Hello, Guest!

Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Science
TITLE : Unit 01: Investigating Atoms and the Periodic Table SUGGESTED DURATION : 24 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles Student Expectations that address the structure of atoms and the arrangement of the Periodic Table. Matter is composed of atoms that are made up of subatomic particles and are distinguished by their individual properties. The Periodic Table has recurring trends that are seen in the properties of elements. The historic scientific discoveries of the nature of the atom have fundamentally changed the scientific understanding of the nature of matter.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Grade 6
    • 6.5A – Know that an element is a pure substance represented by a chemical symbol and that a compound is a pure substance represented by a chemical formula.
    • 6.5B – Recognize that a limited number of the many known elements comprise the largest portion of solid Earth, living matter, oceans, and the atmosphere.
    • 6.6A – Compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using physical properties such as luster, conductivity, or malleability.

 

During this Unit

Students describe the structure of an atom including mass / size comparisons, electrical charges, and locations of subatomic particles. Additionally, students determine the electrical charge of a nucleus, based on the presence and number of positively charged protons. Students use scientific practices and a variety of tools to investigate and interpret the relationship between the information on the Periodic Table and the atomic structure of atoms / elements for the purpose of drawing, constructing, and decoding models. They calculate the number of neutrons in the nucleus by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number on the Periodic Table and identify elements based on the number of protons in an atom. Furthermore, students examine patterns in physical and chemical properties to understand the organization and placement of elements into periods and groups / families on the Periodic Table. They analyze and interpret information on the Periodic Table to ascertain why elements are arranged into groups / families. Additionally, students identify that valence electrons determine an element’s chemical properties including reactivity, and students relate an element’s structure to its placement on the Periodic Table. Students view the Periodic Table as a model and learn how the arrangement of the Periodic Table allows for the prediction of undiscovered elements and their properties. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record and organize data in their notebooks. Students continue to demonstrate safe practices as outlined in the Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards and consider environmentally appropriate and ethical practices with resources during investigations. Finally, students identify the advantages and limitations of atomic models and relate the research and development of atomic models and the Periodic Table to their impact on scientific thought and society.

Note: Although students are not expected to understand or define isotopes in Grade 8, it is appropriate for students to understand that the atomic mass on the Periodic Table represents the average mass of atoms of an element that have a variety of mass numbers.

 

Streamlining Note

There are no changes to TEKS 8.5A, 8.5B, or 8.5C. However, there may have been revisions to the process standards associated with this unit. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 8 (link in System Resources below).

 

After this Unit

In Unit 02, students will study chemical formulas and evidence of chemical reactions, as well as the concept of conservation of mass. In high school, students will study atomic structure and the Periodic Table in more detail.

 

Additional Notes

STAAR Note

The Student Expectations in this unit support the understandings that will be assessed on the Grade 8 Science STAAR under the following Reporting Categories:

  • Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy
    • 8.5A – Readiness Standard
    • 8.5B – Readiness Standard
    • 8.5C – Readiness Standard

 

Research

“By the end of 8th grade, students should know that:

  • All matter is made up of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope. 4D/M1a
  • The atoms of any element are like other atoms of the same element, but are different from the atoms of other elements. 4D/M1b*
  • Chemical elements are those substances that do not break down during normal laboratory reactions involving such treatments as heating, exposure to electric current, or reaction with acids. All substances from living and nonliving things can be broken down to a set of about 100 elements, but since most elements tend to combine with others, few elements are found in their pure form. 4D/M5*
  • There are groups of elements that have similar properties, including highly reactive metals, less-reactive metals, highly reactive nonmetals (such as chlorine, fluorine, and oxygen), and some almost completely nonreactive gases (such as helium and neon). 4D/M6a
  • Carbon and hydrogen are common elements of living matter. 4D/M6c*
  • Most substances can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas depending on temperature. 4D/M8** (SFAA)"

 

“By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:

  • Atoms are made of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The nucleus is a tiny fraction of the volume of an atom but makes up almost all of its mass. The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons which have roughly the same mass but differ in that protons are positively charged while neutrons have no electric charge. 4D/H1*
  • The number of protons in the nucleus determines what an atom's electron configuration can be and so defines the element. An atom's electron configuration, particularly the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. 4D/H2*
  • When elements are listed in order by the masses of their atoms, the same sequence of properties appears over and over again in the list. 4D/H6”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php?chapter=4#D3.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Matter is composed of atoms that are made up of subatomic particles and are distinguished by their individual properties.

  • How are atoms structured?
  • In what ways are properties used to distinguish atoms and subatomic particles?

 

The historic scientific discoveries of the nature of the atom have fundamentally changed scientific understanding of the nature of matter.

  • How has historic scientific discovery changed our understanding of the atom?

Systems

  • Atoms

 

Classifications

  • Elements

 

Properties

  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Electrons
  • Energy levels
  • Valence electrons
  • Nucleus
  • Mass number
  • Atomic number

 

Patterns

  • Atomic structure

 

Models

  • Bohr’s nuclear atom
  • Rutherford’s nuclear atom
  • Electron cloud

 

Constancy

  • Atomic structure

 

Change

  • Historical discoveries lead to new atomic models
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The Periodic Table has recurring trends that are seen in the properties of elements.

  • In what ways do the properties of elements relate to the arrangement of the Periodic Table?

 

The historic scientific discoveries of the nature of the atom have fundamentally changed scientific understanding of the nature of matter.

  • How has historic scientific discovery changed our understanding of the Periodic Table?

Systems

  • Periodic Table

 

Classifications

  • Elements
  • Periods
  • Groups (families)

 

Properties

  • Atomic mass
  • Atomic number
  • Energy levels
  • Valence electrons
  • Reactivity

 

Patterns

  • Periodicity of elements

 

Models

  • Periodic Table

 

Constancy

  • Atomic structure

 

Change

  • Historical discoveries of elements
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think there is only one correct model of the atom, rather than understanding that more accurate atomic models were developed over time as new information became available.
  • Students may think atoms can be seen with a classroom microscope because they are invisible to the naked eye.
  • Students may think atoms are solid and have no space between structures, rather than understanding atoms have space existing between the nucleus and the electron cloud, and between the neutrons and protons in the nucleus.
  • Students may think electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom in a plane similar to planets orbiting the Sun, rather than understanding the electron cloud model.
  • Students may think the more mass an atom has, the larger it is (and will always be found at the end of the Periodic Table), rather than understanding the structure and properties of an element determining its placement on the Periodic Table.
  • Students may think there is only one version of the Periodic Table, rather than realizing the Periodic Table is continually changing as new information becomes available.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Atom – smallest particle of an element that maintains the properties of that element
  • Atomic mass – average mass number of all atoms of an element (from particles in the nucleus)
  • Atomic number – the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; used to determine an element's position in the Periodic Table
  • Chemical property – a characteristic of a substance that describes how it combines with other substances to form new ones
  • Electrical charge – a property of a subatomic particle; positive (protons), negative (electrons), or neutral (neutrons)
  • Electron – a negatively charged particle in the electron cloud surrounding the atomic nucleus
  • Electron cloud – the negatively charged space containing electrons that surrounds the atomic nucleus
  • Element – a pure substance that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler substances
  • Groups (families) – the vertical columns on the Periodic Table
  • Mass number – total number of protons and neutrons in a specific atom
  • Neutrona (neutral) particle with no electrical charge within the atomic nucleus
  • Nucleus – the positively charged center of an atom containing the protons and neutrons
  • Periodic Table a conceptual model in which the elements are organized according to their properties; often displayed as a chart
  • Periods – the horizontal rows on the Periodic Table
  • Physical property – property of matter that can be observed without changing the composition or identity of the matter
  • Proton – a positively charged particle within the atomic nucleus; used to identify an element
  • Reactivity – tendency of a substance to undergo chemical changes in a system
  • Subatomic particle – a particle smaller than an atom, such as a proton, neutron, or electron
  • Valence electron(s) – electron(s) located in outer energy level (electron shell)

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Alkali metals
  • Atomic mass unit (amu)
  • Metalloids
  • Metals
  • Negative
  • Neutral
  • Noble gases
  • Nonmetals
  • Positive
  • Transition metals
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Griddable Questions for Science

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/staar/science/ (look under STAAR Science Resources)

 

Texas Education Agency – STAAR Grade 8 Science Reference Materials

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/staar/science/ (look under Grade 8)

 

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Electron Configuration

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/matter-and-energy-elemental-properties

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Element’s Identity

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/matter-and-energy-elemental-properties

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Element’s Reactivity

 

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/matter-and-energy-elemental-properties

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Introducing the Atom

 

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/introducing-atom

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Models

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/scientific-investigation-and-reasoning-models

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Scientists that Contributed to the Study of Physical Science

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/scientific-investigation-and-reasoning-contribution-scientists


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
8.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
8.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment
  • Know the location of safety equipment
  • Follow classroom guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Read or study the science activity or laboratory investigation prior to conducting the investigation
      • Know and follow all safety rules prior to the investigation
      • Be alert during the laboratory time
      • Do not attempt unauthorized activities
      • If a chemical spill occurs, report it immediately and follow the instructions of the teacher
      • Keep your area clean
      • Do not enter preparatory or equipment storage rooms or chemical storerooms
      • Always wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water before leaving the laboratory
  • Use lab equipment appropriately

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, or community residents to health or property risks without their prior knowledge and consent. 1C/M5b*
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C2 – Understand and apply safe procedures in the laboratory and field, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety and safe handling of live or preserved organisms.
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
8.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
8.2A Plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

COMPARATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Comparative and descriptive investigations
  • Making observations
  • Asking well defined questions
  • Using appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Comparative and descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
8.2C Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers.
Process Standard

Collect, Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Quantitative means
    • Using the International System of Units (SI)
  • Qualitative means
    • Labeled drawings
    • Writing
    • Graphic organizers

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.2E Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.
Process Standard

Analyze

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Formulate reasonable explanations
    • Making claims (statements) from data
    • Providing evidence from data in order to support claims
  • Communicate valid conclusions supported by data
    • Using reasoning (argumentation) to explain or justify the claims
  • Predict trends

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as correct. 1A/M1b
8.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:
8.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
8.3B

Use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature.


Process Standard

Use

MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Representing aspects of the natural world
    • An atom
    • A molecule
  • Possible examples may include:
    • Physical models
    • Conceptual models
      • Periodic Table
    • Mathematical models

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
8.3C Identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials.
Process Standard

Identify

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Size
  • Scale
  • Properties
  • Materials

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – E2 – Use scale to relate models and structures.
    • VII. Chemistry – B1 – Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help understand the properties of elements and compounds.
8.3D Relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.
Process Standard

Relate

THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH ON SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • History of science
  • Contributions of scientists
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Neils Bohr (model of the atom)
      • Ernest Rutherford (model of the atom)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories of science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
8.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
8.4A

Use appropriate tools, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information.


Process Standard

Use

APPROPRIATE TOOLS TO COLLECT, RECORD, AND ANALYZE INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lab journal / (science) notebooks
  • Calculators
  • Computers
  • Other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.5 Matter and energy. The student knows that matter is composed of atoms and has chemical and physical properties. The student is expected to:
8.5A Describe the structure of atoms, including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud.
Readiness Standard

Describe

STRUCTURE OF ATOMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Atom – smallest particle of an element that maintains the properties of that element
  • Properties of an atom
    • Mass number – total number of protons and neutrons in a specific atom
    • Atomic number – the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; used to determine that element's position in the Periodic Table
  • Mass / size comparison
    • Protons and neutrons have a similar mass and size (1 amu)
    • Electrons are significantly smaller in mass and size than protons and neutrons
  • Electrical charges
    • Subatomic particle – a particle smaller than an atom, such as a proton, neutron, or electron
      • Electron – a negatively charged particle in the electron cloud surrounding the atomic nucleus
      • Proton – positively charged particle within the atomic nucleus
      • Neutron – a (neutral) particle with no electrical charge within the atomic nucleus
    • Nucleus – the positively charged center of an atom containing the protons and neutrons
    • The nucleus is positively charged because the only electrically charged particles present are protons
  • Locations
    • Nucleus (protons and neutrons)
      • Makes up the mass of the atom
    • Electron cloud – the negatively charged space, containing electrons, that surrounds the atomic nucleus
      • Makes up the majority of the volume of the atom (mostly empty space)
      • Valence electron(s) – electron(s) located in outer energy level (electron shell)
  • Relationship of atomic structure to Periodic Table
    • Periodic Table – a conceptual model in which the elements are organized according to their properties; often displayed as a chart
    • Atomic number (location on Periodic Table)
      • Number of protons in nucleus
    • Mass number (given or calculated)
      • Protons plus neutrons in nucleus
      • Calculate number of neutrons by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number
    • Calculate total number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of an element

Note(s):

  • Although students are not expected to understand or define isotopes in Grade 8, it is appropriate for students to understand that the atomic mass on the Periodic Table represents the average atomic mass of atoms of an element that have a variety of mass numbers.
  • STAAR:
    • Students in Grade 6 have been introduced to elements, compounds, and chemical symbols (6.5A, 6.5B).
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to protons, neutrons, or electrons. 
    • Students may benefit from developing multiple models of elements (1-18), including subatomic particles, based upon the Periodic Table.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • All matter is made up of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope. 4D/M1a
    • The atoms of any element are like other atoms of the same element, but are different from the atoms of other elements. 4D/M1b*
  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – A1 – Know modern theories of atomic structure.
    • VII. Chemistry – B1 – Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help us understand the properties of elements and compounds.
8.5B Identify that protons determine an element's identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, including reactivity.
Readiness Standard

Identify

PROTONS AND VALENCE ELECTRONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Protons
    • Determine an element’s identity (atomic number)
      • Number of protons will be less than or equal to number of neutrons
  • Valence electrons
    • Determine an element’s chemical properties
      • Reactivity resulting from incomplete outer electron energy level (electron shell)

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – B1 – Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help us understand the properties of elements and compounds.
8.5C Interpret the arrangement of the Periodic Table, including groups and periods, to explain how properties are used to classify elements.
Readiness Standard

Interpret

THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE TO EXPLAIN HOW PROPERTIES ARE USED TO CLASSIFY ELEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Periods
    • The horizontal rows on the Periodic Table are periods
    • Patterns
      • Atomic number and mass increase from left to right across a period
      • Energy levels increase from top to bottom (e.g., Period 2 has 2 energy levels, Period 5 has 5 energy levels)
  • Groups (families)
    • The vertical columns on the Periodic Table are groups or families with similar properties
    • Chemical properties
      • Reactivity
        • Valence electrons
          • Group 2 has 2 valence electrons
          • Group 18 has a full outer (valence) energy level (electron shell)
    • Physical properties
      • State of matter
      • Metals, nonmetals, metalloids
        • Conductors, insulators
  • Placement of elements on the Periodic Table
    • Atomic number
    • Atomic mass
    • Reactivity (valence electrons)
      • Groups 1 and 2 (most reactive metals)
      • Group 18 (noble gases – non-reactive, stable, full outer energy levels (electron shells))

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • This is the first time students have been introduced to periods, groups / families, and valence electrons related to reactivity.
    • Students should be able to use the Periodic Table to identify and model elements.
    • The STAAR Grade 8 Science Reference Materials include a Periodic Table of the elements.
    • Grade 6 students compare the physical properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids (6.6A).
  • TxCCRS:
    • VII. Chemistry – A1 – Know that physical and chemical properties can be used to describe and classify matter.
    • VII. Chemistry – C1 – Know the organization of the periodic table.
    • VII. Chemistry – C2 – Recognize the trends in physical and chemical properties as one moves across a period or vertically through a group.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 10/07/2019
Loading
Data is Loading...