Hello, Guest!

Instructional Focus Document
Grade 2 Science
TITLE : Unit 02: Investigating Energy SUGGESTED DURATION : 11 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles Student Expectations that address the effects of energy on objects. Increasing or decreasing the amount of energy on an object can affect its properties.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Kindergarten
    • K.5B – Observe, record, and discuss how materials can be changed by heating or cooling.
    • K.6A – Use the senses to explore different forms of energy such as light, thermal, and sound.
  • Grade 1
    • 1.5B – Predict and identify changes in materials caused by heating and cooling.
    • 1.6A – Identify and discuss how different forms of energy such as light, thermal, and sound are important to everyday life.
  • Grade 2
    • 2.5A – Classify matter by physical properties, including relative temperature, texture, flexibility, and whether material is a solid or liquid.
    • 2.5B – Compare changes in materials caused by heating and cooling.
    • 2.5C – Demonstrate that things can be done to materials such as cutting, folding, sanding, and melting to change their physical properties.

 

During this Unit

Students demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined in the Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards while engaging in descriptive investigations to explore the effects on objects by increasing or decreasing amounts of light, heat (thermal), and sound energy. Students should be able to make connections to change of state (solid, liquid, melting, freezing) regarding the effects of increasing and decreasing the amount of thermal energy. Furthermore, students communicate and discuss their observations, and record data in their notebooks. Students consider environmentally appropriate and responsible practices with resources during investigations.

At this age, students do not formally understand the concept of energy as the ability to cause change or do work. It is important to relate the idea that light, sound, and thermal energy can cause a change.

Note: “Heat” energy was changed to “thermal” energy throughout elementary except for Grade 2. This may have been a technical oversight in streamlining by TEA. We recommend continuing to use “thermal” energy for consistency with the language of previous and latter grades. However, we cannot revise the language of the TEKS.

 

Streamlining Note

There are no revisions to TEKS 2.6A. However, there may be revisions to process standards associated with this unit. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 2 (link in System Resources below).

 

After this Unit

In Grade 3, students will explore different forms of energy in everyday life.

 

Additional Notes

STAAR Note

The Student Expectations in this unit are foundational to Grade 5 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning skills and Supporting and Readiness Standards that may be assessed on the Grade 5 Science STAAR.

 

Research

No effort to introduce energy as a scientific idea ought to be organized in these first years. If children use the term energy to indicate how much pep they have, that is perfectly all right, in that the meaning is clear and no technical mischief has been done. By the end of the 2nd grade, students should be familiar with a variety of ways of making things go and should consider "What makes it go?" to be an interesting question to ask. Once they learn that batteries wear down and cars run out of gasoline, turning off unneeded appliances can be said to "save on batteries" and "save on gas." The idea that is accessible at this age is that keeping anything going uses up some resource. (Little is gained by having children answer, "Energy.")… Presumably students will start "making music" from the first day in school, and this provides an opportunity to introduce vibrations as a phenomenon rather than a theory. With the drums, bells, stringed and other instruments they use, including their own voices, they can feel the vibrations on the instruments as they hear the sounds. These experiences are important for their own sake and at this point do not need elaboration.

The one aspect of the energy story in which students of this age can make some headway is heat, which is produced almost everywhere. In their science and technology activities during these years, students should be alerted to look for things and processes that give off heat—lights, radios, television sets, the sun, sawing wood, polishing surfaces, bending things, running motors, people, animals, etc.—and then for those that seem not to give off heat.

Students' ideas of heat have many wrinkles. In some situations, cold is thought to be transferred rather than heat. Some materials may be thought to be intrinsically warm (blankets) or cold (metals). Objects that keep things warm—such as a sweater or mittens—may be thought to be sources of heat.

 

“By the end of the 2nd grade, students should know that:

  • Things that make sound vibrate. 4F/P3”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php?chapter=4#F1.


Scientists investigate the natural world in order to understand and explain its systems.

  • Why is it important to know about and understand the natural world?
  • How are the components (parts), processes, and patterns of systems connected?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are trustworthy.

  • How do scientists make and support their claims?
  • What processes help scientists investigate their claim?

 

Data is collected and organized in an orderly manner, and analyzed by looking for patterns and relationships in order to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What are some ways data can be organized?
  • How can data be used to make reasonable explanations?
  • How do patterns help us understand the natural world?

 

Scientists analyze, assess, and review each other’s work using processes of scientific investigations, and build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • Why do scientists work together to study new ideas?
  • Why is it important to know and understand how things work and why things happen?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Increasing or decreasing the amount of energy on an object can affect its properties.

  • In what ways can the properties of an object be affected by increasing or decreasing amounts of energy?

Systems

  • Energy

 

Classifications

  • Light
  • Heat (thermal)
  • Sound

 

Properties

  • See
  • Hear
  • Feel
  • Vibration
  • Temperature

 

Patterns

  • Increasing energy
  • Decreasing energy

 

Change

  • Physical properties
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that cold is added to materials, rather than thermal energy (heat) being removed.

 

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • At this age, students do not formally understand the concept of energy as the ability to cause change or do work.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Decrease – to grow or cause to gradually grow less or smaller, as in number, amount, or intensity
  • Effect – a change that is the result of an action
  • Energy – the ability to cause change or do work
  • Heat (thermal) energy – energy related to the temperature of an object or a substance
  • Increase – the amount or rate by which something is becoming greater or larger
  • Light energy – a form of energy which our eyes can detect
  • Sound energy – energy produced by vibrations
  • Vibration – a series of small, fast movements back and forth or from side to side

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Bright
  • Change
  • Classify
  • Compare
  • Cool
  • Dim
  • Freezing
  • High
  • Hot
  • Liquid
  • Loud
  • Low
  • Melting
  • Pattern
  • Shape
  • Soft
  • Solid
  • Sources of heat
  • Sources of light
  • Sources of sound
  • Temperature
  • Touch
  • Warm
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – State Training: Science Academies: K – 4, Lessons:“Increasing and Decreasing Energy “and Magnets in Everyday Life”

Contact your supporting Education Service Center for more information.

 

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Increasing and Decreasing Energy

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/increasing-and-decreasing-energy

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Interactive Science Glossary

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/interactive-science-glossary


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
2.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:
2.1A Identify, describe, and demonstrate safe practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately.

Identify, Describe, Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate
  • Washing hands
  • Using materials appropriately
  • Follow classroom and outdoor safety guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards

Note(s):

2.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
2.2A

Ask questions about organisms, objects, and events during observations and investigations.

Ask

QUESTIONS DURING OBSERVATIONS AND INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Objects
2.2B Plan and conduct descriptive investigations.

Plan, Conduct

INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Descriptive

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
2.2C Collect data from observations using scientific tools.

Collect

DATA FROM OBSERVATIONS USING SCIENTIFIC TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use tools appropriately
  • Possible examples may include:
    • Hand lenses
    • Thermometers
2.2D Record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words.

Record, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Pictures
  • Graphs
    • Pictographs
    • Bar graphs
  • Numbers
  • Words
2.2E Communicate observations and justify explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations.

Communicate

OBSERVATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations

Justify

EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Making claims from observations
  • Providing evidence from observations in order to support claims
  • Using reasoning to explain or justify the claims

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
2.2F Compare results of investigations with what students and scientists know about the world.

Compare

RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • What students and scientists know about the world
2.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:
2.3C Identify what a scientist is and explore what different scientists do.

Identify

WHAT A SCIENTIST IS

Explore

WHAT DIFFERENT SCIENTISTS DO

Including, but not limited to:

  • Specific disciplines scientists study (e.g., botany, zoology, geology, oceanography, meteorology, and ecology)
2.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:
2.4A

Collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, rulers, plastic beakers, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate; timing devices; weather instruments such as thermometers, wind vanes, and rain gauges; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.

Collect, Record, Compare

INFORMATION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Computers
  • Hand lenses
  • Thermometer
  • Notebooks
  • Safety goggles
2.6 Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:
2.6A Investigate the effects on objects by increasing or decreasing amounts of light, heat, and sound energy such as how the color of an object appears different in dimmer light or how heat melts butter.

Investigate

THE EFFECTS ON OBJECTS BY INCREASING OR DECREASING AMOUNTS OF ENERGY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Light energy
    • Increasing or decreasing light  
      • Color of an object appearing different in dimmer light
      • Effects on plant growth
      • Changes the appearance (length) of a shadow
  • Heat (thermal) energy
    • Increasing heat
      • Melts butter
    • Decreasing heat
      • Freezes water into ice
  • Sound energy
    • Increasing or decreasing sound energy – vibrations change
      • Possible example of increase or decrease in sound energy:
        • Blowing a whistle harder and softer

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Although not identified as a Supporting Standard, this student expectation builds the foundation for the content of Supporting Standard 3.5C.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 08/23/2019
Loading
Data is Loading...