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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Science
TITLE : Introduction: Processes for Scientific Investigations SUGGESTED DURATION : 1 day

Unit Overview

Introduction (describes the focus and purpose of the unit)

The Introduction IFD serves two purposes:

     1.  An introduction to the course through the lens of Overarching Understandings and the processes used to engage with and explore the content.
     2.  A guide for educators to navigate Instructional Focus Documents during instructional planning for the units of this course. (See parenthetical notes in each section.)

This unit bundles Student Expectations that allow for the establishment of science procedures, including safety and notebooking.

 

Prior to this Unit (list of TEKS in previous courses or previous units of this course that align with the content of this unit)

  • Grade 7
    • 7.1A – Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards.
    • 7.1B – Practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.
    • 7.2A – Plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology.
    • 7.2B – Design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology.
    • 7.2C – Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers.
    • 7.2D – Construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns.
    • 7.2E – Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.
    • 7.3A – Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
    • 7.3B – Use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as human body systems and plant and animal cells.
    • 7.3C – Identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials.
    • 7.3D – Relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.
    • 7.4A – Use appropriate tools, including life science models, hand lenses, stereoscopes, microscopes, beakers, Petri dishes, microscope slides, graduated cylinders, test tubes, meter sticks, metric rulers, metric tape measures, timing devices, hot plates, balances, thermometers, calculators, water test kits, computers, temperature and pH probes, collecting nets, insect traps, globes, digital cameras, journals/notebooks, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information.
    • 7.4B – Use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

 

During this Unit (an overview of the content in this unit)

Students demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards. Please refer to the TEKS Resource System Resource “Science Notebooking: A Reflective Tool for Assessing Student Understanding” (Secondary) for more information. Consider having students use scientific practices to engage in a short descriptive investigation regarding safety to begin working and thinking like a scientist and to give a purpose to begin using the science notebook.

The introduction unit is an opportunity to introduce the course through the lens of the Overarching Understandings (big ideas). Throughout the school year, students need to continually look at instances of natural phenomena through the big ideas of systems, classifications, properties, patterns, models, constancy, and change. These terms are included in Key Content Vocabulary and students should be questioned throughout each unit for instances of these big ideas. Additionally, students need to be continually aware of the processes involved in their “doing” of science.

The scientific processes are very similar throughout every science course, beginning in Kindergarten. Students may need some direct instruction on the purpose and properties of scientific processes; however, it is intended for students to develop a deep understanding of the scientific processes by using them in the context of the content of this course, throughout every unit of this course. There are no Performance Assessments or assessment items associated with the introduction.

 

Streamlining Note (a statement describing the changes in relevant TEKS in current and previous courses implemented in the 2018-2019 school year)

TEKS 8.2 Knowledge Statement replaced “inquiry methods” with “scientific practices”. 8.2B removed redundant language “comparative” which is reflected in 8.2A. 8.3A removed language for instructional time. 8.4A revised language for clarity and removed language – “and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum”. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 8 (link in System Resources below).

 

After this Unit (a statement that may describe the content that will be studied next in the course, how the content aligns with future courses, or how the content of this unit may be used in the real world)

Students will use scientific processes, safe practices, and their science notebooks throughout the year as they investigate scientific concepts and describe their findings.

 

Additional Notes

STAAR Note (a brief statement regarding STAAR or a list of TEKS that may be assessed on STAAR)

The Student Expectations in this unit support Scientific Investigation and Reasoning Skills that may be assessed on the Grade 8 Science STAAR:

  • These skills are foundational for Grade 8 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning and will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions on the Grade 8 STAAR in Reporting Categories 1-4.

 

Research (list of research-based Student Expectations that align with the TEKS of this unit)

At this level, students need to become more systematic and sophisticated in conducting their investigations, some of which may last for weeks or more. That means closing in on an understanding of what constitutes a good experiment. The concept of controlling variables is straightforward but achieving it in practice is difficult. Students can make some headway, however, by participating in enough experimental investigations (not to the exclusion, of course, of other kinds of investigations) and explicitly discussing how explanation relates to experimental design.

Student investigations ought to constitute a significant part—but only a part—of the total science experience. Systematic learning of science concepts must also have a place in the curriculum, for it is not possible for students to discover all the concepts they need to learn, or to observe all of the phenomena they need to encounter, solely through their own laboratory investigations. And even though the main purpose of student investigations is to help students learn how science works, it is important to back up such experience with selected readings. This level is a good time to introduce stories (true and fictional) of scientists making discoveries—not just world-famous scientists, but scientists of very different backgrounds, ages, cultures, places, and times.

“By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:

  • Scientists differ greatly in what phenomena they study and how they go about their work. 1B/M1a
  • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
  • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • Collaboration among investigators can often lead to research designs that are able to deal with situations where it is not possible to control all of the variables. 1B/M2c*
  • What people expect to observe often affects what they actually do observe. Strong beliefs about what should happen in particular circumstances can prevent them from detecting other results. 1B/M3ab
  • Scientists know about the danger of prior expectations to objectivity and take steps to try and avoid it when designing investigations and examining data. One safeguard is to have different investigators conduct independent studies of the same questions. 1B/M3cd”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php?chapter=1#B2.

 

Laboratory investigations are essential for the effective teaching and learning of science. A school laboratory investigation (“lab”) is an experience in the laboratory, classroom, or the field that provides students with opportunities to interact directly with natural phenomena or with data collected by others using tools, materials, data collection techniques, and models.

National Research Council (NRC). 2006. America’s lab report: Investigations in high school science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press (p. 3).

 

“Inherent in laboratory-based activities is the potential for injury. Studies show that safety in K–12 school science instruction needs immediate and significant attention.”

National Science Teachers Association. (2010) NSTA position statement: Liability of science educators for laboratory safety. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nsta.org/about/positions/liability.aspx.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

(Unit Understandings and Questions are the unit-level, topical big ideas. They represent what students should understand at the end of the unit of study. Therefore, they may be used to develop unit learning outcomes. There is a direct relationship between Unit Understandings, Concepts, Performance Assessments, and Unit Assessment Items.)

 

Following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices are the most important factors when conducting scientific investigations.

  • In what ways can we practice safety during investigations?
  • Why is it important to follow safety rules during investigations?
  • Why is it important to be concerned with the environment during scientific investigations?

 

Scientific investigations provide a reliable method for scientists to gain understanding about phenomena.

  • What is the value of scientific investigations?
  • Why is it important to follow scientific processes and procedures during investigations?

(Overarching Concepts are directly related to the Overarching Understandings, and Unit Concepts are directly related to the Unit Understandings. The list shows how the two are related.)

 

Systems

  • Scientific investigation

 

Classifications

  • Classroom
  • Outdoor
  • Descriptive
  • Comparative
  • Experimental

 

Properties

  • Plan / implement / design investigations
  • Ask questions
  • Formulate testable hypotheses
  • Select and use equipment / technology
  • Make observations
  • Collect data
  • Record data
  • Organize data
  • Analyze and interpret data
  • Examine and evaluate data
  • Make inferences from data
  • Predict trends from data
  • Formulate reasonable explanations from data
  • Communicate valid conclusions supported by data

 

Patterns

  • Investigative procedures

 

Models

  • Phenomena
  • Scientific explanations

 

Constancy

  • Safe practices
  • Conservation of resources

 

Change

  • History of science
  • Contributions of scientists
  • Society
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions: (a view or opinion that is incorrect because it is based on faulty thinking or lack of understanding)

  • Students may think there is one linear, step-by-step “scientific method”, rather than a repetition of steps in different sequences as new information is learned.
  • Students may think science answers all questions.
  • Students may think everyday substances and chemicals are not dangerous.
  • Students may think that scientific investigations are something that scientists do, rather than understanding that they can engage in scientific investigations throughout the course.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts: (an inadequate, superficial, or partial understanding of a conceptual idea or skill)

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary: (unit-specific terms, such as major content terminology that will or may be introduced to students)

  • Classifications – groups of similar things based on characteristics or properties
  • Constancy – staying the same; unchanging
  • Emergency safety equipment – equipment, such as an eye / face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher, used to take care of an emergency situation
  • Environmentally appropriate practices – to cause no harm to the environment
  • Ethical practices – doing what is right
  • Patterns – repeated sequence; arranged according to a rule or natural phenomenon; a trend in data; used to predict what comes next
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE) – equipment, such as goggles and gloves, used for protection in an investigation
  • Properties – characteristics of objects, organisms, or events
  • Science – use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process
  • System – a group of parts that work together

 

Related Vocabulary: (general terminology that may have high-yield impacts when utilized in combination with Key Content Vocabulary and may have been previously taught)

  • Analyze
  • Change
  • Collect
  • Communicate
  • Conservation
  • Construct
  • Data
  • Formulate
  • Implement
  • Investigation
  • Model
  • Plan
  • Record
  • Represent
  • Safety
  • Scientific practices
  • Tools
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Education Agency – STAAR Grade 8 Science Reference Materials

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/staar/science/ (look under Grade 8)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Safe Practices

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/scientific-investigation-and-reasoning-safe-practices

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Lab Safety Equipment

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/lab-safety-equipment

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Scientific Investigation and Reasoning

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource-index/scientific%2520investigation%2520and%2520reasoning


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
8.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
8.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment
  • Know the location of safety equipment
  • Follow classroom guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Read or study the science activity or laboratory investigation prior to conducting the investigation
      • Know and follow all safety rules prior to the investigation
      • Be alert during the laboratory time
      • Do not attempt unauthorized activities
      • If a chemical spill occurs, report it immediately and follow the instructions of the teacher
      • Keep your area clean
      • Do not enter preparatory or equipment storage rooms or chemical storerooms
      • Always wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water before leaving the laboratory
  • Use lab equipment appropriately

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, or community residents to health or property risks without their prior knowledge and consent. 1C/M5b*
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C2 – Understand and apply safe procedures in the laboratory and field, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety and safe handling of live or preserved organisms.
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
8.1B Practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.
Process Standard

Practice

APPROPRIATE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use of resources
    • Disposal of materials
      • Laboratory materials
  • Conservation of resources
    • Reuse of materials
    • Recycling of materials
      • Paper
      • Glass
      • Plastic
      • Metal

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Recycling materials and the development of substitutes for those materials can reduce the rate of depletion of resources but may also be costly. Some materials are not easily recycled. 4B/M10c*
    • The wasteful or unnecessary use of natural resources can limit their availability for other purposes. Restoring depleted soil, forests, or fishing grounds can be difficult and costly. 4B/M11a*
    • The benefits of Earth's resources—such as fresh water, air, soil, and trees—can be reduced by deliberately or inadvertently polluting them. The atmosphere, the oceans, and the land have a limited capacity to absorb and recycle waste materials. In addition, some materials take a long time to degrade. Therefore, cleaning up polluted air, water, or soil can be difficult and costly. 4B/M11bc*
8.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
8.2A Plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

COMPARATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Comparative and descriptive investigations
  • Making observations
  • Asking well defined questions
  • Using appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Comparative and descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
8.2B Design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology.
Process Standard

Design, Implement

INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Experimental
  • Making observations
  • Asking well defined questions
  • Formulating testable hypotheses
  • Using appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TEA:
    • Comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Experimental investigations involve designing a ―fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a ―controlled experiment.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – B1 – Design and conduct scientific investigations in which hypotheses are formulated and tested.
8.2C Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers.
Process Standard

Collect, Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Quantitative means
    • Using the International System of Units (SI)
  • Qualitative means
    • Labeled drawings
    • Writing
    • Graphic organizers

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.2D Construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns.
Process Standard

Construct

TABLES AND GRAPHS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using repeated trials and means
  • Organize data
  • Identify patterns

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These models of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
8.2E Analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.
Process Standard

Analyze

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Formulate reasonable explanations
    • Making claims (statements) from data
    • Providing evidence from data in order to support claims
  • Communicate valid conclusions supported by data
    • Using reasoning (argumentation) to explain or justify the claims
  • Predict trends

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as correct. 1A/M1b
8.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:
8.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
8.3B Use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature.
Process Standard

Use

MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Representing aspects of the natural world
    • An atom
    • A molecule
    • Space
    • A geologic feature
  • Possible examples may include:
    • Physical models
      • Effects of the Moon on tides
    • Conceptual models
      • Lunar cycle
      • Periodic Table
    • Mathematical models

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
8.3C Identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials.
Process Standard

Identify

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF MODELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Size
  • Scale
  • Properties
  • Materials

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • V. Cross-Disciplinary Themes – E2 – Use scale to relate models and structures.
    • VII. Chemistry – B1 – Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help understand the properties of elements and compounds.
8.3D Relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.
Process Standard

Relate

THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH ON SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • History of science
  • Contributions of scientists
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Neils Bohr (model of the atom)
      • Ernest Rutherford (model of the atom)
      • Isaac Newton (Newton’s laws of motion)
      • Alfred Wegener (continental drift)
      • Sir Francis Beaufort (weather)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C1 – Understand the historical development of major theories of science.
    • IV. Science, Technology, and Society – C2 – Recognize the role of people in important contributions to scientific knowledge.
8.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
8.4A Use appropriate tools, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information.
Process Standard

Use

APPROPRIATE TOOLS TO COLLECT, RECORD, AND ANALYZE INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lab journal / (science) notebooks
  • Beakers
  • Meter sticks
  • Graduated cylinders
  • Anemometers
  • Psychrometers
  • Hot plates
  • Test tubes
  • Spring scales
  • Balances
  • Microscopes
  • Thermometers
  • Calculators
  • Computers
  • Spectroscopes
  • Timing devices
  • Other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – D3 – Demonstrate appropriate use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.
8.4B Use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.
Process Standard

Use

SAFETY EQUIPMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Preventative safety equipment
    • Chemical splash goggles
    • Aprons
    • Gloves
  • Emergency safety equipment
    • Eye / face wash
    • Fire blanket
    • Fire extinguisher

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – C3 – Demonstrate skill in the safe use of a wide variety of apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
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ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 10/07/2019
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