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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Science
TITLE : Unit 07: Investigating Components of the Universe SUGGESTED DURATION : 14 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address components and characteristics of the universe. Students use scientific practices and a variety of tools to investigate and describe the components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, and galaxies. They identify how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are used to gain information about components in the universe. Students also recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star located in a spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy and that the Sun is many thousands of times closer than any other star. Moreover, students use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for classification of stars. Also, students research how scientific data are used as evidence to develop scientific theories in order to describe the origin of the universe. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record and organize data in their notebooks. Furthermore, students analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from their investigations and communicate valid conclusions (supported by collected data). Students continue to demonstrate safe practices as outlined in the Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards and consider environmentally appropriate and ethical practices with resources during investigations.

 

Streamlining Note

TEKS 8.7C was revised to correct the spelling of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. 8.8B was revised language for accuracy. 8.8C replaced “explore” with “identify’, added visible light for accuracy, and removed distances and properties. 8.8D (light years) was deleted, and 8.8E was recoded to 8.8D (theories of the origin of the universe) which is now included in this unit. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 8 (link in System Resources below).

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Grade 5
    • 5.8D – Identify and compare the physical characteristics of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.
  • Grade 6
    • 6.11A – Describe the physical properties, locations, and movements of the Sun, planets, moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets.

 

After this Unit

The electromagnetic spectrum will be studied in greater depth in high school Physics. Components of the universe may be studied in elective space science courses in high school.

 

STAAR Note

The Grade 8 Science STAAR will directly assess student expectations in the following reporting categories:

  • Reporting Category 3: Earth and Space
    • 8.8A – Readiness Standard
    • 8.8B – Supporting Standard
    • 8.8C – Supporting Standard

 

According to Research

“By the end of 8th grade, students should know that:

  • The sun is a medium-sized star located near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of stars, part of which can be seen as a glowing band of light that spans the sky on a very clear night. 4A/M1a
  • The universe contains many billions of galaxies, and each galaxy contains many billions of stars. To the naked eye, even the closest of these galaxies is no more than a dim, fuzzy spot. 4A/M1bc
  • Some distant galaxies are so far away that their light takes several billion years to reach the earth. People on earth see them as they were that long ago in the past. 4A/M2de”
  • There are a great variety of electromagnetic waves: radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, and gamma rays. These wavelengths vary from radio waves, the longest, to gamma rays, the shortest. 4F/M8** (BSL)

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Components of our universe can be classified by their composition, location, and physical properties.

  •  In what ways can the components of our universe be described?

 

Astronomers use different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum to gain information about the components of the universe.

  •  In what ways can different wavelengths of light reveal properties of components of the universe?

Systems

  • Universe

 

Classifications

  • Stars
  • Nebulae
  • Galaxies
  • Sun
  • Electromagnetic spectrum

 

Properties

  • Life cycle
  • Mass
  • Magnitude
  • Composition
  • Surface temperature
  • Brightness
  • Color
  • Size
  • Orbit
  • Shape
  • Wavelength
  • Frequency

 

Patterns

  • Electromagnetic spectrum

 

Constancy

  • Electromagnetic spectrum

 

Change

  • Stars
  • Universe
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars’ absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their spectral class or surface temperatures.

  • In what ways can stars be classified?
  • In what ways are the properties of stars related?

Systems

  • Stars

 

Classifications

  • Main sequence
  • Protostar
  • Red giant
  • White dwarf
  • Red dwarf
  • Neutron
  • Supergiant

 

Properties

  • Life cycle
  • Mass
  • Magnitude
  • Luminosity
  • Composition
  • Surface temperature
  • Brightness
  • Color
  • Size
  • Spectral class

 

Patterns

  • HR diagram

 

Models

  • HR diagram

 

Change

  • Stars
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions: 

  • Students may think the Sun (or other stars) will never change and exist forever, rather than stars having stages of life cycles.
  • Students may think stars are different colors because of distance or size, rather than their chemical composition, surface temperature, and the frequency of light emitted.
  • Students may think the Sun is not a star because of its size due to its proximity to the Earth.
  • Students may think the Big Bang theory references a huge explosion, rather than a rapid expansion that began the universe.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Absolute magnitude – a measure of how bright a star really is, if all stars were the same distance from Earth
  • Apparent magnitude – a measure of how bright a star appears as seen from Earth
  • Big Bang theory – a scientific theory concerning the early development and shape of the universe from a dense state which began and is still expanding
  • Electromagnetic spectrum – a classification of all forms of radiation by wavelength and frequency; used to study components of the universe
  • Frequency – the number of times a wave passes a certain point in a given amount of time
  • Galaxy – a system of stars and associated matter, held together by gravitational attraction
  • Hertzsprung-Russell diagram – a diagram that shows the relationship between the brightness, surface temperature, and color of stars
  • Luminosity – total amount of light (energy) emitted by a star or other celestial body
  • Magnitude – the measure of the observed visible brightness of a star
  • Nebulae – clouds of dust and gas; site of star formation; remains of dead or dying stars
  • Spectra – different colors of light emitted based on the chemical composition of the light source
  • Spectroscope – a tool for observing spectral lines
  • Star – luminous globe of gas which produces its own heat and light by nuclear reaction
  • Universe – all of space and its contents
  • Wavelength – distance from any one point on a wave to a corresponding point on the next wave; crest to crest or trough to trough

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Barred-spiral galaxy
  • Black dwarf star
  • Black hole
  • Crest
  • Elliptical galaxy
  • Gamma rays
  • Hertz
  • Infrared waves
  • Irregular galaxy
  • Main sequence star
  • Microwave
  • Nanometers
  • Neutron star
  • Planetary nebula
  • Protostar
  • Radio wave
  • Red giant star
  • Red supergiant star
  • Spiral galaxy
  • Stellar nebula
  • Theory
  • Trough
  • Ultraviolet rays
  • Visible light
  • White dwarf star
  • X-ray
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Components of the Universe

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/components-universe

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Electromagnetic Spectrum Introduction

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/electromagnetic-spectrum-introduction

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Electromagnetic Spectrum and Components of the Universe

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/electromagnetic-spectrum-and-components-universe

 

General:

NASA – Electromagnetic Spectrum Diagram

http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/science-practices/electromagnetic-diagram/


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
8.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
8.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment
  • Know the location of safety equipment
  • Follow classroom guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Read or study the science activity or laboratory investigation prior to conducting the investigation
      • Know and follow all safety rules prior to the investigation
      • Be alert during the laboratory time
      • Do not attempt unauthorized activities
      • If a chemical spill occurs, report it immediately and follow the instructions of the teacher
      • Keep your area clean
      • Do not enter preparatory or equipment storage rooms or chemical storerooms
      • Always wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water before leaving the laboratory
  • Use lab equipment appropriately

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, or community residents to health or property risks without their prior knowledge and consent. 1C/M5b*
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C2 – Understand and apply safe procedures in the laboratory and field, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety and safe handling of live or preserved organisms.
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
8.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
8.2A Plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

COMPARATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Comparative and descriptive investigations
  • Making observations
  • Asking well defined questions
  • Using appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Comparative and descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
8.2C Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers.
Process Standard

Collect, Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Quantitative means
    • Using the International System of Units (SI)
  • Qualitative means
    • Labeled drawings
    • Writing
    • Graphic organizers

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.2D Construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns.
Process Standard

Construct

TABLES AND GRAPHS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using repeated trials and means
  • Organize data
  • Identify patterns

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These models of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
8.2E Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.
Process Standard

Analyze

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Formulate reasonable explanations
    • Making claims (statements) from data
    • Providing evidence from data in order to support claims
  • Communicate valid conclusions supported by data
    • Using reasoning (argumentation) to explain or justify the claims
  • Predict trends

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as correct. 1A/M1b
8.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:
8.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
8.3B

Use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature.


Process Standard

Use

MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Representing aspects of the natural world
    • Space
  • Possible examples may include:
    • Physical models
    • Conceptual models

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
8.3C Identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials.
Process Standard

Identify

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Size
  • Scale
  • Properties
  • Materials

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – E2 – Use scale to relate models and structures.
    • VII. Chemistry – B1 – Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help understand the properties of elements and compounds.
8.3D Relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.
Process Standard

Relate

THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH ON SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • History of science
  • Contributions of scientists

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories of science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
8.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
8.4A

Use appropriate tools, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information.


Process Standard

Use

APPROPRIATE TOOLS TO COLLECT, RECORD, AND ANALYZE INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lab journal / (science) notebooks
  • Computers
  • Spectroscopes
  • Other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.4B Use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.
Process Standard

Use

SAFETY EQUIPMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Preventative safety equipment
    • Chemical splash goggles
    • Aprons
    • Gloves
  • Emergency safety equipment
    • Eye / face wash
    • Fire blanket
    • Fire extinguisher

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
8.8 Earth and space. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:
8.8A Describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and use models such as the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for classification.
Readiness Standard

Describe

COMPONENTS OF THE UNIVERSE

Use

MODELS FOR CLASSIFICATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Components of the universe
    • Stars (including the Sun)
      • Objects in space, made of gases, which produce their own light and heat
      • Life cycle
      • Mass in relation to the Sun
      • Magnitude (luminosity)
        • Apparent
        • Absolute
      • Temperature
    • Nebulae
      • Clouds of gas and dust
      • Sites of star formation
      • Remains of dead or dying stars
    • Galaxy – a system of stars and associated matter, held together by gravitational attraction
      • Types of galaxies
        • Elliptical
        • Spiral
          • Milky Way (includes Earth)
        • Irregular
    • Other components of the universe
      • Planets
      • Moons
      • Asteroids
      • Meteors
      • Comets
    • Possible ways to compare components of the universe include:
      • Relative mass
      • Relative size
      • Object that the component orbits
      • Objects that orbit the component
  • Models for classification of stars
    • Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (H-R)
      • Relationship between brightness, surface temperature, and color

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams.
    • Students have been introduced to the physical properties, locations, and movements of the components of our solar system (6.11A).
    • According to 2017 STAAR, #16, any object in the solar system from 6.11A (not a Supporting Standard) may be assessed under 8.8A, “Describe components of the universe…”
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • The universe contains many billions of galaxies, and each galaxy contains many billions of stars. To the naked eye, even the closest of these galaxies is no more than a dim, fuzzy spot. 4A/M1bc
    • Some distant galaxies are so far away that their light takes several billion years to reach the earth. People on earth, therefore, see them as they were that long ago in the past. 4A/M2de 
8.8B Recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star located in a spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy and that the Sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star.
Supporting Standard

Recognize

THE SUN

Including, but not limited to:

  • Medium-sized star
  • Located in a spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy
  • Many thousands of times closer to the Earth than any other star

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students have been introduced to the physical properties, locations, and movements of the components of our solar system, such as the Sun (6.11A).
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • The sun is a medium-sized star located near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of stars, part of which can be seen as a glowing band of light that spans the sky on a very clear night. 4A/M1a
    • The sun is many thousands of times closer to the earth than any other star. Light from the sun takes a few minutes to reach the earth, but light from the next nearest star takes a few years to arrive. The trip to that star would take the fastest rocket thousands of years. 4A/M2abc
8.8C Identify how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as visible light and radio waves are used to gain information about components in the universe.
Supporting Standard

Identify

HOW DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM ARE USED TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT COMPONENTS IN THE UNIVERSE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Waves – movement of energy through a medium from one place to another
  • Frequency – the number of times a wave passes a certain point in a given amount of time
  • Wavelength – distance from any point on one wave to a corresponding point on the next wave; crest to crest or trough to trough
  • Relationship between frequency and wavelength
  • Light is a form of energy and travels in electromagnetic waves
  • Electromagnetic spectrum – a classification of all forms of radiation (electromagnetic waves) by wavelength and frequency; used to study components of the universe
  • Waves are classified by their wavelength
  • Electromagnetic waves can travel through empty space and matter
    • Radio waves
    • Microwaves
    • Infrared waves
    • Visible waves (light)
    • Ultraviolet waves
    • X-rays
    • Gamma rays
  • Different wavelengths are used to gain information about components of the universe
    • Radio waves
      • Used for measuring the intensity of the energy of celestial objects
      • Reflect back to the source: The wavelength and the time it takes to be reflected can convey information about the movement of the object
    • Light waves
      • Telescopes, with detection devices that are sensitive to wavelengths other than visible light, allow astronomers to study objects that emit radiation, otherwise invisible to humans
      • Measurements of light enable astronomers to determine certain physical characteristics of objects, such as their temperature, composition, and velocity
      • Different spectral lines correspond to different wavelengths
      • Understand the association between spectral lines and stars; the color of lines indicate the elemental components of the stars
      • Spectroscopes are used to identify properties of celestial objects; spectrographs can reveal the composition of stars and other astronomical bodies using the light they emit

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to wavelengths and their use in gaining information about the components of the universe.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • There are a great variety of electromagnetic waves: radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, and gamma rays. These wavelengths vary from radio waves, the longest, to gamma rays, the shortest. 4F/M8** (BSL)
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – G3 – Understand wave terminology: wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude.
    • VIII. Physics – J1 – Know the electromagnetic spectrum.
8.8D Research how scientific data are used as evidence to develop scientific theories to describe the origin of the universe.

Research

HOW SCIENTIFIC DATA ARE USED AS EVIDENCE TO DEVELOP SCIENTIFIC THEORIES TO DESCRIBE THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific data as evidence supporting theories
    • Origin of the universe
      • The Big Bang theory

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to evidence used to develop scientific theories of the origin of the universe.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/06/2019
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