Hello, Guest!

Instructional Focus Document
Grade 3 Science
TITLE : Unit 02: Investigating Energy SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles Student Expectations that address forms of energy. Forms of energy are classified by their characteristics, and each is useful in everyday life.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Kindergarten
    • K.6A – Use the five senses to explore different forms of energy such as light, heat, and sound.
  • Grade 1
    • 1.6A – Identify and discuss how different forms of energy such as light, heat, and sound are important to everyday life.
  • Grade 2
    • 2.6A – Investigate the effects on objects by increasing or decreasing amounts of light, heat, and sound energy such as how the color of an object appears different in dimmer light or how heat melts butter.

 

During this Unit

Students demonstrate safe practices as outlined in the Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards while engaging in descriptive investigations to explore different forms of energy, including mechanical, sound, light, and thermal, as they are used in everyday life. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record data in their notebooks. Furthermore, students consider environmentally appropriate and responsible practices with resources during investigations.

At this age, students do not formally understand the concept of energy as the ability to cause change or do work. It is important to relate the idea that mechanical, light, sound, and thermal energy can cause a change and are useful in everyday life.

 

Streamlining Note

TEKS 3.6A replaced “heat” with “thermal”. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 3 (link in System Resources below).

 

After this Unit
Students in Grade 4 will differentiate among forms of energy, including mechanical, sound, electrical, light, and heat / thermal.

 

Additional Notes

STAAR Note

The Student Expectations in this unit are foundational to Student Expectations that will be directly assessed on the Grade 5 Science STAAR in the following Reporting Categories:

  • Reporting Category 2: Force, Motion, and Energy
    • 5.6A – Readiness Standard

 

Research

“Energy is a complex concept that is difficult for students to understand. Students cannot hold it in their hands and, with the exception of light, they cannot see it. Nonetheless, they have intuitive notions of energy – for example, energy is needed to get things done; humans get energy from food. By experimenting with light, heat, electricity, magnetism, and sound, students begin to understand that phenomena can be observed, measured, and controlled in various ways.”

NationalAcademy of Science (1996). National science education standards. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=4962&page=126.

 

Investing much time and effort in developing formal energy concepts can wait. The importance of energy, after all, is that it is a useful idea. It helps make sense out of a very large number of things that go on in the physical and biological and engineering worlds. But until students have reached a certain point in their understanding of bits and pieces of the world, they gain little by having such a tool. It is a matter of timing.

The one aspect of the energy story in which students of this age can make some headway is heat, which is produced almost everywhere. In their science and technology activities during these years, students should be alerted to look for things and processes that give off heat—lights, radios, television sets, the sun, sawing wood, polishing surfaces, bending things, running motors, people, animals, etc.—and then for those that seem not to give off heat. Also, the time is appropriate to explore how heat spreads from one place to another and what can be done to contain it or shield things from it.

Students' ideas of heat have many wrinkles. In some situations, cold is thought to be transferred rather than heat. Some materials may be thought to be intrinsically warm (blankets) or cold (metals). Objects that keep things warm—such as a sweater or mittens—may be thought to be sources of heat. Only a continuing mix of experiment and discussion is likely to dispel these ideas.

Students need not come out of this grade span understanding heat or its difference from temperature. In this spirit, there is little to be gained by having youngsters refer to heat as heat energy. More important, students should become familiar with the warming of objects that start out cooler than their environment, and vice versa. Computer labware probes and graphic displays that detect small changes in temperature and plot them can be used by students to examine many instances of heat exchange. Because many students think of cold as a substance that spreads like heat, there may be some advantage in translating descriptions of transfer of cold into terms of transfer of heat.

 

“By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that:

  • When two objects are rubbed against each other, they both get warmer. In addition, many mechanical and electrical devices get warmer when they are used. 4E/E1*
  • When warmer things are put with cooler ones, the warmer things get cooler and the cooler things get warmer until they all are the same temperature. 4E/E2a*
  • When warmer things are put with cooler ones, heat is transferred from the warmer ones to the cooler ones. 4E/E2b*
  • A warmer object can warm a cooler one by contact or at a distance. 4E/E2c”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php?chapter=4#E2.


Scientists investigate the natural world in order to understand and explain its systems.

  • Why is it important to know and understand how the natural world works?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components (parts) organized?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are trustworthy.

  • How do scientists make and support their claims?
  • What processes help scientists investigate their claim?

 

Data is collected and organized in an orderly manner, and analyzed by observing patterns and relationships in order to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What are some ways data can be organized?
  • How can data be used to make reasonable explanations?

 

Scientists analyze, assess, and review each other’s work using processes of scientific investigations, and build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • Why is it important to know and understand how things work and why things happen?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Forms of energy are classified by their characteristics, and each is useful in everyday life.

  • What are the defining characteristics of each form of energy?
  • How is each form of energy used in everyday life?

Systems

  • Energy

 

Classifications

  • Light
  • Sound
  • Thermal
  • Mechanical

 

Properties

  • See
  • Hear
  • Feel
  • Vibration
  • Temperature
  • Motion
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think energy is only in living things (humans and animals), rather than existing in many forms that are useful to everyday life.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may think we do not need light in order to see, rather than our eyes depending on light to see.
  • At this age, students do not formally understand the concept of energy as the ability to cause change or do work.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Energy – the ability to cause change or do work
  • Light energy – a form of energy which our eyes can detect
  • Mechanical energy – energy of motion
  • Sound energy – energy produced by vibrations
  • Thermal energy – energy related to the temperature of an object or a substance
  • Vibration – a series of small, fast movements back and forth or from side to side

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Air
  • Classify
  • Cool
  • Electricity
  • Fire
  • Help
  • High
  • Loud
  • Low
  • Motion
  • Move
  • Noise
  • Soft
  • Sun
  • Temperature
  • Touch
  • Turn
  • Use
  • Vibrate
  • Warm
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – State Training: Science Academies: K - 4 Lessons: “Exploring Energy””

Contact your supporting Education Service Center for more information

 

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Exploring Energy

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/exploring-energy

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Interactive Science Glossary

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/interactive-science-glossary


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
3.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate practices. The student is expected to:
3.1A Demonstrate safe practices as described in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves.
Process Standard

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate
  • Wearing gloves
  • Washing hands
  • Using materials appropriately
  • Follow classroom and outdoor safety guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
  • Use safety equipment appropriately

Note(s):

3.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
3.2A Plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking and answering questions, making inferences, and selecting and using equipment or technology needed, to solve a specific problem in the natural world.
Process Standard

Plan, Implement

INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Descriptive investigations
  • Asking and answering questions
    • Focus for the investigation
  • Making inferences
    • Possible proficiencies may include:
      • Making claims
      • Providing evidence to support the claim
      • Using reasoning to explain the evidence
  • Selecting and using equipment / technology 

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
3.2B

Collect and record data by observing and measuring using the metric system and recognize differences between observed and measured data.


Process Standard

Collect, Record

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observing
  • Recognizing differences between observed and measured data
3.2F Communicate valid conclusions supported by data in writing, by drawing pictures, and through verbal discussion.
Process Standard

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Methods of communication
    • In writing
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Written narratives
        • Observational notebook entries
        • Reflective notebook entries
        • Creating charts, graphs, and tables
    • By drawing pictures
    • Through verbal discussions
3.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information, critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:
3.3A Analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing.
Process Standard

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Evidence
  • Logical reasoning
  • Experimental and observational testing
3.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
3.4A

Collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, wind vanes, rain gauges, pan balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, spring scales, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and Sun, Earth, and Moon system models; timing devices; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.


Process Standard

Collect, Record, Analyze

INFORMATION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use lab equipment appropriately
    • Computers
    • Notebooks
3.6 Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and that energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:
3.6A Explore different forms of energy, including mechanical, light, sound, and thermal in everyday life.

Explore

DIFFERENT FORMS OF ENERGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Energy – the ability to cause change or do work
    • Mechanical – energy of motion
      • Possible examples in everyday life:
        • Cranking a pencil sharpener
        • Riding a bicycle
        • A motor turning
    • Light – a form of energy which our eyes can detect
      • Possible examples in everyday life:
        • Light from the Sun
        • Light from a light bulb
        • Light from a computer screen
    • Sound – energy produced by vibrations
      • Possible examples in everyday life:
        • Sound from thunder
        • Sound from a siren
        • Sound from a person clapping
    • Thermal – energy related to the temperature of an object or a substance
      • Possible examples in everyday life:
        • Warmth from the Sun
        • Warmth from an oven
        • Warmth from hands rubbing together

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Although not identified as a Supporting Standard, this student expectation builds the foundation for the content of Readiness Standard 5.6A.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 10/07/2019
Loading
Data is Loading...