Hello, Guest!
 TITLE : Unit 01: Investigating Physical Properties of Matter SUGGESTED DURATION : 22 days

#### Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles Student Expectations that examine measurable, testable, and observable physical properties of matter and how those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.

Prior to this Unit

• 3.5A – Measure, test, and record physical properties of matter, including temperature, mass, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float.
• 3.5B – Describe and classify samples of matter as solids, liquids, and gases and demonstrate that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container.
• 3.5C – Predict, observe, and record changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling such as ice becoming liquid water, condensation forming on the outside of a glass of ice water, or liquid water being heated to the point of becoming water vapor.
• 4.5A – Measure, compare, and contrast physical properties of matter, including mass, volume, states (solid, liquid, gas), temperature, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float.
• 4.5B – Compare and contrast a variety of mixtures, including solutions.
• 4.6B – Differentiate between conductors and insulators of thermal and electrical energy.
• 3.7E – Determine liquid volume (capacity) and weight using appropriate units and tools.
• 4.8C – Solve problems that deal with measurements of length, intervals of time, liquid volumes, mass, and money using addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division as appropriate.

During this Unit

Students use scientific practices and a variety of tools to investigate and classify matter by its physical properties and explore, compare, and contrast mixtures, including solutions. In order to understand the differences between mixtures and solutions (as a type of mixture), students should be provided with experiences that include the concepts of dissolving and solubility. Conceptually, students should begin to understand that substances do not simply “appear” or “disappear”. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record and organize data in their notebooks. Furthermore, students analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from their investigations and communicate valid conclusions (supported by collected data). Students continue to demonstrate safe practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards and consider environmentally appropriate practices with resources during investigations.

Other considerations: Reference the Science COVID-19 Gap Implementation Tool Grade 5.

Streamlining Note

TEKS 5.5A revised language for clarity by adding “measurable, testable, and observable” as qualifiers for physical properties; added “using water as a reference point” for relative density. 5.5B was deleted. Former 5.5C was recoded and is now 5.5B; added a “such as” example. Former 5.5D was recoded and is now 5.5C. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 5 (link in System Resources below).

After this Unit

In Unit 02, Investigating Forms of Energy, students will apply their knowledge of conductors and insulators to the study of circuits. In Grade 6, students will be introduced to new physical properties of matter that can be used for classification, including luster, malleability, hardness, and streak. Students in Grade 6 will also be introduced to evidence of chemical changes. Students’ Grade 5 understanding of physical properties of matter and mixtures provides the foundation for the middle school concepts of elements, compounds, physical changes, and chemical changes.

STAAR Note

The Grade 5 Science STAAR will directly assess Student Expectations in the following Reporting Categories:

• Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy
• 5.5B – Supporting Standard
• 5.5C – Supporting Standard

Various process standards will be dual coded with 40% of the assessed content standards.

Research

“The study of materials:

…should continue and become more systematic and quantitative. Objects and materials can be described by more sophisticated properties. Students should measure, estimate, and calculate sizes, capacities, and weights.”

“By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that:

• No matter how parts of an object are assembled, the weight of the whole object is always the same as the sum of the parts; and when an object is broken into parts, the parts have the same total weight as the original object. 4D/E2*
•  Materials may be composed of parts that are too small to be seen without magnification. 4D/E3
• When a new material is made by combining two or more materials, it has properties that are different from the original materials. 4D/E4a
• A lot of different materials can be made from a small number of basic kinds of materials. 4D/E4b*
• Substances may move from place to place, but they never appear out of nowhere and never just disappear. 4D/E5** (ASL)
• All materials have certain physical properties, such as strength, hardness, flexibility, durability, resistance to water and fire, and ease of conducting heat. 4D/E6** (SFAA)
• Collections of pieces (powders, marbles, sugar cubes, or wooden blocks) may have properties that the individual pieces do not. 4D/E7** (ASL)”

 Scientists investigate the natural world in order to understand and explain its systems. Why is it important to know and understand how the natural world works? How are the properties of systems and their components (parts) organized? How are the components (parts), processes, and patterns of systems connected?   Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are trustworthy. Why is it important to be able to trust scientists’ work? How do scientists make and support their claims? What processes help scientists investigate their claim?   Data is collected and organized in an orderly manner, and analyzed by observing patterns and relationships in order to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions. What are some ways data can be organized? How can data be used to make reasonable explanations? How do patterns help us understand the natural world?   Scientists analyze, assess, and review each other’s work using processes of scientific investigations, and build on one another’s ideas through new investigations. How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim? In what ways have scientific explanations affected scientific thinking and people over time? Why is it important to know and understand how things work and why things happen?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Matter has measurable physical properties that can be used to determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.

• In what ways do physical properties determine how matter is classified?
• In what ways do physical properties determine how matter is changed?
• In what ways do physical properties determine how matter is used?

Systems

• Matter

Classifications

• Solid
• Liquid
• Gas
• Magnetic
• Nonmagnetic
• Sink
• Float
• Soluble
• Insoluble
• Conductor
• Insulator

Properties

• Temperature
• Mass
• Volume
• Magnetism
• Relative density
• State of matter
• Definite shape
• Definite size
• Indefinite shape
• Takes shape of container
• Ability to flow
• Solubility
• Conductivity
• Capability to insulate

Models

• States of matter
• Relative density

Constancy

• Scientific investigation

Change

• Physical properties of matter
• State of matter
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Matter has measurable physical properties that can be used to determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.

• In what ways do physical properties determine how matter is classified?
• In what ways do physical properties determine how matter is used?
• In what ways can changes to physical properties occur?
• In what ways do physical properties determine how matter is changed?
• Why do physical properties of matter change in some mixtures, but not others?

Systems

• Matter

Classifications

• Mixture
• Solution

Properties

• Solubility

Models

• Mixtures
• Solubility

Constancy

• Scientific investigation
• Maintaining physical properties

Change

• Physical properties of matter
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

#### MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

• Students may think the physical property of an object changes with increased or decreased amounts of matter.
• Students may think mass and volume, which both describe an "amount of matter", are the same property.
• Students may think gases are not matter because most are invisible, rather than gases filling a space.
• Students may think all metal objects are attracted to a magnet, rather than to iron, nickel, and cobalt.
• Students may think a larger object has more mass (is heavier) than a smaller object, rather than some substances having more matter packed into a smaller  space.
• Students may think large objects always sink and small objects always float, rather than objects with a density less than water floating, and greater than water sinking.
• Students may think a solid added to water disappears into the water, rather than understanding the solid dissolves in the water (is incorporated into the liquid).
• Students may think mixtures and solutions are the same, rather than that solutions are a type of mixture.
• Students may think that solutions are harder to separate than other mixtures, rather than the ease of separation of mixtures depends on the physical properties of the mixture and the tools available.
• Students may think all solutions are composed of liquids, rather than a type of mixture in which the particles of one or more substances are uniformly dispersed, or spread out, throughout another substance.
• Students may think when a substance dissolves into a liquid, it disappears or becomes a permanent part of the liquid.

Underdeveloped Concepts:

• Students may not understand that dissolving is a different process than melting.
• Students may not understand that pure water is a good insulator because they have never likely encountered pure water (distilled water). Water solutions that students are familiar with, including tap water, bottled water, salt water, and pool water are good conductors.

#### Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

• Conductor – a substance or object that allows energy to flow through it easily
• Dissolving – the process by which substances break down into small pieces and spread evenly throughout a liquid (water)
• Electrical energy – energy that is absorbed or delivered by an electric circuit
• Gas – a state of matter in which the substance expands to take both the shape and the volume of its container
• Insulator – a substance or object that does not allow energy to flow through it easily
• Liquid – take the shape of their container, filling the bottom of the container first; has the ability to flow
• Magnetism – an attracting or repelling force that causes a magnetic material to move
• Mass – the amount of matter in something
• Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space
• Melting / freezing point – the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid or a solid to a liquid by the removal or addition of heat;
for water this temperature is 0°C
• Metric system – the decimal measuring system based on the meter, liter, and gram as units of length, volume (capacity), and weight or mass
• Mixture – a combination of two or more substances that can be easily separated in some physical way
• Physical properties – properties of matter that can be observed, measured, or changed without changing the matter itself
• Relative density – floating or sinking when compared to water
• Solid – definite shape and size
• Solubility – the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance, such as sugar dissolving in water
• Solution – a type of mixture in which the particles of one or more substances are dissolved (uniformly dispersed throughout) in another substance
• States of matter the forms matter can take, such as solid, liquid, and gas; sometimes called phases of matter
• Thermal energy – energy related to the temperature of an object or a substance

Related Vocabulary:

 Attract Chart Classify Data Float Gram Heat Magnet Magnetic Measure Model Nonmagnetic Properties Repel Sink Table Triple beam balance
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Interactive Science Glossary

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/interactive-science-glossary

TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
• A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
5.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
5.1A Demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves, as appropriate.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES

Including, but not limited to:

• Wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate
• Wearing gloves
• Washing hands
• Using materials appropriately
• Follow classroom and outdoor safety guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
• Use safety equipment appropriately

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
• TEA:
5.1B Make informed choices in the conservation, disposal, and recycling of materials.
Process Standard

Make

INFORMED CHOICES

Including, but not limited to:

• In the conservation of materials
• Fresh water
• In the disposal of materials
• Laboratory materials (e.g., proper disposal and / or reuse of investigation materials)
• In the recycling of materials
• Paper
• Aluminum
• Glass
• Cans
• Plastic

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
• Although this student expectation is labeled as a process skill, there is content on recyclable materials and conservation that could be assessed with Supporting Standard 4.7C.
5.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
5.2A Describe, plan, and implement simple experimental investigations testing one variable.
Process Standard

Describe, Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Simple experimental investigations
• Testing one variable
• Controlled experiment* – to keep all the variables in an experiment the same except for the one being tested (fair test)
• Control – the substance, object, or group in an experiment that is not changed

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
• Students may benefit from the experience of “thinking through” the steps of an experiment in order to determine a logical order for the steps.
• Although Grade 4 students have designed descriptive investigations to explore the effect of force on an object, this is the first time that students have been directly introduced to planning a “simple experimental investigation”.
• Although TEA has not issued a clarification regarding SIMPLE experimental investigations, a description of experimental investigations has been provided (see below).
• * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same.
• TEA:
• Experimental investigations involve designing a ―fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a ―controlled experiment. (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations – FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
5.2B Ask well defined questions, formulate testable hypotheses, and select and use appropriate equipment and technology.
Process Standard

QUESTIONS, HYPOTHESES, EQUIPMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY

Including, but not limited to:

• Focus for the investigation
• Testable questions vs. non-testable questions (cause and effect)
• Formulate testable hypotheses
• Testing variables
• Perform a test of how two variables might be related (cause and effect)
• A tentative relationship is stated (If…then)
• Possible example:
• If we increase the mass of the block, then it will move more quickly down the ramp.
• Cause – changing mass of the block (independent or manipulated variable)
• Effect – change in speed of the block on the ramp (dependent or responding variable)
• Analyze and interpret data
• Provide evidence to support or to refute the hypothesis
• Use reasoning to explain evidence
• Select and use appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
• According to current theory, a linear, step-by-step scientific method is no longer taught as real-world experimental methodology. For example, multiple problem-solving solutions are acceptable as well as engineering design processes.
• Students should be encouraged to learn from confirming or refuting their hypotheses, as both are valid forms of information.
5.2C Collect and record information using detailed observations and accurate measuring.
Process Standard

Collect, Record

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

• Detailed observations
• Accurate measuring (using the metric system)

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
5.2D Analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct (observable) and indirect (inferred) evidence.
Process Standard

Analyze, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

• Construct reasonable explanations
• Direct (observable) evidence
• Student investigations
• Teacher demonstrations
• Visuals such as graphs, charts, tables, illustrations, etc.
• Possible types of graphs for analysis include:
• Bar graphs
• Line graphs
• Scatterplots
• Circle graphs (without percentages)
• Dot plots
• Indirect (inferred) evidence
• Student investigations
• Teacher demonstrations
• Visuals such as graphs, charts, tables, illustrations, etc.
• Possible types of graphs for analysis include:
• Bar graphs
• Line graphs
• Scatterplots
• Circle graphs (without percentages)
• Dot plots

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
• Students may be asked to interpret data in multiple contexts, such as making predictions based on either observable or inferred evidence.
• Students may be asked to interpret data displayed from multiple perspectives (views), such as from above, side-view, cut-away, or cross-section.
• Students may benefit from experience with various visuals, such as making predictions of shadow length from a graph or other visual.
5.2F Communicate valid conclusions in both written and verbal forms.
Process Standard

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS IN BOTH WRITTEN AND VERBAL FORMS

Including, but not limited to:

• Methods of communication
• Written
• Possible examples may include:
• Written narratives
• Observational notebook entries
• Reflective notebook entries
• Creating charts, graphs, and tables
• Verbal

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
5.2G

Construct appropriate simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using technology, including computers, to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

Process Standard

Construct

GRAPHS, TABLES, AND CHARTS TO ORGANIZE, EXAMINE, AND EVALUATE INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

• Using technology
• Computers
• Appropriate graphs, tables, and charts
• Simple graphs
• Bar graphs
• Scatter plots (line graphs)
• Tables
• Charts

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
5.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:
5.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Evidence
• Logical reasoning
• Experimental and observational testing

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
5.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
5.4A

Collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, prisms, mirrors, balances, spring scales, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices; and materials to support observations of habitats or organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.

Process Standard

Collect, Record, Analyze

INFORMATION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

• Use lab equipment appropriately
• Computers
• Hand lenses
• Balances
• Beakers
• Hot plates
• Magnets
• Notebooks

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
• Students should be familiar with tools needed to investigate grade-level science content, including battery holders for creating circuits.
5.5 Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:
5.5A Classify matter based on measurable, testable, and observable physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating using water as a reference point), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy.

Classify

MATTER BASED ON MEASURABLE, TESTABLE, AND OBSERVABLE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Including, but not limited to:

• Mass – the amount of matter in something
• Magnetism – a force of attraction that causes a magnetic material to move
• Magnet – an object that attracts (pulls) iron and a few other magnetic materials, such as nickel and cobalt
• Physical states
• Solids
• Definite shape and size
• Do not take the shape of their container
• Note: Some solids may appear to flow when particles are very small (e.g., flour, sugar, salt)
• Liquids
• Take the shape of their containers, filling the bottom of the container first (e.g., water filling the bottom of a cup)
• Ability to flow
• Gases
• Expand to take the shape of their container
• May escape when container is opened (e.g., air escaping from a balloon)
• Relative density (sinking and floating using water as a reference point)
• Liquids or objects with lower density than water will float in water (A ping pong ball floats in water. The ping pong ball is less dense than water.)
• Liquids or objects with higher density than water will sink in water (A glass marble sinks in water. The marble is more dense than water.)
• Solubility in water (ability to dissolve in water)
• Dissolving (the process by which substances breakdown into small pieces and spread evenly in water)
• Possible examples of insoluble substances may include:
• Oil
• Metal
• Plastic
• Possible examples of soluble substances may include:
• Salt
• Sugar
• Honey
• The ability to conduct or insulate thermal or electric energy
• Conductor of thermal energy (compared to your skin)
• Possible examples may include:
• Metals (aluminum, copper, iron, stainless steel)
• Glass
• Insulator for thermal energy (compared to your skin)
• Possible examples may include:
• Polystyrene
• Newspaper and other types of paper
• Plastic
• Cotton fabric
• Wood
• Cellulose (home) insulation
• Air
• Conductor of electric energy (electricity)
• Possible examples may include:
• Metals (copper, aluminum, gold, silver)
• Water solutions (e.g. tap water, bottled water, salt water, pool water)
• Insulator of electric energy (electricity)
• Possible examples may include:
• Cardboard
• Glass
• Porcelain
• Plastic
• Rubber
• Pure water (distilled water)

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• When discussing solubility, ensure students have experiences with separating mixtures using filtration and evaporation. It may be helpful to point out that it is the water that evaporates, not the solution.
• When discussing gases, you may wish to mention that most gases are not visible.
• Students need to understand that if a material is not a conductor, then it is an insulator. (Students in upper grades will study conductors and insulators on a continuum where semiconductors fall in the middle.)
5.5B Demonstrate that some mixtures maintain physical properties of their ingredients such as iron filings and sand and sand and water.
Supporting Standard

Demonstrate

THAT SOME MIXTURES MAINTAIN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THEIR INGREDIENTS

Including, but not limited to:

• Mixture – a combination of two or more substances that can be separated in some physical way
• Mixtures that maintain their physical properties
• Possible examples of physical properties may include:
• Mass
• Magnetism
• Physical state (solid, liquid, gas)
• Relative density (sink / float)
• Solubility in water
• Ability to conduct thermal energy
• Ability to insulate thermal energy
• Ability to conduct electric energy
• Ability to insulate electric energy
• Possible examples of mixtures may include:
• Iron filings and sand
• Iron filings and table salt
• Lamp oil and water
• Soil and rocks
• Pens / pencils / paper clips (student supplies)
• Contents of a recycling box
• Sand and water
• Steel cans and aluminum cans
• Sand and table salt
• Sugar and tea
• Student-generated ideas

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• This is the first time students have been introduced to the concept of mixtures that maintain physical properties of their ingredients.
• Students should gain an understanding of ways to separate mixtures, such as mechanical separation, filtration, evaporation, magnetism, and difference in density (sink / float).
• Students may be asked to identify physical properties that remain the same, while other properties change.
5.5C Identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving salt in water or adding lemon juice to water.
Supporting Standard

Identify

CHANGES THAT CAN OCCUR IN THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE INGREDIENTS OF SOLUTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Changes that occur in physical properties
• Possible examples of physical properties that may change include:
• Color / appearance
• Physical state (solid, liquid, gas)
• Relative density (sink / float)
• Taste
• Mass
• Temperature
• Volume
• Dissolving – the process by which substances break down into small pieces and spread evenly in a liquid such as water
• Evaporating – the process of water changing from a liquid to water vapor by adding heat
• Examples of solutions with changes in physical properties:
• Dissolving salt in water
• Adding lemon juice in water
• Possible additional examples may include:
• Dissolving of a substance by water
• Dissolving powdered drink mix, such as Kool-Aid™ or Crystal Light™
• Dissolving sugar in tea
• Dissolving powdered tempera paint in water
• Dissolving baking soda in water
• Melting together of nickel and silver to create jewelry
• Melting together of bronze and zinc to create brass
• Evaporating water from a powdered paint solution

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• This is the first time students have been assessed on the concept of solutions that do not maintain physical properties of their ingredients. Students should understand that solutions are a type of mixture.
• Project 2061: By the end of 5th grade, students should know that:
• When a new material is made by combining two or more materials, it has properties that are different from the original materials. 4D/E4
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
5.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
5.2E Demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

REPEATED INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• May increase the reliability (consistency) of results
• Repeated trials within one investigation

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
• Student group or individual experimental investigations conducted within class investigations may be used as repeated investigations for purposes of multiple trials.
5.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:
5.3B Draw or develop a model that represents how something that cannot be seen such as the Sun, Earth, and Moon system and formation of sedimentary rock works or looks.
Process Standard

Draw, Develop

A MODEL THAT REPRESENTS HOW SOMETHING THAT CANNOT BE SEEN WORKS OR LOOKS

Including, but not limited to:

• Model – a picture, idea, or object that represents an object, a system, or a process and is used to help with understanding; models have advantages and limitations
• The Sun, Earth, and Moon system
• Formation of sedimentary rock
• Models representing
• Solar system
• Extinct animals and their environments (fossils)
• Earth processes
• Life processes (e.g., energy flow, food chains, food webs, etc.)
• Lenses
• Circuits

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.
• Students may benefit from experiences with physical, mathematical, and conceptual models.
• Students may be asked to construct reasonable explanations from direct (observable) evidence using a model.
5.3C Connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.
Process Standard

Connect

Including, but not limited to:

• Connection with
• History of science
• Possible examples may include:
• Mary Anning (fossil hunter – made her first discovery at age 11; ichthyosaur)
• Hans Lippershey (developed the earliest known telescope)
• *The Wright Brothers (credited with inventing and building the first airplane)
• Science careers
• Possible examples may include:
• Robert Ballard (oceanography, maritime archaeology)
• Ferdinand Jacob Lindheimer (botanist)
• Jane Goodall (work revolutionized the study of animal behavior)
• Contributions of scientists
• Possible examples may include:
• Elijah J. McCoy (mechanical engineer; inventor, working on steam engines)
• *Thomas Edison (inventor, contributed to the invention of the phonograph, incandescent light bulb, and typewriter)
• *Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the first practical telephone, engineer)

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• *Scientist correlates to grade level Social Studies scientists and inventors SS 5.23A.
• The process skills will be incorporated into at least 40% of the test questions and will be identified along with content standards.