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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 1 Science
TITLE : Unit 05: Investigating Objects in the Sky SUGGESTED DURATION : 12 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address changes in the appearance of objects in the sky and characteristics of day and night. Students demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards while engaging in simple descriptive investigations. They observe and record changes in the appearance of objects in the sky such as the Moon and stars, including the Sun. Students focus on how the Moon, Sun, and stars appear to slowly move across the sky. They should notice where the Moon and Sun are located at different times, and how the visibly lit portion of the Moon changes over time. Additionally, students identify characteristics of day and night. Furthermore, students communicate and discuss their observations and record data in their notebooks. Students consider environmentally appropriate and responsible practices with resources during investigations.

Note: We recommend that students begin their observation and recording of the appearance of the Moon at the beginning of the unit so they have time to see the pattern develop over time. You may consider revisiting the changes in the appearance of the Moon throughout the month.

 

Streamlining Note

TEKS 1.8B was revised to remove clouds. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 1 (link in System Resources below).

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Kindergarten
    • K.8B – Identify events that have repeating patterns, including seasons of the year and day and night.
    • K.8C – Observe, describe, and illustrate objects in the sky such as the clouds, Moon, and stars, including the Sun.


After this Unit

In Grade 2, students will observe, describe, and record patterns of objects in the sky, including the appearance of the Moon.

 

STAAR Note

The student expectations in this unit are foundational to Grade 5 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning skills, and Supporting and Readiness Standards that may be assessed on the Grade 5 Science STAAR.

 

According to Research

“Learning about objects in the sky should be entirely observational and qualitative, for the children are far from ready to understand the magnitudes involved or to make sense out of explanations. The priority is to get the students noticing and describing what the sky looks like to them at different times…They should, for example, observe how the moon appears to change its shape…But it is too soon to name the moon's phases and much too soon to explain them.”

 

“By the end of the 2nd grade, students should know that:

  • There are more stars in the sky than anyone can easily count, but they are not scattered evenly, and they are not all the same in brightness or color. 4A/P1
  • The sun can be seen only in the daytime, but the moon can be seen sometimes at night and sometimes during the day. The sun, moon, and stars all appear to move slowly across the sky. 4A/P2
  • The moon looks a little different every day, but looks the same again about every four weeks. 4A/P3”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php?chapter=4#A1.


Scientists investigate the natural world in order to understand and explain its systems.

  • Why is it important to know about and understand the natural world?
  • How are the components (parts), processes, and patterns of systems connected?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are trustworthy.

  • How do scientists make and support their claims?
  • What processes help scientists investigate their claim?

 

Data is collected and organized in an orderly manner, and analyzed by looking for patterns and relationships in order to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • How do patterns help us understand the natural world?

 

Scientists analyze, assess, and review each other’s work using processes of scientific investigations, and build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • Why is it important to know and understand how things work and why things happen?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Day and night are identified by their characteristics.

  • How are the characteristics of day and night different?
  • How is the day and night cycle a repeating pattern?

 

The appearance of objects in the sky can change over time.

  • In what ways does the appearance of objects in the sky change over time?

Systems

  • Sun, Earth, Moon

 

Classifications

  • Moon
  • Stars
  • Sun

 

Properties

  • Part
  • Half
  • Most
  • All
  • Twinkling
  • Bright
  • Yellow / orange
  • Hot

 

Patterns

  • Day / night cycle

 

Constancy

  • Day / night cycle

 

Change

  • Day
  • Night
  • Moon
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that the Moon can only be seen during the night, rather than the Moon is sometimes visible during the day and at night.
  • Students may think that stars and constellations appear in the same place in the sky every night, rather than as Earth rotates (spins) on its axis the stars appear to move across the night sky from east to west.
  • Students may think that all of the stars in a constellation are near each other or that all of the stars are the same distance from the Earth, rather than understanding stars in a constellation are distributed in three dimensions and vary greatly in their distance from the Earth.
  • Students may think the Sun is not a star, rather than the Sun being a star that is closer to Earth.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Earth – the third planet from the Sun
  • Evening / night – the time that starts when the Sun goes down and ends when the Sun rises
  • Moon – a natural object that orbits a planet; Earth’s Moon is the only natural satellite and Earth’s nearest neighbor in space
  • Morning / day – the time that starts when the Sun comes up and ends when the Sun goes down
  • Sky – the region of the atmosphere (and outer space) seen from the Earth
  • Star – an object in space made up of gas and giving off light and heat
  • Sun – a huge ball of gases around which the Earth and other planets of our solar system revolve; the Sun is a star that provides Earth with most of its light and thermal energy
  • Sunrise – the rise of the Sun above the horizon in the morning
  • Sunset – the time in the evening when the Sun moves below the horizon and daylight fades

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • All
  • Cycle
  • Daytime
  • Half
  • Most
  • Nighttime
  • Part
  • Pattern
  • Repeating
  • Shape
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Interactive Science Glossary

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/interactive-science-glossary


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
1.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:
1.1A Identify, discuss, and demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately.

Identify, Discuss, Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate
  • Washing hands
  • Using materials appropriately
  • Follow classroom and outdoor safety guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards
  • Handle organisms appropriately

Note(s):

1.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
1.2A

Ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world.

Ask

QUESTIONS ABOUT OBSERVATIONS IN THE NATURAL WORLD

Including, but not limited to:

  • Objects
  • Events
1.2B Plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations.

Plan, Conduct

INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Simple descriptive

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
1.2C Collect data and make observations using simple tools.

Collect

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use tools appropriately

Make

OBSERVATIONS USING SIMPLE TOOLS

1.2D Record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words.

Record, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Pictures
  • Graphs
    • Picture graphs
    • Real-object graphs
    • Bar graphs
  • Numbers
  • Words
1.2E Communicate observations and provide reasons for explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations.

Communicate

OBSERVATIONS

Provide

REASONS FOR EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
1.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:
1.3B Make predictions based on observable patterns.

Make

PREDICTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observable patterns
    • Patterns in day and night
1.3C Describe what scientists do.

Describe

WHAT SCIENTISTS DO

Including, but not limited to:

  • Skills used by scientists are similar to those used in the classroom
    • Observing
    • Questioning
    • Measuring
    • Classifying
    • Predicting
    • Investigating
    • Communicating
  • Possible examples of scientists may include:
    • Sally Ride (astronaut, physicist, educator)
1.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:
1.4A

Collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate; timing devices; non-standard measuring items; weather instruments such as demonstration thermometers and wind socks; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as aquariums and terrariums.

Collect, Record, Compare

INFORMATION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Computers
  • Notebooks
1.8 Earth and space . The student knows that the natural world includes the air around us and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:
1.8B Observe and record changes in the appearance of objects in the sky such as the Moon and stars, including the Sun.

Observe, Record

CHANGES IN THE APPEARANCE OF OBJECTS IN THE SKY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Moon
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Location of the Moon
      • Appears to slowly move across the sky
      • Visibly lit portion of the Moon
        • Part of the Moon
        • Half of the Moon
        • Most of the Moon
        • All of the Moon
  • Sun
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Seen during the day
      • Appears to slowly move across the sky
      • Bright
      • Location of Sun
        • Morning
        • Noon
        • Evening
  • Stars
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Seen during the night
      • Appears to slowly move across the sky
      • Brightness
      • Color
        • White
        • Reddish
  • Types of record keeping may include:
    • Notebooks
    • Calendars
    • Chart paper

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Although not identified as a Supporting Standard, this student expectation builds the foundation for the content of Supporting Standard 4.8C.
  • Project 2061: By the end of 2nd grade, the student should know that:
    • There are more stars in the sky than anyone can easily count, but they are not scattered evenly, and they are not all the same in brightness or color. 4A/P1
1.8C

Identify characteristics of the seasons of the year and day and night.

Identify

CHARACTERISTICS OF DAY AND NIGHT

Including but not limited to:

  • Appearance of the sky
    • The Sun’s apparent movement from east to west
      • Location of Sun
        • Morning
        • Noon
        • Evening
    • Light
    • Dark
  • Human activities
    • Daytime activities
    • Nighttime activities

Note(s):

  • STAAR:
    • Although not identified as a Supporting Standard, this student expectation builds the foundation for the content of Readiness Standard 5.8C.
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 12/19/2018
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