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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Science
TITLE : Unit 05: Investigating Forces that Change the Earth SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address plate tectonics, topographic maps, and satellite views. Students use scientific practices and a variety of tools to investigate and describe the historical development of evidence that supports plate tectonic theory, including contributing scientists. They demonstrate how plate tectonics relate to crustal feature formation and investigate and describe how Newton’s laws apply to Earth’s tectonic activities. In this unit, students' prior knowledge of convection can now be applied to tectonic plate movement. In addition, they interpret topographic maps and satellite views to identify land and erosional features and predict how these features may be reshaped by weathering. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record and organize data in their notebooks. Furthermore, students analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from their investigations and communicate valid conclusions (supported by collected data). Students continue to demonstrate safe practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards and consider environmentally appropriate and ethical practices with resources during investigations.

 

Streamlining Note

There are no revisions to TEKS 8.9A, 8.9B, or 8.9C. However, there may be revisions to the process standards associated with this unit. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 8 (link in System Resources below).

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Grade 6
    • 6.9A – Investigate methods of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation.
    • 6.10A – Build a model to illustrate the compositional and mechanical layers of Earth, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, crust,  asthenosphere, and lithosphere.
    • 6.10B – Classify rocks as metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary by the processes of their formation.
    • 6.10C – Identify the major tectonic plates, including Eurasian, African, Indo-Australian, Pacific, North American, and South American.
    • 6.10D – Describe how plate tectonics causes major geological events such as ocean basin formation, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building.
  • Grade 7
    • 7.8B – Analyze the effects of weathering, erosion, and deposition on the environment in ecoregions of Texas.

 

After this Unit

Students may continue their study of Earth science concepts in high school courses.

 

STAAR Note

The Grade 8 Science STAAR will directly assess student expectations in the following reporting categories:

  • Reporting Category 3: Earth and Space
    • 8.9A – Supporting Standard
    • 8.9B – Readiness Standard
    • 8.9C – Readiness Standard

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:

  • Heat flow and movement of material within the earth cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and create mountains and ocean basins. 4C/M1
  • Some changes in the earth's surface are abrupt (earthquakes and volcanic eruptions) while other changes happen very slowly (uplift and wearing down of mountains). 4C/M2a
  • Matching coastlines and similarities in rock types and life forms suggest that today's continents are separated parts of what was long ago a single continent. 4C/M9** (SFAA)
  • The outer layer of the earth—including both the continents and the ocean basins—consists of separate plates. 4C/M11** (BSL)
  • The earth's plates sit on a dense, hot, somewhat melted layer of the earth. The plates move very slowly, pressing against one another in some places and pulling apart in other places, sometimes scraping alongside each other as they do. Mountains form as two continental plates, or an ocean plate and a continental plate, press together. 4C/M12** (BSL)
  • There are worldwide patterns to major geological events (such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building) that coincide with plate boundaries. 4C/M13** (BSL)”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php?chapter=4#C2.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Our understanding of the movement of Earth’s crust developed over time based on many scientific observations and analyses.

  • In what ways does historical evidence support the plate tectonic theory?

 

Earth’s crustal features change over time as a result of the unbalanced forces from plate tectonics.

  • In what ways is plate tectonics related to the formation of Earth’s crustal features?
  • In what ways do Newton’s laws apply to Earth’s tectonic activities?

Systems

  • Earth’s crustal features

 

Classifications

  • Uplift
  • Trenches
  • Seafloor spreading
  • Faults
  • Tectonic plates

 

Properties

  • Convergent boundary
  • Divergent boundary
  • Transform boundary
  • Subduction

 

Patterns

  • Plate movement

 

Models

  • Crustal features
  • Plate movement

 

Change

  • Crustal features
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Topographic maps and satellite images may be used as tools to interpret Earth’s features and predict future changes to these features.

  • In what ways do topographic maps and satellite images inform us about Earth’s features?

 

Earth’s features change over time as a result of the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition.

  • In what ways do the processes of weathering and erosion change Earth’s features over time?

Systems

  • Earth’s features

 

Classifications

  • Land
  • Erosional

 

Properties

  • Slope
  • Mountains
  • Hills
  • Depressions
  • Direction of water flow
  • Weathering
  • Erosion
  • Deposition

 

Patterns

  • Contour lines and intervals

 

Models

  • Topographic maps
  • Satellite views

 

Change

  • Earth’s features
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think the Earth is molten, except for its crust, rather than a variation of solid and molten layers.
  • Students may think earthquakes are caused only by explosions from volcanoes, rather than by plate movement due to multiple factors.
  • Students may think that landforms of similar appearance are formed in only one manner, rather than through various tectonic processes.
  • Students may think the continents are now in a fixed position, rather than a continual slow movement due to the asthenosphere.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:  

  • Continental drift theory – Alfred Wegner’s explanation of continents slowly moving and changing their positions relative to one another
  • Contour intervals – difference in elevation between any two contour lines on a topographic map
  • Contour lines – map symbol showing shape and / or change in elevation on a topographic map
  • Plate tectonic theory – the outer most layer of the Earth (lithosphere) is divided into contiguous sections (plates) that move relative to each other causing continental drift, seafloor spreading, and the formation of major physical features of the Earth’s surface
  • Topographic maps – map showing the shape and elevation of the land surface using contour lines
  • Topography – the shape of the Earth’s surface and the way its physical features are arranged, especially in terms of their positions and elevations

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Asthenosphere
  • Boundary
  • Convection currents
  • Convergent boundary
  • Correlation
  • Crustal feature
  • Depression
  • Divergent boundary
  • Elevation
  • Erosion
  • Fault
  • Lithosphere
  • Mid-ocean ridge
  • Newton’s law of action-reaction
  • Pangaea
  • Relief         
  • Rift zones
  • Ring of Fire
  • Satellite view
  • Seafloor spreading
  • Stream
  • Stress
  • Subduction zone
  • Theory
  • Transform boundary
  • Trench
  • Unbalanced forces
  • Uplift
  • Valley
  • Weathering
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Education Agency – Griddable Questions for Science

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/staar/science/ (look under STAAR Science Resources)

 

Texas Education Agency – State Training: Science Academies: Grades 5 – 8, “An Elevated View”

Contact your supporting Education Service Center for more information.

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Plate Tectonics

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/plate-tectonics-0

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Plate Boundaries

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/plate-boundaries

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Reading and Interpreting Topographic Maps

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/reading-and-interpreting-topographic-maps

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Maps and Satellite Imagery

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/maps-and-satellite-imagery

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Scientists that Contributed to the Study of Earth and Space Science

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/scientific-investigation-and-reasoning-contribution-scientists


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
8.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
8.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment
  • Know the location of safety equipment
  • Follow classroom guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Read or study the science activity or laboratory investigation prior to conducting the investigation
      • Know and follow all safety rules prior to the investigation
      • Be alert during the laboratory time
      • Do not attempt unauthorized activities
      • If a chemical spill occurs, report it immediately and follow the instructions of the teacher
      • Keep your area clean
      • Do not enter preparatory or equipment storage rooms or chemical storerooms
      • Always wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water before leaving the laboratory
  • Use lab equipment appropriately

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, or community residents to health or property risks without their prior knowledge and consent. 1C/M5b*
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C2 – Understand and apply safe procedures in the laboratory and field, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety and safe handling of live or preserved organisms.
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
8.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
8.2A Plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

COMPARATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Comparative and descriptive investigations
  • Making observations
  • Asking well defined questions
  • Using appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Comparative and descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
8.2C Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers.
Process Standard

Collect, Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Quantitative means
    • Using the International System of Units (SI)
  • Qualitative means
    • Labeled drawings
    • Writing
    • Graphic organizers

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.2E Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.
Process Standard

Analyze

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Formulate reasonable explanations
    • Making claims (statements) from data
    • Providing evidence from data in order to support claims
  • Communicate valid conclusions supported by data
    • Using reasoning (argumentation) to explain or justify the claims
  • Predict trends

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as correct. 1A/M1b
8.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:
8.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
8.3B

Use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature.


Process Standard

Use

MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Representing aspects of the natural world
    • A geologic feature
  • Possible examples may include:
    • Physical models
    • Conceptual models
    • Mathematical models

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
8.3C Identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials.
Process Standard

Identify

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Size
  • Scale
  • Properties
  • Materials

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – E2 – Use scale to relate models and structures.
    • VII. Chemistry – B1 – Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help understand the properties of elements and compounds.
8.3D Relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.
Process Standard

Relate

THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH ON SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • History of science
  • Contributions of scientists
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Isaac Newton (Newton’s laws of motion)
      • Alfred Wegener (continental drift)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories of science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
8.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
8.4A

Use appropriate tools, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information.


Process Standard

Use

APPROPRIATE TOOLS TO COLLECT, RECORD, AND ANALYZE INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lab journal / (science) notebooks
  • Meter sticks
  • Calculators
  • Computers
  • Other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.4B Use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.
Process Standard

Use

SAFETY EQUIPMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Preventative safety equipment
    • Chemical splash goggles
    • Aprons
    • Gloves
  • Emergency safety equipment
    • Eye / face wash
    • Fire blanket
    • Fire extinguisher

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
8.6 Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that there is a relationship between force, motion, and energy. The student is expected to:
8.6C

Investigate and describe applications of Newton's three laws of motion such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches.


Readiness Standard

Investigate, Describe

APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF MOTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Newton’s laws
    • Law of inertia – the tendency of an object to resist change in motion unless acted upon by a force
      • An object in motion will remain in motion, at a constant speed, in a straight line, until acted upon by an unbalanced force
      • An object at rest will remain at rest until acted upon by an unbalanced force
      • Relationship to mass
    • Law of force and acceleration – when an object that has a constant mass is acted upon by a force, the object will accelerate in the same direction as the force applied
      • Relationship between force, mass, and acceleration
      • Force
        • Net force = mass x acceleration
          • F = ma
      • Acceleration
        • Acceleration = net force / mass
          • a = F / m
          • Positive or negative
          • Calculating net force by adding or subtracting forces applied to an object may be required prior to solving for acceleration (2017 STAAR, #25)
      • Mass
        • Mass = net force / acceleration
          • m = F / a
          • Calculating net force by adding or subtracting forces applied to an object may be required prior to solving for acceleration
    • Law of action - reaction – for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
      • All forces act in pairs. (Action: Object A exerts a force on Object B; Reaction: Object B exerts an equal and opposite force on Object A)
  • Applications of Newton’s laws in:
    • Earth’s tectonic activities

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to Newton’s laws.
    • The STAAR Grade 8 Reference Materials include the formula for net force as listed above.
    • Students may be presented with only one variable of F = ma, either acceleration or mass, and have to calculate net force by adding or subtracting forces applied to an object prior to solving for acceleration or mass (2017 STAAR, #25).
    • Students will be allowed the use of calculators on the Grade 8 Science STAAR assessment.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Physics – A3 – Understand the concepts of mass and inertia.
    • VIII. Physics – C1 – Understand the fundamental concepts of kinematics.
    • VIII. Physics – C2 – Understand forces and Newton’s Laws.
8.9 Earth and space. The student knows that natural events can impact Earth systems. The student is expected to:
8.9A Describe the historical development of evidence that supports plate tectonic theory.
Supporting Standard

Describe

THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF EVIDENCE THAT SUPPORTS PLATE TECTONIC THEORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Continental drift theory
    • Proposed 1912 by Alfred Wegener
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Continents in motion
      • A large supercontinent breaking apart (Pangaea)
      • Fit of the continents
      • No explanation regarding a mechanism to explain movement
  • Early evidence supporting continental drift theory
    • Fossil and rock correlation
  • Development of mechanisms for continental drift
    • Study of sea-floor spreading, post WW II (US Navy)
      • Convection currents within the mantle (asthenosphere)
  • Plate tectonics theory
    • Proposed 1960’s by Harry Hess
  • Further evidence supporting plate tectonic theory
  • Possible examples may include:
    • Magnetic striping and reversal
    • Correlation of fossil data from drilling on either side of mid-ocean ridge
    • Seismic zones and plate boundaries [earthquakes / volcanic activity along ridges (Ring of Fire)]
    • Location of mountain ridges

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students have been introduced to tectonic plates (6.10C, 6.10D) and convection currents (6.9A).
    • This student expectation builds the foundation for the content of Biology Readiness Standard B.7A.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • The earth's surface is shaped in part by the motion of water (including ice) and wind over very long times, which acts to level mountain ranges. Rivers and glacial ice carry off soil and break down rock, eventually depositing the material in sediments or carrying it in solution to the sea. 4C/M2b* 
8.9B Relate plate tectonics to the formation of crustal features.
Readiness Standard

Relate

PLATE TECTONICS TO THE FORMATION OF CRUSTAL FEATURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Types of plates
    • Oceanic crust (thinner, more dense)
    • Continental crust (thicker, less dense)
  • Convergent boundaries
    • Uplift of continental plates
      • Mountain ranges
      • Volcanoes
        • Ring of Fire
        • Island Arc
      • Trenches (underwater due to subduction)
  • Divergent boundaries
    • Sea-floor spreading
      • Rift zones (valleys)
      • Mid-ocean ridges (volcanoes)
  • Transform boundaries
    • Rock slides (due to earthquakes)
    • Faults (due to earthquakes)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Students in Grade 6 have been introduced to plate tectonics as the cause of geologic events (6.10D). 
8.9C Interpret topographic maps and satellite views to identify land and erosional features and predict how these features may be reshaped by weathering.
Readiness Standard

Interpret, Identify

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AND SATELLITE VIEWS TO IDENTIFY LAND AND EROSIONAL FEATURES

Including but not limited to:

  • Topographic map – map showing the shape and elevation of the land surface using contour lines
    • Contour lines – map symbol showing shape and / or change in elevation on a topographic map
      • One contour line indicates one elevation for that entire line
      • Widely spaced contour lines represent a gradual or gentle slope
      • Closely spaced contour lines represent a steep slope
      • Contour lines form closed circles around the tops of hills and mountains
        • Moving outward from the innermost ring is downhill
      • Closed circles with short, straight lines (hachure marks) inside the circle indicate depressions
        • The hachure marks point downslope toward the center of the depression
      • Contour lines crossing a valley or stream are V or U shaped
        • The closed end of the V or U points uphill
        • The open end of the V or U points downhill and indicates the direction of water flow
    • Contour intervals – difference in elevation between any two contour lines on a topographic map
      • Calculate differences in contour intervals
  • Satellite views
  • Examples of land and erosional features
    • Canyons
    • Deltas
    • Mountains
    • Rivers
    • Islands
    • Valleys
    • Coastlines
    • Sand dunes

Predict

HOW LAND AND EROSIONAL FEATURES MAY BE RESHAPED BY WEATHERING

Including but not limited to:

  • Weathering – process by which exposed rock and other surfaces are broken down; may be caused by elements of weather (wind, water, ice) or other mechanisms
  • Erosion – process by which weathered material is moved by wind, water, or ice
  • Deposition – process by which weathered and eroded material is deposited by wind, water, or ice
  • Students make predictions based on current shape of the features and the type of weathering that may occur
  • Factors that may affect how land and erosional features are reshaped
    • Presence or absence of plants that hold soil in place
    • Presence or absence of flowing water
    • Presence or absence of waves
    • Direction of ocean currents
    • Shape of the land or erosional feature causing specific paths of resistance or flow
    • Change of water flow causing deposition where streams meet large bodies of water

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to topographic maps and satellite images in science.
    • Students may be assessed by being asked to calculate the difference in contour intervals and record their answers in a griddable format.
    • Students have been introduced to weathering, erosion, and deposition (7.8B) and elementary grades (3.7A [weathering only], 4.7B, 5.7A, and 5.7B).
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/06/2019
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