits of subsequent populations
  • Identify traits most likely to allow an organism to survive a specific environmental change
  • Predict the effects of a specific environmental change on a population or individual

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students in Grade 5 have been introduced to the effects of changes in an ecosystem caused by humans (5.9C).
    • This student expectation builds the foundation for the content of Biology Readiness Standards B.7E and B.12E and Supporting Standards B.7C and B.7D.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VI. Biology – C2 – Recognize variations in population sizes, including extinction, and describe mechanisms and conditions that produce these variations.
    • VI. Biology – G3 – Understand typical forms of organism behavior.
8.11C Recognize human dependence on ocean systems and explain how human activities such as runoff, artificial reefs, or use of resources have modified these systems.
Supporting Standard

Recognize

HUMAN DEPENDENCE ON OCEAN SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Water
  • Food
  • Oxygen

Explain

HOW HUMAN ACTIVITIES HAVE MODIFIED THESE SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Runoff (pollution of ocean waters, reduction in food supply)
  • Artificial reefs (increase in habitat / food supply)
  • Use of resources (depletion of organisms from the ocean)
  • Possible additional examples of human activities:
    • Overfishing
    • Introduction of invasive species

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to human dependence on ocean systems.
    • This student expectation builds the foundation for the content of Biology Readiness Standard B.12E.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/06/2019
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