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 TITLE : Unit 03: Investigating Force and Motion SUGGESTED DURATION : 11 days

#### Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles Student Expectations that address force and motion. Applying a force causes a change in the position and motion of objects.

Prior to this Unit

• Kindergarten
• K.6B – Explore interactions between magnets and various materials.
• K.6C – Observe and describe the location of an object in relation to another such as above, below, behind, in front of, and beside.
• K.6D – Observe and describe the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zigzag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.
• 1.6B – Predict and describe how a magnet can be used to push or pull an object.
• 1.6C – Demonstrate and record the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zig zag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.
• 2.6B – Observe and identify how magnets are used in everyday life.
• 2.6C – Trace and compare patterns of movement of objects such as sliding, rolling, and spinning over time.

During this Unit

Students demonstrate safe practices as outlined in the Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards while engaging in descriptive investigations to explore how forces can change the position and motion of an object, including pushes, pulls, magnetism, and gravity. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record data in their notebooks. Furthermore, students consider environmentally appropriate and responsible practices with resources during investigations.

Other considerations: Reference the Science COVID-19 Gap Implementation Tool Grade 3.

Streamlining Note

TEKS 3.6B removed pulleys and work. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 3 (link in System Resources below).

After this Unit

In Grade 4, students will design a descriptive investigation to explore the effects of force on an object.

STAAR Note

The Grade 5 Science STAAR will directly assess Student Expectations in the following Reporting Categories:

• Reporting Category 2: Force, Motion, and Energy
• 3.6B – Supporting Standard
• 5.6D – Supporting Standard

Research

“Students should continue describing motion. And they can be more experimental and more quantitative as their measurement skills sharpen…They also can work out for themselves some of the general relationships between force and change of motion and internalize the notion of force as a push or pull of one thing on another—whether rubber bands, magnets…”

“By the end of 5th grade, students should know that:

• Changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by forces. 4F/E1a
• The greater the force is, the greater the change in motion will be. The more massive an object is, the less effect a given force will have. 4F/E1bc
• How fast things move differs greatly. Some things are so slow that their journey takes a long time; others move too fast for people to even see them.” 4F/E2

The main notion to convey here is that forces can act at a distance. Students should carry out investigations to become familiar with the pushes and pulls of magnets. The term gravity may interfere with students' understanding because it often is used as an empty label for the common (and ancient) notion of "natural motion" toward the earth. The important point is that the earth pulls on objects.

“By the end of 5th grade, students should know that:

• The earth's gravity pulls any object on or near the earth toward it without touching it. 4G/E1*
• Without touching them, a magnet pulls on all things made of iron and either pushes or pulls on other magnets.” 4G/E2

 Scientists investigate the natural world in order to understand and explain its systems. Why is it important to know and understand how the natural world works? How are the components (parts), processes, and patterns of systems connected?   Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are trustworthy. Why is it important to be able to trust scientists’ work? How do scientists make and support their claims? What processes help scientists investigate their claim?   Data is collected and organized in an orderly manner, and analyzed by observing patterns and relationships in order to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions. What are some ways data can be organized? How can data be used to make reasonable explanations?   Scientists analyze, assess, and review each other’s work using processes of scientific investigations, and build on one another’s ideas through new investigations. How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim? Why is it important to know and understand how things work and why things happen?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Applying a force causes a change in the position and motion of objects.

• In what ways can force affect objects?

Systems

• Force and motion

Classification

• Magnetism
• Gravity
• Mechanical

Properties

• Push
• Pull

Change

• Motion
• Position
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

#### MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

• Students may think objects only move when an organism applies force, rather than a variety of forces affecting the motion of objects.

Underdeveloped Concepts:

• Students may think the location of an object can be described by stating its distance from a given point, ignoring direction.
• Students may think that if an object is at rest, no forces are acting on the object, rather than that the Earth’s gravitational pull is exerting a force on the (still) object.

#### Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

• Attract – to cause to draw near or adhere (stick together) by physical force
• Force – a push or pull that can change the position or motion of an object / material
• Gravity – a force that pulls objects toward each other
• Magnetism – a force of attraction that causes a magnetic material to move
• Motion – a change in the position of an object
• Position – the place where something is located; where something has been put
• Pull – the act of applying force to move something toward or with you
• Push – the act of applying force in order to move something away
• Repel – to present an opposing force to; push back or away by a force

Related Vocabulary:

 Change Direction Magnet Magnetic Rest Source System
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – State Training: Science Academies: K - 4 Lessons: “Forces at Work”

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Forces at Work

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/forces-work

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Interactive Science Glossary

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/interactive-science-glossary

TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
• A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
3.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate practices. The student is expected to:
3.1A Demonstrate safe practices as described in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES

Including, but not limited to:

• Wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate
• Wearing gloves
• Washing hands
• Using materials appropriately
• Follow classroom and outdoor safety guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
• Use safety equipment appropriately

Note(s):

3.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
3.2A Plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking and answering questions, making inferences, and selecting and using equipment or technology needed, to solve a specific problem in the natural world.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Descriptive investigations
• Focus for the investigation
• Making inferences
• Possible proficiencies may include:
• Making claims
• Providing evidence to support the claim
• Using reasoning to explain the evidence
• Selecting and using equipment / technology

Note(s):

• TEA:
• Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
3.2B Collect and record data by observing and measuring using the metric system and recognize differences between observed and measured data.
Process Standard

Collect, Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Observing
• Measuring (using the metric system)
• Recognizing differences between observed and measured data
3.2D Analyze and interpret patterns in data to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from investigations.
Process Standard

Analyze, Interpret

PATTERNS IN DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Student investigations
• Teacher demonstrations
• Visuals such as graphs, charts, tables, illustrations, etc.
• Possible types of graphs for analysis include:
• Bar graphs
• Dot plots
• Pictographs

Construct

REASONABLE EXPLANATIONS BASED ON EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

• Information from investigations
• Making claims
• Providing evidence to support the claim
• Using reasoning to explain the evidence
• Data from investigations
• Numerical
• Visual
• Written

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• Grade 5 students may be asked to make predictions based on evidence of Grade 3 concepts, such as making predictions of the effect of pushing and pulling on objects from a visual such as an illustration (3.6B / 5.2D).
3.2F Communicate valid conclusions supported by data in writing, by drawing pictures, and through verbal discussion.
Process Standard

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Methods of communication
• In writing
• Possible examples may include:
• Written narratives
• Observational notebook entries
• Reflective notebook entries
• Creating charts, graphs, and tables
• By drawing pictures
• Through verbal discussions
3.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information, critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:
3.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Evidence
• Logical reasoning
• Experimental and observational testing
3.3B

Represent the natural world using models such as volcanoes or the Sun, Earth, and Moon system and identify their limitations, including size, properties, and materials.

Process Standard

Represent

THE NATURAL WORLD

Including, but not limited to:

• Model – a picture, idea, or object that represents an object, a system, or process and is used to help with understanding; models have advantages and limitations
• Using models
• Identifying limitations
• Size
• Properties
• Materials
• Relative distance
3.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
3.4A

Collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, wind vanes, rain gauges, pan balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, spring scales, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and Sun, Earth, and Moon system models; timing devices; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.

Process Standard

Collect, Record, Analyze

INFORMATION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

• Use lab equipment appropriately
• Computers
• Metric rulers
• Spring scales
• Meter sticks
• Magnets
• Notebooks
3.6 Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and that energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:
3.6B Demonstrate and observe how position and motion can be changed by pushing and pulling objects such as swings, balls, and wagons.
Supporting Standard

Demonstrate, Observe

POSITION AND MOTION CAN BE CHANGED

Including, but not limited to:

• By pushing and pulling objects (including the attracting and repelling forces of a magnet)
• Swings
• Balls
• Wagons
• Toy cars
• Motion
• Round-and-round, spinning
• Straight line
• Back and forth, up and down
• Side to side, zigzag
• Position
• Above
• Below
• Behind
• Beside
• Between
• In front of

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• Grade 5 students may be asked to predict the direction of the motion of an object after a force is applied (3.6B / 5.2D). It may be helpful to have students draw arrows to indicate directional movement.
• Grade 5 students may be asked to identify the position or location of an object using cardinal directions.
3.6C Observe forces such as magnetism and gravity acting on objects.

Observe

FORCES ACTING ON OBJECTS

Including, but not limited to:

• Force – a push or a pull that can change the position or motion of an object / material
• Magnetism – a force of attraction that causes a magnetic material to move
• Gravity – a force that pulls objects toward each other
• Examples:
• Gravity causes objects to fall toward the center of the Earth
• The pull of gravity holds planets in their orbits around the Sun

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• Although not identified as a Supporting Standard, this student expectation builds the foundation for the content of Supporting Standard 5.6D.
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
3.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate practices. The student is expected to:
3.1B Make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources by recycling or reusing materials such as paper, aluminum cans, and plastics.
Process Standard

Make

INFORMED CHOICES

Including, but not limited to:

• In the use of natural resources
• Fresh water
• Air
• Plants
• Animals
• In the conservation of natural resources
• Reuse or recycling
• Paper
• Aluminum cans
• Plastics
3.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
3.2C Construct maps, graphic organizers, simple tables, charts, and bar graphs using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate measured data.
Process Standard

Construct

MAPS, GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS, TABLES, CHARTS, AND BAR GRAPHS TO ORGANIZE, EXAMINE, AND EVALUATE MEASURED DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Using tools and current technology
• Computers
• Maps
• Graphic organizers
• Simple tables
• Charts
• Bar graphs
3.2E Demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

REPEATED INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• May increase the reliability (consistency) of results
• Repeated trials within one investigation

Note(s):

• Student group or individual investigations conducted within class may be used as repeated investigations for purposes of multiple trials.
3.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information, critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:
3.3C Connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.
Process Standard

Connect

Including, but not limited to:

• Connection with
• History of science
• Possible examples may include:
• *Louis Pasteur (microbiologist, created the first vaccines for rabies and invented the method to stop milk from causing sickness)
• Cyrus McCormick (inventor, helped develop a better crop harvester)
• Science careers
• Possible example may include:
• Alexander von Humboldt (the “Father of Ecology”)
• Contributions of scientists
• Possible examples may include:
• Beatrix Potter (natural scientist, conservationist)
• Anders Celsius (invented the temperature scale Celsius)
• *Benjamin Franklin (scientist, inventor)

Note(s):

• *Scientist correlates to grade level Social Studies scientists and inventors SS 3.1B and 3.16A.