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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 4 Science
TITLE : Unit 04: Investigating Force and Motion SUGGESTED DURATION : 7 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles Student Expectations that address the effect of force on an object. Applying a force causes a change in the position and motion of objects.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Kindergarten
    • K.6B – Explore interactions between magnets and various materials.
    • K.6C – Observe and describe the location of an object in relation to another such as above, below, behind, in front of, and beside.
    • K.6D – Observe and describe the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zigzag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.
  • Grade 1
    • 1.6B – Predict and describe how a magnet can be used to push or pull an object.
    • 1.6C – Demonstrate and record the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zig zag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.
  • Grade 2
    • 2.6B – Observe and identify how magnets are used in everyday life.
    • 2.6C – Trace and compare patterns of movement of objects such as sliding, rolling, and spinning over time.
  • Grade 3
    • 3.6B – Demonstrate and observe how position and motion can be changed by pushing and pulling objects such as swings, balls, and wagons.
    • 3.6C – Observe forces such as magnetism and gravity acting on objects.

 

During this Unit

Students demonstrate safe practices as outlined in the Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards while designing a descriptive investigation to explore the effect of force on an object such as a push or pull, gravity, friction, or magnetism. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record data in their notebooks. Furthermore, students consider environmentally appropriate and ethical practices with resources during investigations.

 

Streamlining Note

TEKS 4.6D revised to include a descriptive investigation vs. an experimental investigation in order to align to 4.2A. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 4 (link in System Resources below).

 

After this Unit
In Grade 5, students will design a simple experimental investigation that tests the effect of force on an object.

 

Additional Notes

STAAR Note

The Student Expectations in this unit are foundational to Student Expectations that will be directly assessed on the Grade 5 Science STAAR in the following Reporting Categories:

  • Reporting Category 2: Force, Motion, and Energy
    • 5.6D – Supporting Standard

 

Research

“Students should continue describing motion. And they can be more experimental and more quantitative as their measurement skills sharpen…They also can work out for themselves some of the general relationships between force and change of motion and internalize the notion of force as a push or pull of one thing on another—whether rubber bands, magnets…”

 

“By the end of 5th grade, students should know that:

  • Changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by forces. 4F/E1a
  • The greater the force is, the greater the change in motion will be. The more massive an object is, the less effect a given force will have. 4F/E1bc
  • How fast things move differs greatly. Some things are so slow that their journey takes a long time; others move too fast for people to even see them. 4F/E2”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php?chapter=4#F2.

 

The main notion to convey here is that forces can act at a distance. Students should carry out investigations to become familiar with the pushes and pulls of magnets. The term gravity may interfere with students' understanding because it often is used as an empty label for the common (and ancient) notion of "natural motion" toward the earth. The important point is that the earth pulls on objects.

 

“By the end of 5th grade, students should know that:

  • The earth's gravity pulls any object on or near the earth toward it without touching it. 4G/E1*
  • Without touching them, a magnet pulls on all things made of iron and either pushes or pulls on other magnets. 4G/E2

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php?chapter=4#G2.


Scientists investigate the natural world in order to understand and explain its systems.

  • Why is it important to know and understand how the natural world works?
  • How are the components (parts), processes, and patterns of systems connected?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are trustworthy.

  • Why is it important to be able to trust scientists’ work?
  • How do scientists make and support their claims?
  • What processes help scientists investigate their claim?

 

Data is collected and organized in an orderly manner, and analyzed by observing patterns and relationships in order to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What are some ways data can be organized?
  • How can data be used to make reasonable explanations?

 

Scientists analyze, assess, and review each other’s work using processes of scientific investigations, and build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • Why is it important to know and understand how things work and why things happen?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Applying a force causes a change in the position and motion of objects.

  • In what ways can force affect objects?
  • In what ways can we explore how force affects objects?

Systems

  • Force and motion

 

Properties

  • Push
  • Pull

 

Change

  • Motion
  • Position
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think objects only move when an organism applies force, rather than a variety of forces affecting the motion of objects.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may think the location of an object can be described by stating its distance from a given point, ignoring direction.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Force – a push or pull that can change the position or motion of an object / material
  • Friction – a force that acts in an opposite direction to movement
  • Gravity – the force that pulls objects toward each other
  • Magnetism – a force of attraction that causes a magnetic material to move
  • Motion – a change in the position of an object
  • Pull – the act of applying force to move something toward or with you
  • Push – the act of applying force in order to move something away

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Attract
  • Change
  • Direction
  • Magnet
  • Magnetic
  • Position
  • Repel
  • Rest
  • System
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – State Training: Science Academies: K – 4, Lessons: “Electrifying Energy” and “Effects of Force”

Contact your supporting Education Service Center for more information.

 

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Interactive Science Glossary

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/interactive-science-glossary


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
4.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations, following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
4.1A Demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves, as appropriate.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate
  • Wearing gloves
  • Washing hands
  • Using materials appropriately
  • Follow classroom and outdoor safety guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
  • Use safety equipment appropriately

Note(s):

4.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
4.2A Plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking well defined questions, making inferences, and selecting and using appropriate equipment or technology to answer his/her questions.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Descriptive investigations
  • Asking well defined questions
    • Focus for the investigation
  • Making inferences
    • Possible proficiencies may include:
      • Making claims
      • Providing evidence to support the claim
      • Using reasoning to explain the evidence
  • Selecting and using appropriate equipment or technology

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
4.2B Collect and record data by observing and measuring, using the metric system, and using descriptive words and numerals such as labeled drawings, writing, and concept maps.
Process Standard

Collect, Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observing
  • Measuring (using the metric system)
  • Using descriptive words and numerals
    • Labeled drawings
    • Writing
    • Concept maps
4.2C

Construct simple tables, charts, bar graphs, and maps using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate data.


Process Standard

Construct

TABLES, CHARTS, BAR GRAPHS TO ORGANIZE, EXAMINE, AND EVALUATE DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using tools and current technology
    • Computers
  • Simple tables
  • Charts
  • Bar graphs
4.2D Analyze data and interpret patterns to construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured.
Process Standard

Analyze

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Student investigations
  • Teacher demonstrations
  • Visuals such as graphs, charts, tables, illustrations, etc.
    • Possible types of graphs for analysis include:
      • Bar graphs
      • Line graphs
      • Circle graphs (without percentages)
      • Dot plots

Interpret

PATTERNS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Predictions based on data

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Grade 5 students may be asked to make predictions based on either observable or inferred evidence of Grade 4 concepts, such as making predictions of shadow length from a graph or other visual (4.8C / 5.2D).
4.2E Perform repeated investigations to increase the reliability of results.
Process Standard

Perform

REPEATED INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • May increase the reliability (consistency) of results
  • Repeated trials within one investigation

Note(s):

  • Student group or individual investigations conducted within class may be used as repeated investigations for purposes of multiple trials.
4.2F Communicate valid oral and written results supported by data.
Process Standard

Communicate

VALID RESULTS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Methods of communication
    • Oral
    • Written
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Written narratives
        • Observational notebook entries
        • Reflective notebook entries
        • Creating charts, graphs, and tables
4.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:
4.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Evidence
  • Logical reasoning
  • Experimental and observational testing
4.3C Connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.
Process Standard

Connect

GRADE-LEVEL APPROPRIATE SCIENCE CONCEPTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Connection with
    • History of science
    • Science careers
    • Contributions of scientists
4.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools, materials, equipment, and models to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
4.4A

Collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, mirrors, spring scales, balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.


Process Standard

Collect, Record, Analyze

INFORMATION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use lab equipment appropriately
    • Cameras
    • Computers
    • Metric rulers
    • Spring scales
    • Balances
    • Meter sticks
    • Magnets
    • Notebooks
    • Timing devices
4.6 Force, motion, and energy. . The student knows that energy exists in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:
4.6D Design a descriptive investigation to explore the effect of force on an object such as a push or a pull, gravity, friction, or magnetism.

Design

A DESCRIPTIVE INVESTIGATION TO EXPLORE THE EFFECT OF FORCE ON AN OBJECT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Force – a push or a pull that can change the position or motion of an object / material
  • Pushing
  • Pulling
  • Possible examples of tools to use in descriptive investigation design:
    • Spring scale
    • Meter sticks
    • Metric rulers
    • Calculators
    • Timing devices
    • Magnets
    • Objects (rope, ball, wagon, etc.)
  • Gravity – a force that pulls objects toward each other
    • Possible examples of tools to use in descriptive investigation design:
      • Timing devices
      • Pan or triple beam balance
      • Meter sticks
      • Metric rulers
      • Toy cars
      • Ramp
  • Friction – a force that acts in an opposite direction to movement
    • Example:
      • Friction is a force that holds back the movement of a sliding object, such as a skate board rolling on rough pavement
    • Possible examples of materials to use in descriptive investigation design:
      • Wood
      • Carpet
      • Sandpaper
      • Glass
      • Tile
      • Pan or triple beam balance
      • Meter sticks
      • Metric rulers
      • Toy cars
      • Ramp
  • Magnetism – a force of attraction that causes a magnetic material to move
    • Possible examples of tools to use in descriptive investigation design:
      • Metric ruler
      • Magnets (different types and strengths)
      • Objects (magnetic and non-magnetic)

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Although not identified as a Supporting Standard, this student expectation builds the foundation for the content of Supporting Standard 5.6D.
  • TEA:
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 10/07/2019
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