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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Science
TITLE : Unit 06: Investigating the Sun, Earth, and Moon SUGGESTED DURATION : 12 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address the interactions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. Students use scientific practices and a variety of tools to investigate, model, and illustrate how the rotation of the Earth causes day and night and the Earth’s tilt and revolution causes changes in seasons. They demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle in relationship to the positions of the Earth and Moon relative to the Sun, in addition to relating the positions of the Moon and Sun to their effect on ocean tides. Students develop the understanding that some cycles, such as day and night and phases of the Moon, are evident only by viewing them from Earth. Manipulating models enables students to correct misconceptions about these cycles. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record and organize data in their notebooks. Furthermore, students analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from their investigations and communicate valid conclusions (supported by collected data). Students continue to demonstrate safe practices as outlined in the Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards and consider environmentally appropriate and ethical practices with resources during investigations.

 

Streamlining Note

TEKS 8.7C was revised to replace “position” with “positions” of the Moon and Sun. Due to the removal of tides from Grade 4, this will be students’ first experience with the concept of tides. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 8 (link in System Resources below).

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Grade 3
    • 3.8C – Construct models that demonstrate the relationship of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, including orbits and positions.
  • Grade 4
    • 4.8C – Collect and analyze data to identify sequences and predict patterns of change in shadows, seasons, and the observable appearance of the Moon over time.
  • Grade 5
    • 5.8C – Demonstrate that Earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours causing the day/night cycle and the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky.
  • Grade 6
    • 6.11A – Describe the physical properties, locations, and movements of the Sun, planets, moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets.
    • 6.11B – Understand that gravity is the force that governs the motion of our solar system.

 

After this Unit

In a subsequent unit, students will describe components of the universe and identify how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are used to gain information about components in the universe. They will also research how scientific data are used as evidence to develop scientific theories to describe the origin of the universe.

 

STAAR Note

The Grade 8 Science STAAR will directly assess student expectations in the following reporting categories:

  • Reporting Category 3: Earth and Space
    • 8.7A – Readiness Standard
    • 8.7B – Readiness Standard
    • 8.7C – Supporting Standard

 

According to Research

The cause of the seasons is a subtle combination of global and orbital geometry and of the effects of radiation at different angles. Students can learn part of the story at this grade level, but a complete picture cannot be expected until later.

 

“By the end of 8th grade, students should know that:

  • The moon's orbit around the Earth once in about 28 days changes what part of the moon is lighted by the Sun and how much of that part can be seen from the earth- the phases of the Moon. 4B/M6*…
  • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php?chapter=4#B3.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Cyclical movements of the Earth and Moon result in predictable patterns of the lunar cycle.

  • In what ways does the movement of the Moon result in patterns of the lunar cycle (moon phases)?
  • In what ways can the positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon be used to predict phases of the Moon?

 

The rotation of the Earth causes the day and night cycle.

  • How does the movement of the Earth cause the pattern of day and night?

 

The tilt of the Earth and its revolution around the Sun causes the cycle of changing seasons.

  • In what ways does the movement and position of the Earth cause patterns of changing seasons?

 

The positions of the Sun and Moon in relation to the Earth and their gravitational pull affect ocean tides.

  • In what ways does the position of the Earth, Sun, and Moon affect ocean tides?

Systems

  • Sun, Earth, Moon

 

Classifications

  • Day
  • Night
  • Winter
  • Spring
  • Summer
  • Autumn (fall)
  • New
  • Waxing crescent
  • First quarter
  • Waxing gibbous
  • Full
  • Waning gibbous
  • Third quarter
  • Waning crescent
  • Low tides
  • High tides

 

Properties

  • Rotation
  • Sunrise
  • Sunset
  • Directional movement
  • Revolution
  • Tilt
  • Positions
  • Reflection
  • Gravity

 

Patterns

  • Day / night cycle
  • Seasonal cycle
  • Lunar cycle
  • Tides

 

Models

  • Day / night cycle
  • Seasonal cycle
  • Lunar cycle
  • Tides

 

Constancy

  • Cycles

 

Change

  • Day
  • Night
  • Seasons
  • Hours of daylight
  • Moon phases
  • Tides
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions: 

  • Students may think the seasons are caused by the distance of the Earth from the Sun, rather than the tilt of the Earth’s axis and its revolution around the Sun.
  • Students may think the phases of the Moon are caused by the Moon being in the Earth's shadow or in the Sun’s shadow, rather than the Moon orbiting the Earth allowing for different perspectives (angles) of the amount of sunlight reflected at different times of the month.
  • Students may think only the Moon has any effect on tides, rather than the sum of the effects caused by the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun and the gravitational force of the Earth, due to their relative positions.
  • Students may think the Earth’s revolution around the Sun causes night and day, rather than the Earth’s rotation over a 24 hour time period.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Axis – imaginary line about which an object rotates
  • Gravitational attraction – force of attraction between all masses in the universe, especially the attraction of the Earth's mass for bodies near its surface
  • Neap tide – occurs at the first and third (last) quarter Moon phases; the Sun is at a right angle to the Moon
  • Rotational axis – an imaginary line in which a three-dimensional object rotates around; the Earth spins on its axis
  • Spring tide – occurs at the full and new Moon phases; Earth, Moon, and Sun are in alignment pulling the water in the same direction
  • Tide – the rising and falling of the oceans due to the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun; usually occurs twice each day

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Autumnal equinox
  • Counterclockwise
  • Equinox
  • First quarter moon
  • Full moon
  • High tide
  • Low tide
  • Lunar cycle
  • Moon phases (Lunar phases)
  • New moon
  • Relative position
  • Revolve
  • Rotate
  • Seasons
  • Solstice
  • Summer solstice
  • Third quarter moon
  • Vernal equinox
  • Waning crescent
  • Waning gibbous
  • Waxing crescent
  • Waxing gibbous
  • Winter solstice
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Education Agency – Griddable Questions for Science

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/staar/science/ (look under STAAR Science Resources)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Earth Rotation and Revolution

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/earth-rotation-and-revolution

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Moon Phases

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/moon-phases

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – The Moon – Lunar Cycle and Tides

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/moon%E2%80%94lunar-cycle-and-tides


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
8.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
8.2A Plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

COMPARATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Comparative and descriptive investigations
  • Making observations
  • Asking well defined questions
  • Using appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Comparative and descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
8.2C Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers.
Process Standard

Collect, Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Quantitative means
    • Using the International System of Units (SI)
  • Qualitative means
    • Labeled drawings
    • Writing
    • Graphic organizers

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.2D Construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns.
Process Standard

Construct

TABLES AND GRAPHS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using repeated trials and means
  • Organize data
  • Identify patterns

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These models of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
8.2E Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.
Process Standard

Analyze

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Formulate reasonable explanations
    • Making claims (statements) from data
    • Providing evidence from data in order to support claims
  • Communicate valid conclusions supported by data
    • Using reasoning (argumentation) to explain or justify the claims
  • Predict trends

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as correct. 1A/M1b
8.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:
8.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
8.3B

Use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature.


Process Standard

Use

MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Representing aspects of the natural world
    • Space
  • Possible examples may include:
    • Physical models
      • Effects of Moon on tides
    • Conceptual models
      • Lunar cycle

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
8.3C Identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials.
Process Standard

Identify

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Size
  • Scale
  • Properties
  • Materials

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – E2 – Use scale to relate models and structures.
    • VII. Chemistry – B1 – Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help understand the properties of elements and compounds.
8.3D Relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.
Process Standard

Relate

THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH ON SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • History of science
  • Contributions of scientists

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories of science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
8.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
8.4A

Use appropriate tools, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information.


Process Standard

Use

APPROPRIATE TOOLS TO COLLECT, RECORD, AND ANALYZE INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lab journal / (science) notebooks
  • Computers
  • Other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.7 Earth and space. The student knows the effects resulting from cyclical movements of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The student is expected to:
8.7A Model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun, causing changes in seasons.
Readiness Standard

Model, Illustrate

HOW THE TILTED EARTH ROTATES ON ITS AXIS AND REVOLVES AROUND THE SUN

Including, but not limited to:

  • Tilted Earth
    • Rotates on its axis
      • Causing day and night
      • Rotation
    • Revolves around the Sun
      • Causing changes in seasons
      • Causing length of daylight hours (equator vs other locations on the Earth during different seasons)
      • Compare number of daylight hours at different locations on Earth based on season
      • Revolution
        • Planets revolve around the Sun in a counterclockwise motion

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students have been introduced to the rotation and tilt of the Earth (5.8C) and predictions of sequences and patterns of change in seasons in elementary grades (4.8C).   
8.7B Demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle.
Readiness Standard

Demonstrate, Predict

THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS IN THE LUNAR CYCLE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Phases of the Moon (including approximate number of days per phase or number of days per quarter cycle)
    • New moon
    • Waxing crescent
    • First quarter
    • Waxing gibbous
    • Full moon
    • Waning gibbous
    • Third (last) quarter
    • Waning crescent
  • Phases of the Moon on a calendar
  • Relative positions of Sun, Moon, and Earth during different phases of the Moon

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students have been introduced to the relationship of the Sun, Earth, and Moon (3.8C), and the patterns of change in the observable appearance of the Moon in elementary grades (4.8C).
    • Students should be able to interpret multiple types of data from different perspectives to relate moon phases to the relative amount of reflected light (e.g., models, graphics, tables, graphs).
    • Students should be able to predict phases on a calendar.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • The moon's orbit around the earth once in about 28 days changes what part of the moon is lighted by the sun and how much of that part can be seen from the earth- the phases of the moon. 4B/M5
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
8.7C Relate the positions of the Moon and Sun to their effect on ocean tides.
Supporting Standard

Relate

THE POSITIONS OF THE MOON AND SUN TO THEIR EFFECT ON OCEAN TIDES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Causes of tides
    • Water on the side of the Earth closest to the Moon is most strongly affected by the Moon’s gravitational pull
  • Spring tide
    • Earth, Moon, and Sun are in line; their gravities are all pulling on the ocean at the same time and in the same direction
    • Greatest difference between the high tide water level and the low tide water level; occurs during the full and new moon phases
  • Neap tides
    • When the Sun is at right angles to the Moon
    • Tides are less pronounced during the first and third (last) quarter phases

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students have been introduced to the relationship of the Sun, Earth, and Moon (3.8C).
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/06/2019
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