Hello, Guest!
 TITLE : Unit 01: Investigating Physical Properties of Matter SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

#### Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles Student Expectations that address physical properties of matter and how those properties are used to determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.

Prior to this Unit

• 3.5A – Measure, test, and record physical properties of matter, including temperature, mass, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float.
• 3.5B – Describe and classify samples of matter as solids, liquids, and gases and demonstrate that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container.
• 3.5C – Predict, observe, and record changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling such as ice becoming liquid water, condensation forming on the outside of a glass of ice water, or liquid water being heated to the point of becoming water vapor.
• 3.7E – Determine liquid volume (capacity) and weight using appropriate units and tools.

During this Unit

Students use scientific practices and a variety of tools to investigate, measure, compare, and contrast physical properties of matter. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record and organize data in their notebooks. Furthermore, students analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from their investigations and communicate valid conclusions (supported by collected data). Students continue to demonstrate safe practices as outlined in the Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards and consider environmentally appropriate practices with resources during investigations.

One of the challenges of this unit is the mathematics associated with volume. In order to provide purposeful scaffolding, students in Grade 4 Science should only measure liquid volume (capacity) and only work with volume of a solid in a conceptual format. The mathematical calculation of V = l x w x h is not introduced until Grade 5 Mathematics. Another challenge of this unit involves the concept of density and buoyancy. Students should be provided with experiences in which they will make informal observations about an object’s ability to sink or float. The academic science vocabulary terms density and buoyancy should not be formally taught or assessed in Grade 4.

Other considerations: Reference the Science COVID-19 Gap Implementation Tool Grade 4.

Streamlining Note

TEKS 4.5A removed “size” due to redundancy from lower grade levels.

After this Unit

In Unit 02, Investigating Mixtures, students will apply their knowledge of physical properties to compare and contrast a variety of mixtures, including solutions. In Grade 5, students will classify matter based on physical properties and investigate mixtures and solutions.

STAAR Note

The Student Expectations in this unit support the understandings that will be assessed on the Grade 5 Science STAAR under the following Reporting Categories:

• Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy

Various process standards will be dual coded with 40% of the assessed content standards.

Research

“The study of materials:

…should continue and become more systematic and quantitative. Objects and materials can be described by more sophisticated properties. Students should measure, estimate, and calculate sizes, capacities, and weights.”

“By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that:

• Materials may be composed of parts that are too small to be seen without magnification. 4D/E3
• All materials have certain physical properties, such as strength, hardness, flexibility, durability, resistance to water and fire, and ease of conducting heat. 4D/E6** (SFAA)”

 Scientists investigate the natural world in order to understand and explain its systems. Why is it important to know and understand how the natural world works? How are the properties of systems and their components (parts) organized? How are the components (parts), processes, and patterns of systems connected?   Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are trustworthy. Why is it important to be able to trust scientists’ work? How do scientists make and support their claims? What processes help scientists investigate their claim?   Data is collected and organized in an orderly manner, and analyzed by observing patterns and relationships in order to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions. What are some ways data can be organized? How can data be used to make reasonable explanations? How do patterns help us understand the natural world?   Scientists analyze, assess, and review each other’s work using processes of scientific investigations, and build on one another’s ideas through new investigations. How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim? In what ways have scientific explanations affected scientific thinking and people over time? Why is it important to know and understand how things work and why things happen?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Matter has measurable physical properties that can be used to determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.

• In what ways are physical properties used for the classification of matter?
• In what ways do physical properties determine how matter is changed?
• In what ways do physical properties determine how matter is used?

Systems

• Matter

Classifications

• Solid
• Liquid
• Gas
• Magnetic
• Non-magnetic
• Sink
• Float

Properties

• Temperature
• Mass
• Volume
• Magnetism
• Relative density
• State of matter
• Definite shape
• Definite size
• Indefinite shape
• Takes shape of container
• Ability to flow

Models

• States of matter
• Relative density

Constancy

• Scientific investigation

Change

• Physical properties
• State of matter
• Thermal energy
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

#### MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

• Students may think measurement is only linear, rather than being able to measure different physical properties.
• Students may think temperature is a property of a particular material or object, rather than all substances having a temperature. (Metal naturally feels colder than plastic to most students.)
• Students may think mass and weight are the same, rather understanding than mass is a measurement of how much matter is in an object and weight is a measurement of how hard gravity is pulling on that object.
• Students may think a larger object has more mass (is heavier) than a smaller object, rather than some substances having more matter packed into a smaller space.
• Students may think all metal objects are attracted to a magnet, rather than to iron, nickel, and cobalt.
• Students may think all large objects sink and all small objects float, rather than objects with a density less than water floating, and greater than water sinking.
• Students may think objects containing air always float, rather than objects with a density less than water floating, and greater than water sinking.
• Students may think gases are not matter because most are invisible, rather than gases filling a space.

#### Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

• Gas – a state of matter in which the substance expands to take both the shape and the volume of its container
• Graduated cylinder – a container with measured markings used to measure the volume of liquids
• Liquid – take the shape of their container, filling the bottom of the container first; has the ability to flow
• Magnetism – an attracting or repelling force that causes a magnetic material to move
• Mass – the amount of matter in something
• Matter – a substance that has mass and takes up space
• Metric system – the decimal measuring system based on the meter, liter, and gram as units of length, volume (capacity), and weight or mass
• Physical property – a property that can be observed, measured, or changed without changing the matter itself
• Solid – definite shape and size
• States of matter – the forms matter can take, such as solid, liquid, and gas; sometimes called phases of matter
• Temperature – a way of measuring how hot or cold something is; temperature is measured using either the Fahrenheit (F) or Celsius (C) scale
• Triple beam balance – a tool used to measure masses very precisely
• Volume – the amount of space that a substance or object takes up

Related Vocabulary:

 Attract Chart Classify Data Degrees Float Gram Liter Magnet Nonmagnetic Measure Milliliter Model Properties Sink Repel Table Thermal energy Thermometer
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Interactive Science Glossary

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/interactive-science-glossary

TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
• A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
4.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations, following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
4.1A Demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves, as appropriate.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES

Including, but not limited to:

• Wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate
• Wearing gloves
• Washing hands
• Using materials appropriately
• Follow classroom and outdoor safety guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
• Use safety equipment appropriately

Note(s):

4.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
4.2A Plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking well defined questions, making inferences, and selecting and using appropriate equipment or technology to answer his/her questions.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Descriptive investigations
• Focus for the investigation
• Making inferences
• Possible proficiencies may include:
• Making claims
• Providing evidence to support the claim
• Using reasoning to explain the evidence
• Selecting and using appropriate equipment or technology

Note(s):

• TEA:
• Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
4.2B Collect and record data by observing and measuring, using the metric system, and using descriptive words and numerals such as labeled drawings, writing, and concept maps.
Process Standard

Collect, Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Observing
• Measuring (using the metric system)
• Using descriptive words and numerals
• Labeled drawings
• Writing
• Concept maps
4.2C

Construct simple tables, charts, bar graphs, and maps using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

Process Standard

Construct

TABLES, CHARTS, BAR GRAPHS TO ORGANIZE, EXAMINE, AND EVALUATE DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Using tools and current technology
• Computers
• Simple tables
• Charts
• Bar graphs
4.2D Analyze data and interpret patterns to construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured.
Process Standard

Analyze

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Student investigations
• Teacher demonstrations
• Visuals such as graphs, charts, tables, illustrations, etc.
• Possible types of graphs for analysis include:
• Bar graphs
• Line graphs
• Circle graphs (without percentages)
• Dot plots

Interpret

PATTERNS

Including, but not limited to:

• Construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• Grade 5 students may be asked to make predictions based on either observable or inferred evidence of Grade 4 concepts, such as making predictions of shadow length from a graph or other visual (4.8C / 5.2D).
4.2E Perform repeated investigations to increase the reliability of results.
Process Standard

Perform

REPEATED INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• May increase the reliability (consistency) of results
• Repeated trials within one investigation

Note(s):

• Student group or individual investigations conducted within class may be used as repeated investigations for purposes of multiple trials.
4.2F Communicate valid oral and written results supported by data.
Process Standard

Communicate

VALID RESULTS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Methods of communication
• Oral
• Written
• Possible examples may include:
• Written narratives
• Observational notebook entries
• Reflective notebook entries
• Creating charts, graphs, and tables
4.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:
4.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Evidence
• Logical reasoning
• Experimental and observational testing
4.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools, materials, equipment, and models to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
4.4A

Collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, mirrors, spring scales, balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.

Process Standard

Collect, Record, Analyze

INFORMATION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

• Use lab equipment appropriately
• Cameras
• Computers
• Hand lenses
• Celsius thermometers
• Balances
• Beakers
• Magnets
• Notebooks

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• Students should be familiar with tools needed to investigate grade-level science content.
4.5 Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:
4.5A Measure, compare, and contrast physical properties of matter, including mass, volume, states (solid, liquid, gas), temperature, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float.

Measure, Compare, Contrast

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

Including, but not limited to:

• Mass – the amount of matter in something
• Volume – the amount of space that a substance or object takes up
• Physical states
• Solids
• Definite shape and size
• Do not take the shape of their containers
• Note: Some solids may appear to flow when particles are very small (e.g., flour, sugar, salt)
• Liquids
• Take the shape of their containers, filling the bottom of the container first (e.g., water filling the bottom of a cup)
• Ability to flow
• Gases
• Expand to take the shape of their containers
• May escape when container is opened (e.g., air escaping from a balloon)
• Temperature (a way of measuring how hot or cold something is)
• Temperature is measured using either the Fahrenheit (F) or Celsius (C) scale
• Magnetism – an attracting or repelling force that causes a magnetic material to move
• Magnet – an object that attracts (pulls) iron and a few other magnetic materials, such as nickel and cobalt; can push (repel) or pull (attract) objects
• Ability to sink or float in water

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• Although not identified as a Supporting Standard, this is the first time the terminology “state of matter” is formally used to describe matter. This physical property will be used to classify in the Readiness Standard 5.5A.
• When discussing ability to sink or float, it should be in terms of relative density as mirrored in 5.5A.
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
4.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations, following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
4.1B Make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources and reusing and recycling of materials such as paper, aluminum, glass, cans, and plastic.
Process Standard

Make

INFORMED CHOICES

Including, but not limited to:

• In the use of natural resources
• Fresh water
• Air
• Plants
• Animals
• Fossil fuels
• Soil
• In the conservation of natural resources
• Fresh water
• Air
• Plants
• Animals
• Fossil fuels
• Soil
• In the reusing and recycling of materials
• Paper
• Aluminum
• Glass
• Cans
• Plastic
4.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:
4.3B Represent the natural world using models such as the water cycle and stream tables and identify their limitations, including accuracy and size.
Process Standard

Represent

THE NATURAL WORLD

Including, but not limited to:

• Model – a picture, idea, or object that represents an object, a system, or a process and is used to help with understanding; models have advantages and limitations
• Using models
• Water cycle
• Stream tables
• Models representing
• Weather processes (e.g., weather systems)
• Earth and space processes (e.g., shadows, seasons, patterns of the Moon, etc.)
• Food webs
• Identifying limitations
• Accuracy
• Size
4.3C Connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.
Process Standard

Connect

Including, but not limited to:

• Connection with
• History of science
• Possible examples may include:
• Louis Agassiz (paleontologist, geologist, glaciologist)
• *Gail Borden (inventor of condensed milk)
• Science careers
• Possible examples may include:
• *Millie Hughes-Fulford (astronaut)
• George Washington Carver (botanist, inventor, soil scientist)
• Contributions of scientists
• Possible examples may include:
• Nikola Tesla (physicist, inventor, mechanical and electrical engineer)
• James Hutton (“Father of Geology”, the Earth’s surface is slowly weathering and rebuilding)
• Lewis Latimer (inventor, helped Alexander Bell and designed improvements to Edison’s light bulb)

Note(s):

• *Scientist correlates to grade level Social Studies scientists and inventors SS 4.20A.