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 TITLE : Unit 01: Investigating Properties of Objects SUGGESTED DURATION : 21 days

#### Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles Student Expectations that address properties and patterns of objects and materials. Objects can be classified by their physical properties, including the materials from which they are made. Properties of materials can be changed by heating and cooling.

Prior to this Unit

• Kindergarten
• K.5A – Observe and record properties of objects, including bigger or smaller, heavier or lighter, shape, color, and texture.
• K.5B – Observe, record, and discuss how materials can be changed by heating or cooling.
•   Kindergarten, Mathematics
• K.6A – Identify two-dimensional shapes, including circles, triangles, rectangles, and squares as special rectangles.
• K.6E – Classify and sort a variety of regular and irregular two- and three-dimensional figures regardless of orientation and size.
• K.6F – Create two-dimensional shapes using a variety of materials and drawings.
• K.7A – Give an example of a measurable attribute of a given object, including length, capacity, and weight.
• K.7B – Compare two objects with a common measurable attribute to see which object has more of / less of the attribute and describe the difference.

During this Unit

Through simple descriptive investigations using observations and tools, students classify objects in terms of observable properties of the materials from which they are made, whether they are larger and smaller, heavier and lighter, and their shape, color, and texture. Students learn the foundations of this concept by assessing how light or heavy an item feels due to the pull of gravity (weight) or by placing the items on a primary balance. Furthermore, students distinguish between ‘heavier’ and ‘lighter’ as relative weight by using their sense of touch and by measuring and comparing objects and using non-standard measurements. They distinguish between larger and smaller by comparing objects and using non-standard measurements. Finally in this unit, students predict and identify changes in materials caused by heating and cooling. Additionally, students communicate and discuss their observations and record and organize data in their notebooks. Students continue to demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards and consider environmentally appropriate and responsible practices with resources during investigations.

Other considerations: Reference the Science COVID-19 Gap Implementation Tool Grade 1.

Streamlining Note

TEKS 1.5A moved “materials from which they are made” to new 1.5C; now it only includes physical properties. 1.5B removed “such as” examples for instructional flexibility. 1.5C is new and contains language from former 1.5A. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Grade 1 (link in System Resources below).

After this Unit

Grade 2 students will classify matter by physical properties; compare changes in materials caused by heating and cooling; demonstrate that altering materials causes changes to physical properties; combine materials to use in construction; and justify the selection of those materials based on their physical properties.

STAAR Note

The Student Expectations in this unit are foundational to Grade 5 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning skills, Supporting, and Readiness Standards that may be assessed on the Grade 5 Science STAAR.

Research

Students should examine and use a wide variety of objects, categorizing them according to their various observable properties. They should subject materials to such treatments as mixing, heating, freezing, cutting, wetting, dissolving, bending, and exposing them to light to see how they change. Even though it is too early to expect precise reports, or even consistent results from the students, they should be encouraged to describe what they did and how materials responded.

“By the end of the 2nd grade, students should know that:

• Objects can be described in terms of their properties. Some properties, such as hardness and flexibility, depend upon what material the object is made of, and some properties, such as size and shape, do not. 4D/P1*
• Things can be done to materials to change some of their properties, but not all materials respond the same way to what is done to them. 4D/P2”

 Scientists investigate the natural world in order to understand and explain its systems. Why is it important to know about and understand the natural world? How are systems and their parts organized? How are the components (parts), processes, and patterns of systems connected?   Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are trustworthy. Why is it important to be able to trust scientists’ work? How do scientists make and support their claims? What processes help scientists investigate their claim?   Data is collected and organized in an orderly manner, and analyzed by looking for patterns and relationships in order to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions. What are some ways data can be organized? How can data be used to make reasonable explanations? How do patterns help us understand the natural world?   Scientists analyze, assess, and review each other’s work using processes of scientific investigations, and build on one another’s ideas through new investigations. How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim? Why do scientists work together to study new ideas? Why is it important to know and understand how things work and why things happen?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Objects can be classified by their observable properties.

• How can the properties of objects be described?
• In what ways can objects be classified?

Systems

• Matter

Classification

• Larger or smaller
• Heavier or lighter
• Circle
• Triangle
• Square
• Rectangle
• Red
• Orange
• Yellow
• Green
• Blue
• Purple
• Black
• Brown
• White
• Plastic
• Paper
• Metal
• Wood
• Soft
• Hard
• Smooth
• Bumpy

Properties

• Weight
• Size
• Color
• Shape
• Texture
• Materials from which objects are made

Constancy

• Scientific investigation
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Properties of materials can be changed by heating or cooling.

• In what ways might the properties of materials change when they are heated?
• In what ways might the properties of materials change when they are cooled?
• In what ways does water change when heated or cooled?

Systems

• Matter

Classification

• Liquid
• Solid

Properties

• Hot / warm
• Melted
• Runny
• Cold / cool
• Frozen
• Hard

Patterns

• Change of state

Models

• Melting
• Freezing

Constancy

• Scientific investigation

Change

• Physical properties of matter
• Change of state
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

#### MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

• Students may think the size of an object determines its weight, rather than some smaller objects being heavier than larger ones.
• Students may think that cold is added to materials and water, rather than heat being removed.
• Students may think that all substances respond to the addition or removal of heat, rather than different substances having different freezing and melting points.

#### Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

• Change – to become different from the way something or someone was before
• Classify – to group according to similar properties
• Cooling – the process of becoming cooler; a falling temperature; removing heat
• Freezing   to change from a liquid to a solid by removal of heat (cooling)
• Heating – the process of becoming warmer; a rising temperature; adding heat
• Melting – to change from a solid to a liquid by adding heat
• Property – a characteristic that can be observed, measured, or changed
• Texture – the feel and look of a surface, for example rough or smooth

Related Vocabulary:

 Black Blue Brown Bumpy Circle Color Fluffy Green Hand lenses Hard Heavier Larger Lighter Liquid Materials Matter Measure Objects Observe Orange Primary balance Rectangle Red Rough Runny Shape Size Smaller Smooth Soft Square Texture Triangle Weight White Yellow
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Interactive Science Glossary

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/interactive-science-glossary

TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
• A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
1.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:
1.1A Identify, discuss, and demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately.

Identify, Discuss, Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES

Including, but not limited to:

• Wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate
• Washing hands
• Using materials appropriately
• Follow classroom and outdoor safety guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards

Note(s):

1.1B Identify and learn how to use natural resources and materials, including conservation and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metals.

Identify, Learn

HOW TO USE NATURAL RESOURCES AND MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

• Natural resources and materials
• Possible examples may include:
• Fresh water
• Conserving and reusing or recycling
• Paper
• Plastic
• Metal
1.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
1.2A

Ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world.

QUESTIONS ABOUT OBSERVATIONS IN THE NATURAL WORLD

Including, but not limited to:

• Objects
1.2B Plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations.

Plan, Conduct

INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Simple descriptive

Note(s):

• TEA:
• Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
1.2C Collect data and make observations using simple tools.

Collect

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Use tools appropriately

Make

OBSERVATIONS USING SIMPLE TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

• Possible examples may include:
• Hand lenses
• Primary balances
• Non-standard measurement tools
• Paper clips
• Clothespins
• Plastic counters
• Interlocking cubes
• Teddy bear counters
1.2D Record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words.

Record, Organize

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

• Pictures
• Graphs
• Picture graphs
• Real-object graphs
• Bar graphs
• Numbers
• Words
1.2E Communicate observations and provide reasons for explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations.

Communicate

OBSERVATIONS

Provide

REASONS FOR EXPLANATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations

Note(s):

• TEA:
• Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
1.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:
1.3B Make predictions based on observable patterns.

Make

PREDICTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

• Observable patterns
1.3C Describe what scientists do.

Describe

WHAT SCIENTISTS DO

Including, but not limited to:

• Skills used by scientists are similar to those used in the classroom
• Observing
• Questioning
• Measuring
• Classifying
• Predicting
• Investigating
• Communicating
1.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:
1.4A

Collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate; timing devices; non-standard measuring items; weather instruments such as demonstration thermometers and wind socks; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as aquariums and terrariums.

Collect, Record, Compare

INFORMATION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

• Computers
• Hand lenses
• Non-standard measuring items
• Primary balances
• Notebooks
• Safety goggles or chemical splash goggles
1.4B

Measure and compare organisms and objects using non-standard units.

Measure, Compare

OBJECTS

Including, but not limited to:

• Use non-standard units
• Paper clips
• Clothespins
• Cups
• Bowls
• Measure length, liquid volume (capacity), and weight of organisms and objects using non-standard units
• Describe the relationship between the type of unit and the type of measurement needed (e.g., cup or bowl for measuring capacity)
• Make comparisons using non-standard units
• Objects
1.5 Matter and energy. The student knows that objects have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:
1.5A Classify objects by observable properties such as larger and smaller, heavier and lighter, shape, color, and texture.

Classify

OBJECTS BY OBSERVABLE PROPERTIES

Including, but not limited to:

• Size
• Larger
• Smaller
• Weight
• Heavier
• Lighter
• Shape
• Color
• Red
• Orange
• Yellow
• Green
• Blue
• Purple
• Black
• Brown
• White
• Texture
• Rough
• Smooth
• Bumpy
• Soft
• Hard
1.5B Predict and identify changes in materials caused by heating and cooling.

Predict, Identify

CHANGES IN MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

• Caused by heating
• Possible examples may include:
• Melting – to change from a solid to a liquid by adding heat
• Ice
• Butter
• Crayons
• Caused by cooling
• Possible examples may include:
• Freezing – to change from a liquid to a solid by loss of heat (cooling)
• Water freezing

Note(s):

• STAAR:
• Although not identified as a Supporting Standard, this student expectation builds the foundation for the content of Supporting Standard 3.5C.
• Project 2061: By the end of 2nd grade, the student should know that:
• Water can be a liquid or a solid and can go back and forth from one form to the other. If water is turned into ice and then the ice is allowed to melt, the amount of water is the same as it was before freezing. 4B/P2
1.5C Classify objects by the materials from which they are made.

Classify

OBJECTS

Including, but not limited to:

• By the materials from which they are made
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
1.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:
1.3A Identify and explain a problem and propose a solution.

Identify, Explain

A PROBLEM

Including, but not limited to: