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Instructional Focus Document
World Geography Studies Regional
TITLE : Regional Unit 08: Africa SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit continues the examination of the world’s major regions by applying the knowledge gained in the previous units. An examination of regions is intended to facilitate students’ knowledge about 1) natural conditions of various regions, 2) human conditions of various regions, and 3) an understanding of the human connections made within a region and across regions. Such connections are evident in human patterns of migration and human-environment interaction. Throughout the remainder of the course students examine various regions by exploring the following questions in regards to each regional unit of study:

  1. Where is it?
  2. What is it like there in both physical and human terms?
  3. How would the character of this place be described?
  4. How have the physical landscape and human characteristics of this place changed over time?
  5. How is this place linked physically, economically, culturally to other places?
  6. How is this place similar or different when compared to other places?
  7. What influence does this place have on other places?
  8. How does knowing about this place help in understanding the world better?

This unit bundles student expectations that facilitate an examination of the physical and human geographic factors that characterize Africa as a region and the connections between this region and the world. Africa is a region rich in natural resources but economically challenged by physical geography and the legacy of colonialism. Most African nations’ economic development is tied to primary activities and levels of poverty continue to be high in the region. These factors influence the levels of development in the region.  Africa is a large land mass. The adoption of the colonial boundaries as the current political boundaries created a large number of political states in Africa. These boundaries sometimes created geographic challenges for nations that lacked access to waterways and ports, as well as created tension between ethnic groups living with a particular boundary. African nations are challenged to establish sustainable economic systems as the population in the region continues to grow. 

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about Southwest Asia as a region. 

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about how physical geography affects settlement patterns in Africa, about the levels of economic development in Africa, about the effects of Africa’s population growth, and about the challenges to creating sustainable development in Africa.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about the physical and human characteristics that distinguish South Asia as a region and the connections between the region and the world.


Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict?

Economies develop to manage limited resources.

  • How have different economic systems addressed people’s wants and needs?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Africa’s physical geographic diversity in climate regions and ecosystems affects settlement patterns along with the processes of modification and adaptation.

  • What is characteristic about the distribution of climate regions and biomes in Africa?
  • How do climate patterns and physical geography affect settlement patterns in Africa?
  • Why and how is desertification and deforestation happening in Africa?

Spatial Patterns

  • Climate
  • Ecosystems/Biomes
  • Human-Environment Interaction
  • Population Distribution
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The level of economic development varies amongst the nations in Africa, yet most economic activity in the region is connected to primary industries.

  • What is characteristic of the economic activities in Africa?
  • What is characteristic of the levels of economic development in the nation of Africa?
  • What traditional economies are evident in Africa?

Economic Patterns

  • Resources
  • Levels of Development
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Africa’s growing population is causing a strain on resources and a rise in conflicts.

  • What is characteristic of the demographic patterns and distribution of the population in Africa?
  • How are growing population pressures instigating tensions and conflicts in Africa?

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution

Cultural Patterns

  • Demographics

Historical Patterns

  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Post-colonial boundaries and political policies along with physical geography have impeded sustainable development in Africa.

  • How were the current political boundaries in Africa established?
  • Why did Sudan recently change political boundaries?
  • What was characteristic of the political systems that were established in many African nations following decolonization?
  • Why has creating sustainable development been a challenge for leaders in Africa?
  • What economic opportunities are there in Africa for women and other underrepresented groups?
  • What geographic factors have influenced the location of economic activities in Africa?

Economic Patterns

  •  Resources

Political Patterns

  • Colonization

Historical Processes

  • Change/Continuity
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may lack background knowledge about colonialism in Africa, and how newly independent many of the nations of the region are in relative terms.
  • Students tend to think of Africa as a nation as opposed to a region consisting of many various nations.
  • Students lack an understanding of the size of Africa in general as many maps do not represent Africa correctly in proportion to other regions.

Unit Vocabulary

subsistence agriculture – the practice of growing enough crops to provide for one’s family group
cottage industry – production of goods in a small-scale or home setting
commercial agriculture – the practice of growing surplus crops to sell for profit
desertification – the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert; is usually caused by climate change or by destructive use of the land
decolonization – the process of ending colonization of a region

Related Vocabulary:

  • sustainable development
  • deforestation
  • primary industries
  • secondary industries
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewWG.2 The student understands how people, places, and environments have changed over time and the effects of these changes. The student is expected to:
NewWG.2A Describe the human and physical characteristics of the same regions at different periods of time to analyze relationships between past events and current conditions.

Describe, Analyze

HUMAN AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAME REGIONS AT DIFFERENT PERIODS OF TIME TO EVALUATE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PAST EVENTS AND CURRENT CONDITIONS

Including, but not limited to:
Human Characteristic to analyze for change over time

  • Development of governments, economies, cultural convergence
  • Events like war, revolution, exploration, trade have an impact on societies over time, including changes in city landscapes and cultural landscapes

Physical Characteristics to analyze for change over time

  • Domestication of plants and animals and the use of different geographic features (e.g., plains for agriculture)
  • The expansion or decline of environment regions (e.g., the expansion of the Sahara and the decline of tropical rainforests)
  • Major geological events on civilizations
NewWG.4 The student understands the patterns and characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems of Earth and the interrelated processes that produce them. The student is expected to:
NewWG.4C Explain the influence of climate on the distribution of biomes in different regions.

Explain

THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF BIOMES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Biomes or ecosystems are defined by a specific community of plants and animals that inhabit that region. Biomes are classified into four main categories: forests, grasslands, deserts, and tundra.

Forests

  • Temperate Deciduous Forest – found in the mid latitudes where the climate is characterized by plentiful rainfall, moderate temperatures, and cool winters. Characterized by trees that lose their leaves after changing colors in the fall.
  • Temperate Coniferous Forest – found in temperate climate zones where the summers are warm and the winters are cool and rainfall is adequate. Evergreens predominate and these forests can be found in coastal areas that experience mild winters and heavy rainfall as well as inland in mountainous areas.
  • Taiga or Boreal Forest – the world’s largest biome is located in the highest northern latitudes where average temperatures and average precipitation are low and are characterized by evergreen coniferous forests.  Animals living in this biome must adapt to very cold temperatures.
  • Tropical Rainforests – found in tropical areas near the equator where the climate is characterized by plentiful rainfall and warm year round temperatures. This biome is home to a great variety of plant and animal life. 

Grasslands

  • Steppes – found in climates that are experience low levels of rainfall, therefore there is an absence of trees. This biome is home to large grazing animals.
  • Savannas – found in climates that experience low levels of rainfall, yet have a little more than steppes and therefore have some trees. Also home to a variety of large animal species.

Deserts

  • Deserts are distinguished by a lack of rainfall, usually less than ten inches per year and can be hot or cold. These climate conditions require the plants and the animals in this biome to adapt to the extreme conditions.

Tundra or Arctic Biome

  • Found almost entirely in the Northern Hemisphere near the Arctic Ocean, it is characterized by low amounts of precipitation and extremely cold temperatures. Permafrost or frozen subsoil makes it difficult to sustain plant life in this biome; therefore this biome lacks trees and is distinguished by small shrubs and low growing plants. These plants have adapted to the colder climate conditions and thrive in the short summer and spring. Animals in this region are few and must adapt to the extreme climate conditions.
NewWG.5 The student understands how political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions. The student is expected to:
NewWG.5B Interpret political, economic, social, and demographic indicators (gross domestic product per capita, life expectancy, literacy, and infant mortality) to determine the level of development and standard of living in nations using the levels as defined by the Human Development Index.

Interpret

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS TO DETERMINE THE LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARD OF LIVING IN NATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Human Development Index (HDI)- refers to the ranking of nations done by the United Nations based on a composite data; intended to measure human development; the index is based on a measure of basic facets of human development, including a decent standard of living, long and healthy life, and education
  • The HDI provides data which allows for a glimpse of current conditions as well as an examination of long term trends
NewWG.6 The student understands the types, patterns, and processes of settlement. The student is expected to:
NewWG.6A Locate and describe human and physical features that influence the size and distribution of settlements.

Locate, Describe

HUMAN AND PHYSICAL FEATURES THAT INFLUENCE THE SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SETTLEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Human features that influence settlement patterns may include the availability of economic opportunities, the location of transportation routes, access to housing, opportunities for political participation. Populations tend to settle in areas that provide services, have infrastructure in place and are politically attractive.
  • Physical features greatly influence the habitability of a place. Populations tend to concentrate in regions with favorable climates, where there is access to water and areas that are suitable for agricultural output. Through most of history settlements have concentrated near coastlines and in river valleys. For example the eastern coast of China, or along the coast in Australia.
NewWG.7 The student understands the growth, distribution, movement, and characteristics of world population. The student is expected to:
NewWG.7A Analyze population pyramids and use other data, graphics, and maps to describe the population characteristics of different societies and to predict future population trends.

Analyze

POPULATION PYRAMIDS

Describe

POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS

Predict

FUTURE POPULATION TRENDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Population pyramids refer to a graphic model of the age and gender demographics of specific population at a given time; analysis will indicate negative, rapid or slow growth rates; students should also examine what processes created the observable trend and make predictions based on observable trends, i.e. one child policy in China.
  • Population trends can also be analyzed by looking at population density maps, cartograms, and population growth charts
NewWG.7C Describe trends in world population growth and distribution.

Describe

TRENDS IN WORLD POPULATION GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • World population growth is dependent on birth rates and death rates and these rates vary across the globe. Less developed regions tend to experience higher birth rates and higher infant mortality rates and lower life expectancy rates, while developed regions characteristically have low birth rates resulting in slow population growth and sometimes negative growth rates.
  • Over the last 150 years the world’s population has grown exponentially reaching one billion in the early nineteenth century. Currently the world’s population is over seven billion and is projected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Medical advances have resulted in increased life expectancies at the same time birth rates have been declining. Since the early nineteenth century the world’s population has increasingly become urbanized so now half of the world’s population lives in urban areas.
  • The world’s population is distributed unevenly and is correlated to the access to economic opportunities and resources as well as to climate. Increased economic opportunities accounts for a concentration of population in urban areas, along transportation corridors and near water. Population is less concentrated in in the polar regions of the globe because of the extreme climate in the region.
NewWG.8 The student understands how people, places, and environments are connected and interdependent. The student is expected to:
NewWG.8A Compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment, including the influences of culture and technology.

Compare

WAYS THAT HUMANS DEPEND ON, ADAPT TO, AND MODIFY THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Build dams, windmills, dikes, polders, levees, railroads, bridges, highways, terrace farming
  • Installing solar panels
  • Dredging and irrigation
  • Deforestation, mining, oil extraction, desalination, soil leaching, overgrazing
  • Burning fossil fuels
  • Creating advanced  warning systems for earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes and tsunamis
  • Planting seasonal and/or drought resistant crops  and using fertilizers to increase agricultural output
NewWG.8C Evaluate the economic and political relationships between settlements and the environment, including sustainable development and renewable/non-renewable resources.

Evaluate

ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SETTLEMENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sustainable development refers to a pattern of economic development and resource management that ensures the preservation of the environment for future generations.  Political entities have a vested interest in economic development.  The challenge for most political entities is to balance economic development with promotion of sustainable development, environment protection and management of natural resources, both renewable and nonrenewable.
NewWG.10 The student understands the distribution, characteristics, and interactions of the economic systems in the world. The student is expected to:
NewWG.10C Compare the ways people satisfy their basic needs through the production of goods and services such as subsistence agriculture versus commercial agriculture or cottage industries versus commercial industries.

Compare

WAYS PEOPLE SATISFY THEIR BASIC NEEDS THROUGH THE PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • People who practice subsistence farming produce enough agricultural output to provide for the needs of their family.  In comparison, commercial agriculture is characterized by agricultural surplus output that is sold for profit.
  • Cottage industries are characterized by the small scale production of goods done generally in a home-based setting, such as weaving cloth. In comparison commercial industries produce in a larger setting, such as a factory, produce a larger amount of goods, and employ more workers.
NewWG.11 The student understands how geography influences economic activities. The student is expected to:
NewWG.11A Understand the connections between levels of development and economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary).

Understand

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Developing countries rely more on primary and secondary economic activities, while developed countries rely more on tertiary and quaternary activities. More developed countries are able to offer more service-oriented jobs, while importing raw materials and manufactured goods from developing countries.
  • Primary activities include those jobs focused on raw extraction of natural resources (e.g., mining, agriculture, fishing), secondary activities are jobs focused on manufacturing goods (e.g., manufacturing, construction), tertiary activities include those in the service sector (e.g., transportation, sanitary services, commerce and trade), and quaternary activities involve jobs related to information processing and management (e.g., finance, computer industry, high education, research).
NewWG.11B Identify the factors affecting the location of different types of economic activities, including subsistence and commercial agriculture, manufacturing, and service industries.

Identify

FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Including, but not limited to:

Factors affecting the location of subsistence agriculture

  • Favorable climate, access to arable land and water, as well as natural resources

Factors affecting the location of commercial agriculture

  • Favorable climate, arable land, access to labor, access to water, proximity of transportation corridors

Factors affecting the location of manufacturing

  • Availability of labor, infrastructure, capital resources and proximity to transportation corridors

Factors affecting the location of service industries

  • Availability of labor, capital resources, access to consumers, and proximity to transportation corridors
NewWG.13 The student understands the spatial characteristics of a variety of global political units. The student is expected to:
NewWG.13A Interpret maps to explain the division of land, including man-made and natural borders, into separate political units such as cities, states, or countries.

Interpret, Explain

MAPS OF POLITICAL DIVISIONS AND UNITS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical geographic features such as mountains, rivers, and oceans can create natural borders between political units.
  • Several factors can contribute to the creation of man-made borders. Man-made political borders are generally made following wars to reflect the changes in control of territory. Man-made division may reflect the ethnic divisions within a region, colonial land claims, or the efforts of groups to isolate themselves.
NewWG.14 The student understands the processes that influence political divisions, relationships, and policies. The student is expected to:
NewWG.14A Analyze current events to infer the physical and human processes that lead to the formation of boundaries and other political divisions.

Analyze, Infer

CURRENT EVENTS AND PROCESSES THAT LEAD TO FORMATION OF BOUNDARIES AND DIVISIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical processes such as climate change, natural hazards, and plate tectonic movement can lead to the formation of new boundaries. Examples of this are evident in areas where rising sea levels are affecting coastal boundaries.
  • Human processes generally associated with conflict and the resulting treaties have led to the development of new boundaries and political divisions. Examples include the new boundary divisions made following the First World War; the division of Korea and Vietnam following wars in those regions; the creation of boundaries in Africa by colonial leaders; the U.N. partition of Palestine and Israel; and the division of Republic of Sudan and South Sudan following years of conflict and vote for independence in South Sudan. 
NewWG.17 The student understands the distribution, patterns, and characteristics of different cultures. The student is expected to:
NewWG.17C Compare economic, political, or social opportunities in different cultures for underrepresented populations such as women and ethnic and religious minorities.

Compare

OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN AND MINORITIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Generally women, ethnic, religious minorities and underrepresented populations lack economic, political, or social opportunities in many regions of the world. These groups have historically been afforded more opportunities in western cultures where there has been a tradition of an expansion of freedoms and rights for underrepresented groups.
  • Generally these groups, especially women are underrepresented in elected political bodies, even in democratic societies.
  • In some regions there is a disparity in the number of girls being educated as opposed to boys. National and international organizations are working to close this gap and create more opportunities for an education for all groups.
  • These groups continue to strive for economic opportunities with microcredit being one source of investment especially for women. Global economic recession and depression affect these groups adversely as many lack alternative income sources.
  • Possible data to use in comparing cultures may include number of political representatives from these groups, numbers having access to public education, numbers of minority and women owned business, patterns of voting rights, etc.
NewWG.18 The student understands the ways in which cultures change and maintain continuity. The student is expected to:
NewWG.18B Assess causes and effects of conflicts between groups of people, including modern genocides and terrorism.

Assess

CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND PERCEPTIONS OF CONFLICTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conflicts between groups generally occur when there is a disparity in access to resources and/ or a disparity in political power between groups.  Ethnic and cultural differences serve to differentiate the oppressed and the oppressors.
  • Effects from conflicts between groups can result in genocide, ethnic cleansing, acts of terrorism, emergence of new cultural patterns such as  with colonization in Latin America, lingering animosities, and codified segregation such as apartheid in South Africa
  • Perceptions of conflicts between groups of people can be influenced by propaganda, media reports, and one’s cultural beliefs.
NewWG.18C Identify examples of cultures that maintain traditional ways, including traditional economies.

Identify

EXAMPLES OF CULTURE THAT MAINTAIN TRADITIONAL WAYS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inuit of North America
  • Indigenous peoples of Australia
  • Pacific Islanders
  • Nenets living in Siberia
  • Indigenous peoples living in the Amazon rainforest
  • Traditional practices are passed from generation to generation
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21B Identify places of contemporary geopolitical significance on a map.

Locate

PLACES OF CONTEMPORARY GEOPOLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE ON A MAP

NewWG.21C Create and interpret different types of maps to answer geographic questions, infer relationships, and analyze change.

Create, Interpret

TYPES OF MAPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examples of types of maps: physical, topographical, political, climate, population, economic, cultural trait (e.g., religion), road
  • Examples of types of map projections: Mercator, Robinson, Mollweide, broken equal area (interrupted), polar
  • Use maps to
    • Answer geographic questions
    • Infer relationships
    • Analyze change
NewWG.21D Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
  • Developing connections over time involves the examination of how political, economic, social, and geographic factors have change over time or how those factors have remained the same over time.
NewWG.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWG.22A Create appropriate graphics such as maps, diagrams, tables, and graphs to communicate geographic features, distributions, and relationships.

Design, Draw

APPROPRIATE GRAPHICS TO COMMUNICATE GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND RELATIONSHIPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Diagrams
  • Tables
  • Graphs
NewWG.22B Generate summaries, generalizations, and thesis statements supported by evidence.

Generate

SUMMARIES, GENERALIZATIONS, AND THESIS STATEMENTS SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Summaries are a concise version of information.
  • Generalizations are broad statements based on the evidence presented by patterns.
  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay.
NewWG.22C Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

GEOGRAPHIC TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWG.22D Create original work using effective written communication skills, including proper citations and understanding and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

ORIGINAL WORK

Use

EFFECTIVE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21A Analyze and evaluate the validity and utility of multiple sources of geographic information such as primary and secondary sources, aerial photographs, and maps.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Primary sources
  • Secondary sources
  • Aerial photographs
  • Maps
NewWG.21E Identify different points of view about an issue or current topic.

Identify

POINTS OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
NewWG.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWG.23A

Plan, organize, and complete a research project that involves asking geographic questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information; answering questions; and communicating results.

Plan, Organize, Complete

RESEARCH PROJECT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking geographic questions
  • Acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information
  • Answering questions
  • Communicating results
NewWG.23B Use case studies and GIS to identify contemporary challenges and to answer real-world questions.

Use

CASE STUDIES AND GIS

Identify

CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES

Answer

REAL-WORLD QUESTIONS

NewWG.23C Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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