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Instructional Focus Document
World Geography Studies Regional
TITLE : Regional Unit 09: South Asia SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit continues the examination of the world’s major regions by applying the knowledge gained in the previous units. An examination of regions is intended to facilitate students’ knowledge about 1) natural conditions of various regions, 2) human conditions of various regions, and 3) an understanding of the human connections made within a region and across regions. Such connections are evident in human patterns of migration and human-environment interaction. Throughout the remainder of the course students examine various regions by exploring the following questions in regards to each regional unit of study:

  1. Where is it?
  2. What is it like there in both physical and human terms?
  3. How would the character of this place be described?
  4. How have the physical landscape and human characteristics of this place changed over time?
  5. How is this place linked physically, economically, culturally to other places?
  6. How is this place similar or different when compared to other places?
  7. What influence does this place have on other places?
  8. How does knowing about this place help in understanding the world better?

This unit bundles student expectations that facilitate an examination of the physical and human geographic factors that characterize South Asia as a region and the connections between this region and the world. South Asia is profoundly affected by seasonal monsoon winds and is home to some of the world’s highest mountains. As the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism the region has a unique character of place. Economic development in the region varies with India having a growing service sector, facilitated by outsourcing.  Following the decolonization of the region, tensions between Hindus and Muslims resulted in mass migration and the creation of Pakistan as a predominately Muslim state. India is the preeminent democratic political entity in the region. The region is economically challenged by a distinctly large population which provides labor. The abundance of labor reduces the incentive to implement labor-saving technologies and affects many aspects of life in this region.  

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about Africa as a region. 

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the cultural patterns that developed in South Asia, about the effects of the seasonal monsoons, about the social and economic effects of the large population of South Asia, and about the historical conflict between Muslims and Hindus in South Asia.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about the physical and human characteristics that distinguish East and Southeast Asia as a region and the connections between the region and the world.


Physical and human processes shape the patterns of the Earth’s surface.

  • In what ways is the Earth’s surface constantly being changed?

The values of a society are reflected in its culture and institutions.

  • How does a society preserve and perpetuate its values?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

South Asia is separated by mountains from the rest of Asia forming a subcontinent which facilitated the development of a unique culture.  

  • What physical processes are responsible for the creation of the mountain ranges in South Asia?
  • How did physical geography affect the creation of political boundaries in South Asia?
  • What is characteristic of language, religion, land use, education, and customs in South Asian culture?
  • What are the major tenets of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism?
  • Where have Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism spread to from South Asia?

Cultural Patterns

  • Language
  • Belief  Systems
  • Customs/Traditions

Spatial Patterns

  • Physical Geographic Processes/Landforms
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Seasonal monsoons affect the climate of South Asia and the process of adaptation in the region.

  • In what ways do the monsoon winds affect the climate and lifestyles of people living in South Asia?
  • What is characteristic about the distribution of climate regions in South Asia?
  • How have people living in South Asia adapted to the environment and monsoons?

Spatial Patterns

  • Climate
  • Human-Environment Interaction
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The large population of India affects the economic and social patterns in the region.  

  • What is characteristic of the demographics and population distribution in South Asia?
  • What is characteristic of life in South Asia because of the large population?
  • How has globalization affected lifestyles in India?
  • How have changes in communication promoted outsourcing in India?
  • Why is India able to support many tertiary industries?

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution

Cultural Patterns

  • Demographics

Economic Patterns

  • Resources
  • Globalization
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Religious differences between Hindus and Muslims in the region have resulted in conflict and boundary changes.

  • Why did Hindus and Muslims in South Asia erupt in conflict following the end of British colonization of the region?
  • How were boundaries in South Asia changed as a result of the conflict between Muslims and Hindus?
  • What are the differing points of view in regards to the conflict between Muslims and Hindus in South Asia?
  • In what ways does the conflict between Muslims and Hindus continue to play out today?

Cultural Patterns

  • Belief Systems

Political Patterns

  • Colonization

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Some may believe that Hindus worship cows or consider them to be gods. The reverence for cows in the Hindu religion is more complicated than this and relates to the cows historic role in Hindu society as a provider of labor and milk. 

Unit Vocabulary

outsourcing – practice of hiring labor from sources outside of the company or outside of the nation in which the company is located
monsoon – seasonal winds that bring moist air in the summer and dry air in the winter across much of southern and eastern Asia
subcontinent – large land mass that is part of a larger continental landmass
polytheism – belief in multiple gods

Related Vocabulary:

  • decolonization
  •  tertiary industries
  •  decolonization
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWG.2 The student understands how people, places, and environments have changed over time and the effects of these changes. The student is expected to:
NewWG.2A Describe the human and physical characteristics of the same regions at different periods of time to analyze relationships between past events and current conditions.

Describe, Analyze

HUMAN AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAME REGIONS AT DIFFERENT PERIODS OF TIME TO EVALUATE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PAST EVENTS AND CURRENT CONDITIONS

Including, but not limited to:
Human Characteristic to analyze for change over time

  • Development of governments, economies, cultural convergence
  • Events like war, revolution, exploration, trade have an impact on societies over time, including changes in city landscapes and cultural landscapes

Physical Characteristics to analyze for change over time

  • Domestication of plants and animals and the use of different geographic features (e.g., plains for agriculture)
  • The expansion or decline of environment regions (e.g., the expansion of the Sahara and the decline of tropical rainforests)
  • Major geological events on civilizations
NewWG.3 The student understands how physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment. The student is expected to:
NewWG.3B Describe the physical processes that affect the environments of regions, including weather, tectonic forces, erosion, and soil-building processes.

Describe

PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT AFFECT THE ENVIRONMENTS OF REGIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Weather – refers to the day to day condition of the atmosphere and is affected by solar energy, pressure systems and cloud cover.
  • Tectonic forces – refer to the plates that make up the earth’s crust. Plate movements cause earthquakes and volcanic activity, as well as affecting the physical features of the earth. Divergent plate boundaries refer to areas where tectonic plates have moved apart. Convergent boundaries refer to areas where one tectonic plate is forced under another tectonic plate. Transform boundaries refer to areas where tectonic plates slide past each other. Tectonic plate movement results in earthquakes, volcanic activity and the formation of mountains and rift valleys.
  • Erosion – refers to the movement of weathered material by wind, water or ice. Water erosion is evident in rivers and along coastlines. Wind erosion is responsible for the movement of particles from one location to another, creating such physical features as sand dunes. Ice erosion occurs when large ice structures, generally glaciers, transport and deposit materials.
  • Soil-building – refers to the physical creation of weathered rock, organic matter, air and water. Erosion is generally a part of the soil-building process.
NewWG.4 The student understands the patterns and characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems of Earth and the interrelated processes that produce them. The student is expected to:
NewWG.4A Explain how elevation, latitude, wind systems, ocean currents, position on a continent, and mountain barriers influence temperature, precipitation, and distribution of climate regions.

Explain

HOW ELEVATION, LATITUDE, WIND SYSTEMS, OCEAN CURRENTS, POSITION ON A CONTINENT, AND MOUNTAIN BARRIERS INFLUENCE TEMPERATURE, PRECIPITATION, AND DISTRIBUTION OF CLIMATE REGIONS

Including, but not limited to:
Elevation

  • Locations in higher elevations experience cooler temperatures and high amounts of precipitation in the form of snow. Thin air in higher elevations lacks ability to hold heat causing both cooler temperatures and precipitation.

Latitude

  • Latitude has a significant impact on temperature with locations nearest the equator experiencing high temperatures and those near the poles experiencing cold temperatures. Average yearly temperatures decrease in progression from north and south of the equator.  Latitude has a slight influence on precipitation, mostly near the equator where rising hot air contributes to the humidity.

Wind systems

  • Wind systems serve to move warm or cool air across the earth’s surface and to distribute precipitation around the globe. Wind systems can bring moist air from across an ocean or dry air from across land. Monsoons are an example of a wind pattern that brings moist air across areas of South Asia causing heavy rainfall. Temperatures in coastal locations are affected by the temperature of the water nearby and the winds that cross over the water.

Ocean currents

  • Ocean currents help to distribute heat away from the equator. Warm water at the equator circulates toward the tropics. Water from the tropics circulates to the poles where the water cools and then circulates back towards the equator.  Wind systems have an effect on ocean currents and like wind systems, ocean currents also transfer precipitation around the world.

Position on continent

  • Locations that are located nearer coastlines tend to experience more moderate temperatures as opposed to locations that are further inland. Locations that are further inland generally experience greater daily and seasonal temperature variations.  Locations near coastlines also tend to experience greater amounts of precipitation. Position on continent is most evident in the middle latitudes and it along with latitude has the greatest effect on climate.

Mountain Barriers

  • Mountain barriers have a great effect on precipitation. As air rises to pass over a mountain barrier it releases moisture as the air cools.  This creates a wet side or windward side and a dry side or leeward side to mountain barriers. The windward side of a mountain is generally on the side closest to ocean.  This process is referred to as orographic precipitation or the rain shadow effect. Windward sides of mountain ranges receive higher average precipitation and leeward sides of mountain ranges tend to receive lower average precipitation.

Distribution of Climate Regions

  • Climate regions are characterized by a combination of average temperatures with average amounts of precipitation. There are five major categories of climate; polar, temperate, tropical, arid, and highland along with many sub categories within these larger groups.
  • The polar climate region is located in the higher latitudes and is characterized by generally low temperatures, low precipitation, long winters and short summers. Within the polar climate region are the sub regions of subarctic, tundra, and ice cap.
  • The temperate climate region is located in the mid latitudes and is characterized by seasonal temperature variations and seasonal precipitations variations. Within the temperate climate region are the sub regions of marine west coast, Mediterranean, humid subtropical and humid continental. Humid subtropical climates vary around the globe.
  • The tropical climate region is located in the low latitudes and characterized by warm temperatures year round and abundant rainfall.  Within the tropical climate region are the sub regions of tropical rainforest and savanna.
  • The arid/dry climate region is characterized by variations in temperatures and low rainfall. This climate zone is most commonly sub divided into desert or steppe.
  • Highland climate regions are located in higher elevations no matter the latitude.
NewWG.4B Describe different landforms such as plains, mountains, and islands and the physical processes that cause their development.

Describe

DIFFERENT LANDFORMS AND THE PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT CAUSE THEIR DEVELOPMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mountains, islands, rifts, volcanos – tectonic forces
  • Plains – erosion from water, ice or wind; flowing lava
  • Atolls – growth of coral reefs around a volcano
  • Valleys – glacial erosion and tectonic forces
  • Deltas – soil building and water erosion
  • Canyons – water erosion
  • Fjord – glacial erosion
  • Sand dunes – wind erosion
NewWG.5 The student understands how political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions. The student is expected to:
NewWG.5A Analyze how the character of a place is related to its political, economic, social, and cultural elements.

Analyze

HOW THE CHARACTER OF A PLACE IS RELATED TO ITS POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL ELEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Character of a place refers to the physical and human geographic characteristics that distinguish a particular place. Physical geographic factors such as climate, vegetation, settlement patterns, population density relate to the character of a place as do the political, economic, social and cultural features that make a place unique. Since these features can change over time the character of a place can change over time also.
  • Character of place can be analyzed on a macro level such as examining the character of a culture region or on a micro level, such as examine the character of a city or neighborhood.

 

NewWG.7 The student understands the growth, distribution, movement, and characteristics of world population. The student is expected to:
NewWG.7A Analyze population pyramids and use other data, graphics, and maps to describe the population characteristics of different societies and to predict future population trends.

Analyze

POPULATION PYRAMIDS

Describe

POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS

Predict

FUTURE POPULATION TRENDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Population pyramids refer to a graphic model of the age and gender demographics of specific population at a given time; analysis will indicate negative, rapid or slow growth rates; students should also examine what processes created the observable trend and make predictions based on observable trends, i.e. one child policy in China.
  • Population trends can also be analyzed by looking at population density maps, cartograms, and population growth charts
NewWG.7C Describe trends in world population growth and distribution.

Describe

TRENDS IN WORLD POPULATION GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • World population growth is dependent on birth rates and death rates and these rates vary across the globe. Less developed regions tend to experience higher birth rates and higher infant mortality rates and lower life expectancy rates, while developed regions characteristically have low birth rates resulting in slow population growth and sometimes negative growth rates.
  • Over the last 150 years the world’s population has grown exponentially reaching one billion in the early nineteenth century. Currently the world’s population is over seven billion and is projected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Medical advances have resulted in increased life expectancies at the same time birth rates have been declining. Since the early nineteenth century the world’s population has increasingly become urbanized so now half of the world’s population lives in urban areas.
  • The world’s population is distributed unevenly and is correlated to the access to economic opportunities and resources as well as to climate. Increased economic opportunities accounts for a concentration of population in urban areas, along transportation corridors and near water. Population is less concentrated in in the polar regions of the globe because of the extreme climate in the region.
NewWG.8 The student understands how people, places, and environments are connected and interdependent. The student is expected to:
NewWG.8A Compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment, including the influences of culture and technology.

Compare

WAYS THAT HUMANS DEPEND ON, ADAPT TO, AND MODIFY THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Build dams, windmills, dikes, polders, levees, railroads, bridges, highways, terrace farming
  • Installing solar panels
  • Dredging and irrigation
  • Deforestation, mining, oil extraction, desalination, soil leaching, overgrazing
  • Burning fossil fuels
  • Creating advanced  warning systems for earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes and tsunamis
  • Planting seasonal and/or drought resistant crops  and using fertilizers to increase agricultural output
NewWG.8B Analyze the consequences of extreme weather and other natural disasters such as El Niño, floods, tsunamis, and volcanoes on people and their environment.

Analyze

CONSEQUENCES OF EXTREME WEATHER AND OTHER NATURAL DISASTERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • El Niño/La Niña refers to the periodic warming (El Niño) and cooling (La Niña) of the Pacific waters along the western coast of Central and South America. Both impact precipitation levels causing periods of drought and flooding. Both negatively impact agricultural output and the fishing industries in Latin America causing economic disruption.
  • Hurricanes are westward moving tropical cyclone activity organized due to warm air rising from the warm waters near the equator. Hurricanes are responsible for flooding and high winds that cause extensive property and crop damage along with loss of lives. The Caribbean, eastern Mexico, eastern Central America, and the eastern gulf coasts of the United States are most vulnerable to hurricanes.
  • Earthquakes/Volcanoes refer to the seismic activity that occurs with tectonic plate movements. Earthquakes cause significant damage to property and loss of lives as well as produce tsunamis, immense ocean waves which also cause severe damage and loss of lives. Volcanic eruptions create lava flows that threaten people and property and release ash that can blanket large areas causing damage and respiratory issues for some.
  • Monsoons   are winds that blow from the northeast across South Asia and Southeast Asia   carrying dry air during the winter and blowing from the southwest Indian   Ocean in the summer carrying moist air. Summer monsoons are responsible for large   amounts of rainfall in South and Southeast Asia, which causes extensive   flooding but is also needed for agricultural output.
  • Tornados are violently rotating columns of air extending from a thunderstorm cloud to the ground. Generally occur when the atmospheric conditions are favorable to producing severe thunderstorms. Tornados cause huge amounts of damage in a short period of time along with loss of lives. Many occur in a swath across the central and southeastern United States referred to as “tornado alley”.
  • Droughts-lengthy periods of low rainfall in a given region. Droughts contribute to desertification, as well as economic decline and severe loss of agricultural output.
NewWG.10 The student understands the distribution, characteristics, and interactions of the economic systems in the world. The student is expected to:
NewWG.10D Compare global trade patterns over time and analyze the implications of globalization, including outsourcing and free trade zones.

Compare

GLOBAL TRADE PATTERNS OVER TIME

Analyze

IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

Including, but not limited to:

Changing Global Trade Patterns

  • Over time the pace of global trade has increased to include more trade partners as well to cover more area. Early trade routes were overland with the Silk Road being a prominent early trade route linking China to the Mediterranean region along with many routes crossing Asia Minor. Water trade routes developed in the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean bringing Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia into contact on a regular basis. Overland routes crisscrossed North Africa, routes developed from Southern Europe to Northern Europe, and routes formed across the Sahara desert. Trade was common within the Pre-Columbian cultures of the Americas.  After the European colonization of the Americas a truly global trade network developed that was trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific. Free trade zones became a feature of global trade in the later twentieth century. Some of the largest free trade zones include North America created by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the European Union (EU).

Implications of globalization

  • Access to more products for consumers and access to more labor for producers
  • Similar commercial landscapes worldwide
  • Cultural diffusion
  • Increasing connectivity of national economies causing economic growth and depression to be experienced more widely
  • Participation in economic markets by more individuals and businesses
  • Potential cooperation between nation-states that have economic connectivity including the creation of free trade zones
  • Potential resentment and political repercussions in regions that perceive globalization as negative, i.e. Great Britain voting to leave the European Union
  • Outsourcing creates jobs for some and results in job loss for others as businesses seek to find the cheapest labor costs
NewWG.11 The student understands how geography influences economic activities. The student is expected to:
NewWG.11A Understand the connections between levels of development and economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary).

Understand

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Developing countries rely more on primary and secondary economic activities, while developed countries rely more on tertiary and quaternary activities. More developed countries are able to offer more service-oriented jobs, while importing raw materials and manufactured goods from developing countries.
  • Primary activities include those jobs focused on raw extraction of natural resources (e.g., mining, agriculture, fishing), secondary activities are jobs focused on manufacturing goods (e.g., manufacturing, construction), tertiary activities include those in the service sector (e.g., transportation, sanitary services, commerce and trade), and quaternary activities involve jobs related to information processing and management (e.g., finance, computer industry, high education, research).
NewWG.11C Assess how changes in climate, resources, and infrastructure (technology, transportation, and communication) affect the location and patterns of economic activities.

Assess

HOW CHANGES AFFECT LOCATION AND PATTERNS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Including, but not limited to:

Climate changes affecting economic patterns

  • Climate changes can affect economic patterns by impacting the output of agricultural production, such as when droughts occur. Increasing desertification results in the movement of agricultural activities. Natural disasters can cause economic disruptions and relation of businesses, as well as destroying cash crops.

Resources affecting economic patterns

  • Access to cheaper resources can affect the location of economic activities. This is evident in the relocation of economic activities to regions with cheaper labor as well as the relocation of economic activities to be near skilled labor, such as locating near higher education facilities.

Infrastructure affecting economic patterns

  • Economic activities tend to located near transportation networks that allow for distribution of goods as well as allow for access for consumers. Improvements and lower costs in communication technologies have allowed for outsourcing. 
NewWG.13 The student understands the spatial characteristics of a variety of global political units. The student is expected to:
NewWG.13A Interpret maps to explain the division of land, including man-made and natural borders, into separate political units such as cities, states, or countries.

Interpret, Explain

MAPS OF POLITICAL DIVISIONS AND UNITS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical geographic features such as mountains, rivers, and oceans can create natural borders between political units.
  • Several factors can contribute to the creation of man-made borders. Man-made political borders are generally made following wars to reflect the changes in control of territory. Man-made division may reflect the ethnic divisions within a region, colonial land claims, or the efforts of groups to isolate themselves.
NewWG.14 The student understands the processes that influence political divisions, relationships, and policies. The student is expected to:
NewWG.14A Analyze current events to infer the physical and human processes that lead to the formation of boundaries and other political divisions.

Analyze, Infer

CURRENT EVENTS AND PROCESSES THAT LEAD TO FORMATION OF BOUNDARIES AND DIVISIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical processes such as climate change, natural hazards, and plate tectonic movement can lead to the formation of new boundaries. Examples of this are evident in areas where rising sea levels are affecting coastal boundaries.
  • Human processes generally associated with conflict and the resulting treaties have led to the development of new boundaries and political divisions. Examples include the new boundary divisions made following the First World War; the division of Korea and Vietnam following wars in those regions; the creation of boundaries in Africa by colonial leaders; the U.N. partition of Palestine and Israel; and the division of Republic of Sudan and South Sudan following years of conflict and vote for independence in South Sudan. 
NewWG.14C Analyze the human and physical factors that influence control of territories and resources, conflict/war, and international relations of sovereign nations such as China, the United States, Japan, and Russia and international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU).

Analyze

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE POWER, CONFLICT, AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The power to control territory is most dependent on access to resources and the ability to transport resources. The ability to control territory is influenced by a political entity’s capacity to maintain military power, create stable government, and provide economic investment. Additionally, scientific innovation is important for development of new techniques to manage key resources and advance military capabilities. Favorable physical geography facilitates the mobilization of military forces and the transportation of resources, hence why the control of the Panama and Suez canals have been historical issues.
  • Conflicts and war arise from the need to control key natural resources, including access to water and energy sources, such as oil. Inherent in the need to access resources is the need to control territory, so that competing claims to territories leads to conflicts also, such as the conflict in Palestine.  Physical geography serves to isolate and protect some locations and facilitate the mobilization of troops in other places. International organizations such as the United Nations (UN) often serve to mitigate conflicts and respond to war.
  • The need to share resources has impacted international relationships, including creating trade agreements between nation-states such as free trade agreements, creating cartels such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and facilitating the creation of the European Union (EU).
NewWG.17 The student understands the distribution, patterns, and characteristics of different cultures. The student is expected to:
NewWG.17A Describe and compare patterns of culture such as language, religion, land use, education, and customs that make specific regions of the world distinctive.

Describe, Compare

PATTERNS OF CULTURE THAT MAKE REGIONS DISTINCTIVE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinctive patterns of culture include similar language, religion, ethnicity, customs, and systems of education, technologies, and institutions.
  • Similar cultural patterns create distinctive regions.
NewWG.17B Describe central ideas and spatial distribution of major religious traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Sikhism.

Describe

MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Buddhism – based on the central idea that pain and suffering is brought about by desire and that to reach a state of nirvana or release from pain and suffering may take multiple lifetimes; predominantly practiced in South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia
  • Christianity – based on belief in one God and the central idea that salvation can be achieved by following the teachings of Jesus; predominantly practiced in Europe, North America, and South America
  • Hinduism – based on the central idea of reincarnation in which one’s social class is determined by actions taken in a previous life; predominantly practiced in South Asia
  • Islam – based on the central idea that one’s life must be lived in submission to God based on messages from the Prophet Muhammad; predominantly practiced in North Africa, Southwest Asia, Pakistan and Indonesia
  • Judaism – based on the central idea that there is one God and that one must live according to the sacred Hebrew texts; predominantly practiced in Europe, Israel, and North America
  • Sikhism – based on the central idea that there is one God and to seek oneness with God involves practicing meditation, service, and social justice; predominantly practiced in South Asia
NewWG.18 The student understands the ways in which cultures change and maintain continuity. The student is expected to:
NewWG.18B Assess causes and effects of conflicts between groups of people, including modern genocides and terrorism.

Assess

CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND PERCEPTIONS OF CONFLICTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conflicts between groups generally occur when there is a disparity in access to resources and/ or a disparity in political power between groups.  Ethnic and cultural differences serve to differentiate the oppressed and the oppressors.
  • Effects from conflicts between groups can result in genocide, ethnic cleansing, acts of terrorism, emergence of new cultural patterns such as  with colonization in Latin America, lingering animosities, and codified segregation such as apartheid in South Africa
  • Perceptions of conflicts between groups of people can be influenced by propaganda, media reports, and one’s cultural beliefs.
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21A Analyze and evaluate the validity and utility of multiple sources of geographic information such as primary and secondary sources, aerial photographs, and maps.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Primary sources
  • Secondary sources
  • Aerial photographs
  • Maps
NewWG.21D Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
  • Developing connections over time involves the examination of how political, economic, social, and geographic factors have change over time or how those factors have remained the same over time.
NewWG.21E Identify different points of view about an issue or current topic.

Identify

POINTS OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
NewWG.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWG.22B Generate summaries, generalizations, and thesis statements supported by evidence.

Generate

SUMMARIES, GENERALIZATIONS, AND THESIS STATEMENTS SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Summaries are a concise version of information.
  • Generalizations are broad statements based on the evidence presented by patterns.
  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay.
NewWG.22C Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

GEOGRAPHIC TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWG.22D Create original work using effective written communication skills, including proper citations and understanding and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

ORIGINAL WORK

Use

EFFECTIVE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21B Identify places of contemporary geopolitical significance on a map.

Locate

PLACES OF CONTEMPORARY GEOPOLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE ON A MAP

NewWG.21C Create and interpret different types of maps to answer geographic questions, infer relationships, and analyze change.

Create, Interpret

TYPES OF MAPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examples of types of maps: physical, topographical, political, climate, population, economic, cultural trait (e.g., religion), road
  • Examples of types of map projections: Mercator, Robinson, Mollweide, broken equal area (interrupted), polar
  • Use maps to
    • Answer geographic questions
    • Infer relationships
    • Analyze change
NewWG.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWG.22A Create appropriate graphics such as maps, diagrams, tables, and graphs to communicate geographic features, distributions, and relationships.

Design, Draw

APPROPRIATE GRAPHICS TO COMMUNICATE GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND RELATIONSHIPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Diagrams
  • Tables
  • Graphs
NewWG.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWG.23A Plan, organize, and complete a research project that involves asking geographic questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information; answering questions; and communicating results.

Plan, Organize, Complete

RESEARCH PROJECT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking geographic questions
  • Acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information
  • Answering questions
  • Communicating results
NewWG.23B Use case studies and GIS to identify contemporary challenges and to answer real-world questions.

Use

CASE STUDIES AND GIS

Identify

CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES

Answer

REAL-WORLD QUESTIONS

NewWG.23C Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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