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Instructional Focus Document
Kindergarten Science
TITLE : Unit 04: Exploring Earth Materials SUGGESTED DURATION : 16 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations that address natural resources found in our world, their physical properties, and how they are useful. This unit introduces students to their environment. They demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards while engaging in simple descriptive investigations to observe, describe, and sort rocks by size, shape, color, and texture. They also observe and describe physical properties of natural sources of water, including color and clarity. Students give examples of ways rocks, soil, and water are useful. Additionally, students identify a problem and propose a solution, in the context of this unit. Furthermore, students communicate and discuss their observations, and record data in their notebooks. Students consider environmentally appropriate and responsible practices with resources during investigations.

 

Streamlining Note

TEKS K.7A removed “compare”. See the Science TEKS Streamlining Side by Side Kindergarten (link in System Resources below).

 

Prior Content Connections

Kindergarten students most likely have some prior experiences with rocks, soil, and / or natural sources of water.

 


After this Unit

In Grade 1, students will continue their study of rocks, soil, and natural sources of water.

 

STAAR Note

The student expectations in this unit are foundational to Grade 5 Scientific Investigation and Reasoning skills, and Supporting and Readiness Standards that may be assessed on the Grade 5 Science STAAR.

 

According to Research

Children come to school aware that Earth's surface is composed of rocks, soils, water, and living organisms, but a closer look will help them identify many additional properties of Earth materials. By carefully observing and describing the properties of many rocks, children will begin to see that some rocks are made of a single substance, but most are made of several substances. In later grades, the substances can be identified as minerals. Understanding rocks and minerals should not be extended to the study of the source of the rocks, such as sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic, because the origin of rocks and minerals has little meaning to young children.

  • Playgrounds and nearby vacant lots and parks are convenient study sites to observe a variety of Earth materials. As students collect rocks and observe vegetation, they will become aware that soil varies from place to place in its color, texture, and reaction to water. If they revisit study sites regularly, children will develop an understanding that Earth's surface is constantly changing.

National Academy of Science. (1995). National science education standards. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/nses/.


Scientists investigate the natural world in order to understand and explain its systems.

  • Why is it important to know about and understand the natural world?
  • How are systems and their parts organized?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are trustworthy.

  • What processes help scientists investigate their claim?

 

Scientists analyze, assess, and review each other’s work using processes of scientific investigations, and build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

We can use our senses as a tool of observation to identify properties of objects in the environment.

  • How do our senses help us identify the properties of objects?

 

Physical properties can be used to describe and sort rocks.

  • In what ways can we observe, describe, and sort rocks?

 

Rocks can be used in many ways.

  • In what ways are rocks useful?

Systems

  • Earth materials

 

Classifications

  • Rocks

 

Properties

  • Size
  • Shape
  • Color
  • Texture
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Physical properties can be used to describe natural sources of water and soil.

  • In what ways can natural sources of water be observed and described?
  • In what ways can soil be observed described?

 

Water and soil can be used in many ways.

  • In what ways is water useful?
  • In what ways is soil useful?

Systems

  • Earth materials

 

Classifications

  • Water
  • Soil

 

Properties

  • Color
  • Clarity
  • Texture
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think that all rocks must be heavy.
  • Students may think rocks, soil, and water are living organisms.
  • Students may think rocks, soil, and water have little value.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Clarity – how clear something is, such as water
  • Lake – a large body of water surrounded by land
  • Natural sources – naturally occurring, non-manmade source
  • Ocean – a very large area of salt water
  • Property – a characteristic that can be observed, measured, or changed without changing the substance itself, such as size, shape, color, or texture
  • River – a large stream of water that runs into a lake or ocean
  • Rock – a solid mixture of minerals that was formed in the Earth’s crust
  • Soil – a mixture made of tiny pieces of rock, mineral particles, decayed plant and animal matter, water, and air
  • Useful – having a practical or beneficial use
  • Water – a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up lakes, seas, rivers, and oceans and is the primary liquid found in living organisms

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Bigger
  • Bumpy
  • Color
  • Describe
  • Heavier
  • Lighter
  • Observe
  • Pond
  • River
  • Rough
  • Shape
  • Size
  • Smaller
  • Smooth
  • Soft
  • Soil
  • Sort
  • Spring
  • Stream
  • Texture
  • Water
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Rocks Rock

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/rocks-rock

 

Texas Gateway for Online Resources by TEA – Interactive Science Glossary

https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/interactive-science-glossary


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
K.1 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:
K.1A Identify, discuss, and demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately.

Identify, Discuss, Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate
  • Washing hands
  • Using materials appropriately
  • Follow classroom and outdoor safety guidelines, as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards

Note(s):

K.1B Demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reusing or recycling paper, plastic, and metal.

Demonstrate

HOW TO USE, CONSERVE, AND DISPOSE OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Natural resources and materials
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Fresh water
      • Air
  • Conserving and reusing or recycling
    • Water
    • Paper
    • Plastic
    • Metals
K.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:
K.2A

Ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world.

Ask

QUESTIONS ABOUT OBSERVATIONS IN THE NATURAL WORLD

Including, but not limited to:

  • Objects
K.2B Plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations.

Plan, Conduct

INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Simple descriptive

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
K.2C Collect data and make observations using simple tools.

Collect

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use tools appropriately

Make

OBSERVATIONS USING SIMPLE TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Possible examples may include:
    • Hand lenses
    • Primary balances
    • Non-standard measurement tools
      • Paper clips
      • Clothespins
      • Plastic counters
      • Interlocking cubes
      • Teddy bear counters
K.2D Record and organize data and observations using pictures, numbers, and words.

Record, Organize

DATA AND OBSERVATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Pictures
    • Real objects or pictures
  • Graphs
    • Picture graphs
    • Real-object graphs
  • Numbers
  • Words
K.2E Communicate observations about simple descriptive investigations.

Communicate

OBSERVATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Simple descriptive investigations

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated. Descriptive investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011). Laboratory and Field Investigations –FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
K.3 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:
K.3A Identify and explain a problem such as the impact of littering and propose a solution.

Identify, Explain

A PROBLEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Grade level appropriate problems
    • Impact of littering

Propose

SOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Possible solution
    • Picking up or recycling trash on the playground
K.3C Explore that scientists investigate different things in the natural world and use tools to help in their investigations.

Explore

SCIENTISTS’ INVESTIGATIONS, TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Basic definition of a scientist in the natural world
  • Process skills / tools scientists use
K.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:
K.4A

Collect information using tools, including computing devices, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices; non-standard measuring items; weather instruments such as demonstration thermometers; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.

Collect

INFORMATION USING TOOLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Computers
  • Hand lenses
  • Non-standard measuring items
  • Primary balances
  • Bowls
  • Notebooks
K.4B

Use the senses as a tool of observation to identify properties and patterns of organisms, objects, and events in the environment.

Use

SENSES AS A TOOL OF OBSERVATION TO IDENTIFY PROPERTIES AND PATTERNS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Senses
    • Sight
    • Smell
    • Hearing
    • Touch
  • Properties and patterns
    • Objects
      • Size
      • Shape
      • Color
      • Texture
K.7 Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:
K.7A Observe, describe, and sort rocks by size, shape, color, and texture.

Observe, Describe, Sort

ROCKS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Size
    • Small
    • Medium
    • Large
  • Shape
    • Round
    • Egg-shaped
    • Flat
  • Color
    • White
    • Gray / black
    • Brown
    • Speckled
  • Texture
    • Rough
    • Smooth
    • Bumpy

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of 2nd grade, the student should know that:
    • Chunks of rocks come in many sizes and shapes, from boulders to grains of sand and even smaller. 4C/P1
K.7B Observe and describe physical properties of natural sources of water, including color and clarity.

Observe, Describe

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Properties of water
    • Color
    • Clarity
      • Clear
      • Cloudy
    • Temperature
      • Warm
      • Cool
      • Cold
      • Hot
    • Odor

Observe, Describe

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL SOURCES OF WATER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Natural sources
    • Oceans
    • Lakes
    • Ponds
    • Rivers
    • Streams
    • Hot springs or geysers
K.7C Give examples of ways rocks, soil, and water are useful.

Give       

EXAMPLES OF WAYS ROCKS, SOIL, AND WATER ARE USEFUL

Including, but not limited to:

  • Rocks
    • For buildings (e.g., houses, museums, monuments)
    • To make jewelry
    • To build roads or bridges
  • Soil
    • In gardens to grow plants (e.g., flowers, vegetables)
    • In the community, for playgrounds or to support buildings
  • Water
    • For recreation (e.g., swimming, boating, fishing)
    • At home (e.g., cooking, bathing, cleaning, pets)
    • In the community (e.g., fountains, parks)
    • For a garden
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 09/17/2018
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