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Instructional Focus Document
World Geography Studies Regional
TITLE : Regional Unit 05: Europe SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit continues the examination of the world’s major regions by applying the knowledge gained in the previous units. An examination of regions is intended to facilitate students’ knowledge about 1) natural conditions of various regions, 2) human conditions of various regions, and 3) an understanding of the human connections made within a region and across regions. Such connections are evident in human patterns of migration and human-environment interaction. Throughout the remainder of the course students examine various regions by exploring the following questions in regards to each regional unit of study:

  1. Where is it?
  2. What is it like there in both physical and human terms?
  3. How would the character of this place be described?
  4. How have the physical landscape and human characteristics of this place changed over time?
  5. How is this place linked physically, economically, culturally to other places?
  6. How is this place similar or different when compared to other places?
  7. What influence does this place have on other places?
  8. How does knowing about this place help in understanding the world better?

This unit bundles student expectations that facilitate an examination of the physical and human geographic factors that characterize Europe as a region and the connections between this region and the world. Europeans have adapted to the physical environment, created economic systems with high levels of development, and formed various political and regional boundaries, including the European Union. Europe is a region that is cultural unified by Christianity, a common history, common language patterns, and common political ideas. Yet the region is politically divided into several nation-states and cultural enclaves, while economically unified by the European Union.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about Latin America as a region as well as concepts related to economic development. 

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about how physical geography affects patterns in Europe, about the political division and cultural unity of Europe, about the twentieth century history of conflict and cooperation in Europe, and about the impact of negative population growth in Europe.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about the physical and human characteristics that distinguish Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia as regional entities and the connections made in these regions.


Culture serves to unify people.

  • What commonalities binds people together as a group?

Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Physical geography, building of infrastructure, and industrialization have impacted migration routes, settlement patterns, and economic development in Europe.

  • How has the physical geography of Europe influenced patterns of migration and the location of economic activities in the region?
  • What is characteristic about the settlement patterns of Europe?
  • How have changes in transportation and communication impacted migration and economic development in Europe?

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration
  • Population Distribution

Scientific/ Technological Patterns

  • Communication Systems
  • Transportation

Economic Patterns

  • Resources
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Europe is politically divided into many nations, yet the region’s people share a common culture.

  • What is characteristic of the formal political boundaries in Europe?
  • What is distinctive about the cultural landscape of Europe?
  • In what ways are Europeans unified by cultural convergence?
  • How are lifestyles in urban and rural Europe similar and different?

Spatial Patterns

  • Regions/Borders

Cultural Patterns

  • Customs/Traditions
  • Convergence/Divergence
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The twentieth century in Europe has been characterized by periods of conflict and ultimately the formation of supranational organizations to facilitate cooperation.

  • What events led to the establishment of the current borders in Europe?
  • Why were supranational organizations such as the United Nations and the European Union formed?
  • What accounts for the genocides of the twentieth century that took place in Europe, such as in Armenia, Germany, and Bosnia?
  • How does the European Union work to unify Europe and still protect national and local autonomy?

Historical Process

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Spatial Patterns

  • Region/Borders

Political Patterns

  • Supranational Organizations
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Negative population growth in Europe has resulted in increased immigration and cultural challenges.

  • What is characteristic about the demographic patterns and population distribution in Europe?
  • What changes in population patterns have caused tensions and conflicts in Europe?
  • What are some examples of cultural divergence in Europe?
  • How does culture affect public policies, citizenship practices, and decision making in European nations?

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration
  • Population Distribution

Cultural Patterns

  • Demographics
  • Convergence/Divergence
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may have difficulty understanding the operation of supranational organizations and the preservation of local sovereignty.

Unit Vocabulary

supranational region – a territory that is created by the union of several nations coming together to form a group
globalization – the process of increasing connectivity between the world’s societies
manufacturing industries – economic activities related to the production of goods for sale
service industries – economic activities related to providing services for sale  
infrastructure – systems that facilitate communication and transportation in a community
enclave – a culturally distinct territory which is isolated or surrounded by another territory

Related Vocabulary:

  • migration
  • cultural convergence
  • cultural divergence
  • cultural diffusion
  • character of place
  • tertiary industries
  • quaternary industries
  • urban
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
NewWG.1 The student understands how geography and processes of spatial exchange (diffusion) influenced events in the past and helped to shape the present. The student is expected to:
NewWG.1A Analyze significant physical features and environmental conditions that have influenced the past and migration patterns and have shaped the distribution of culture groups today.

Analyze

PHYSICAL FEATURES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS THAT HAVE INFLUENCED THE PAST AND MIGRATION PATTERNS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURE GROUPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical features such as major mountain ranges, deserts, plains, bodies of water, and river basins can act as barriers to migration or facilitate migration. For example the Sahara desert has historically been a barrier to migration, while the Northern Plains of Europe have facilitated migration.  Where physical geography has facilitated migration, multicultural patterns emerge.
  • Environmental conditions, such as drought, water scarcity, rising sea levels, and extreme weather events can impact migration as some choose or are forced to leave from affected areas.
NewWG.2 The student understands how people, places, and environments have changed over time and the effects of these changes. The student is expected to:
NewWG.2A Describe the human and physical characteristics of the same regions at different periods of time to analyze relationships between past events and current conditions.

Describe, Analyze

HUMAN AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAME REGIONS AT DIFFERENT PERIODS OF TIME TO EVALUATE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PAST EVENTS AND CURRENT CONDITIONS

Including, but not limited to:
Human Characteristic to analyze for change over time

  • Development of governments, economies, cultural convergence
  • Events like war, revolution, exploration, trade have an impact on societies over time, including changes in city landscapes and cultural landscapes

Physical Characteristics to analyze for change over time

  • Domestication of plants and animals and the use of different geographic features (e.g., plains for agriculture)
  • The expansion or decline of environment regions (e.g., the expansion of the Sahara and the decline of tropical rainforests)
  • Major geological events on civilizations
NewWG.5 The student understands how political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions. The student is expected to:
NewWG.5A Analyze how the character of a place is related to its political, economic, social, and cultural elements.

Analyze

HOW THE CHARACTER OF A PLACE IS RELATED TO ITS POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL ELEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Character of a place refers to the physical and human geographic characteristics that distinguish a particular place. Physical geographic factors such as climate, vegetation, settlement patterns, population density relate to the character of a place as do the political, economic, social and cultural features that make a place unique. Since these features can change over time the character of a place can change over time also.
  • Character of place can be analyzed on a macro level such as examining the character of a culture region or on a micro level, such as examine the character of a city or neighborhood.

 

NewWG.6 The student understands the types, patterns, and processes of settlement. The student is expected to:
NewWG.6A Locate and describe human and physical features that influence the size and distribution of settlements.

Locate, Describe

HUMAN AND PHYSICAL FEATURES THAT INFLUENCE THE SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SETTLEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Human features that influence settlement patterns may include the availability of economic opportunities, the location of transportation routes, access to housing, opportunities for political participation. Populations tend to settle in areas that provide services, have infrastructure in place and are politically attractive.
  • Physical features greatly influence the habitability of a place. Populations tend to concentrate in regions with favorable climates, where there is access to water and areas that are suitable for agricultural output. Through most of history settlements have concentrated near coastlines and in river valleys. For example the eastern coast of China, or along the coast in Australia.
NewWG.6B Explain the processes that have caused changes in settlement patterns, including urbanization, transportation, access to and availability of resources, and economic activities.

Explain

PROCESSES THAT HAVE CAUSED CHANGES IN SETTLEMENT PATTERNS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Urbanization refers to the migration of people from rural to urban settings generally to access jobs, which primarily coincidences with industrial development in a nation
  • Transportation systems facilitate the settlement of areas that were previously inaccessible; generally settlements grow near locations along the transportation routes and allow people to live further from location of work; examples include the building of railroads such as the Trans-Siberian and Transcontinental Railroads, building the Interstate highway system which resulted in the growth of suburban settlements; urban and suburban road systems of principal  and minor arteries connecting dwellings with commerce and employment.  
  • Availability of resources such as water facilitate population centers that need abundant water resources; settlements grow near locations of economic activities associated with extraction of natural resources
  • Economic activities facilitate people migrating to and settling where there are new economic opportunities; examples include the California Gold Rush, the Austin Colony, migration from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt, Eastern Europe to Western Europe migration within the EU, migration to western North Dakota and south Texas to work in an expanding oil industry
NewWG.7 The student understands the growth, distribution, movement, and characteristics of world population. The student is expected to:
NewWG.7A Analyze population pyramids and use other data, graphics, and maps to describe the population characteristics of different societies and to predict future population trends.

Analyze

POPULATION PYRAMIDS

Describe

POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS

Predict

FUTURE POPULATION TRENDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Population pyramids refer to a graphic model of the age and gender demographics of specific population at a given time; analysis will indicate negative, rapid or slow growth rates; students should also examine what processes created the observable trend and make predictions based on observable trends, i.e. one child policy in China.
  • Population trends can also be analyzed by looking at population density maps, cartograms, and population growth charts
NewWG.7C Describe trends in world population growth and distribution.

Describe

TRENDS IN WORLD POPULATION GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • World population growth is dependent on birth rates and death rates and these rates vary across the globe. Less developed regions tend to experience higher birth rates and higher infant mortality rates and lower life expectancy rates, while developed regions characteristically have low birth rates resulting in slow population growth and sometimes negative growth rates.
  • Over the last 150 years the world’s population has grown exponentially reaching one billion in the early nineteenth century. Currently the world’s population is over seven billion and is projected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Medical advances have resulted in increased life expectancies at the same time birth rates have been declining. Since the early nineteenth century the world’s population has increasingly become urbanized so now half of the world’s population lives in urban areas.
  • The world’s population is distributed unevenly and is correlated to the access to economic opportunities and resources as well as to climate. Increased economic opportunities accounts for a concentration of population in urban areas, along transportation corridors and near water. Population is less concentrated in in the polar regions of the globe because of the extreme climate in the region.
NewWG.7D Analyze how globalization affects connectivity, standard of living, pandemics, and loss of local culture.

Analyze

HOW GLOBALIZATION AFFECTS CONNECTIVITY, STANDARD OF LIVING, PANDEMICS, LOSS OF LOCAL CULTURE

Including, but not limited to:

  •  Rising standards of living in regions that benefit from global markets
  • Political cooperation/connectivity among nations, i.e. European Union
  • Connectivity has increased with use of social media
  • Spread of technological innovations, including advances in medical care
  • Cultural diffusion that sometimes results in a rich cultural convergence or loss of local culture
  • Pandemics as products and people travel more
  • Poor treatment of low wage earners in some industries
  • Growth in multinational corporations challenges the sovereignty of vulnerable nation-states
  • Loss of jobs in some regions with the growth of outsourcing in other regions
NewWG.11 The student understands how geography influences economic activities. The student is expected to:
NewWG.11B Identify the factors affecting the location of different types of economic activities, including subsistence and commercial agriculture, manufacturing, and service industries.

Identify

FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Including, but not limited to:

Factors affecting the location of subsistence agriculture

  • Favorable climate, access to arable land and water, as well as natural resources

Factors affecting the location of commercial agriculture

  • Favorable climate, arable land, access to labor, access to water, proximity of transportation corridors

Factors affecting the location of manufacturing

  • Availability of labor, infrastructure, capital resources and proximity to transportation corridors

Factors affecting the location of service industries

  • Availability of labor, capital resources, access to consumers, and proximity to transportation corridors
NewWG.11C Assess how changes in climate, resources, and infrastructure (technology, transportation, and communication) affect the location and patterns of economic activities.

Assess

HOW CHANGES AFFECT LOCATION AND PATTERNS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Including, but not limited to:

Climate changes affecting economic patterns

  • Climate changes can affect economic patterns by impacting the output of agricultural production, such as when droughts occur. Increasing desertification results in the movement of agricultural activities. Natural disasters can cause economic disruptions and relation of businesses, as well as destroying cash crops.

Resources affecting economic patterns

  • Access to cheaper resources can affect the location of economic activities. This is evident in the relocation of economic activities to regions with cheaper labor as well as the relocation of economic activities to be near skilled labor, such as locating near higher education facilities.

Infrastructure affecting economic patterns

  • Economic activities tend to located near transportation networks that allow for distribution of goods as well as allow for access for consumers. Improvements and lower costs in communication technologies have allowed for outsourcing. 
NewWG.12 The student understands the economic importance of, and issues related to, the location and management of resources. The student is expected to:
NewWG.12A Analyze how the creation, distribution, and management of key natural resources affects the location and patterns of movement of products, money, and people.

Analyze

HOW CREATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES AFFECT LOCATION AND PATTERNS OF PRODUCTS, MONEY, AND PEOPLE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Discovery of key deposits of natural resources results in migration of people seeking economic opportunities working to extract natural resources. Examples of this include the migration of South Asians to work mines in South Africa, the California Gold Rush, and migrations to oil fields. In order to distribute key resources roads and pipelines are constructed, such as the Interoceanic Highway linking Peruvian ports with Brazil.
  • Demand for arable land can result in the loss of forested areas and cause animal populations in those regions to be pushed out of their habitat.
  • Creation of resources such as the through the use of desalination allows for settlement in regions stricken by a lack of water resources.
  • Analysis may include examination of land redistribution, extraction of minerals and oil, desalinization, cutting of rainforests, and building of infrastructure such as pipelines.
NewWG.14 The student understands the processes that influence political divisions, relationships, and policies. The student is expected to:
NewWG.14A Analyze current events to infer the physical and human processes that lead to the formation of boundaries and other political divisions.

Analyze, Infer

CURRENT EVENTS AND PROCESSES THAT LEAD TO FORMATION OF BOUNDARIES AND DIVISIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical processes such as climate change, natural hazards, and plate tectonic movement can lead to the formation of new boundaries. Examples of this are evident in areas where rising sea levels are affecting coastal boundaries.
  • Human processes generally associated with conflict and the resulting treaties have led to the development of new boundaries and political divisions. Examples include the new boundary divisions made following the First World War; the division of Korea and Vietnam following wars in those regions; the creation of boundaries in Africa by colonial leaders; the U.N. partition of Palestine and Israel; and the division of Republic of Sudan and South Sudan following years of conflict and vote for independence in South Sudan. 
NewWG.14C Analyze the human and physical factors that influence control of territories and resources, conflict/war, and international relations of sovereign nations such as China, the United States, Japan, and Russia and international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU).

Analyze

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE POWER, CONFLICT, AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The power to control territory is most dependent on access to resources and the ability to transport resources. The ability to control territory is influenced by a political entity’s capacity to maintain military power, create stable government, and provide economic investment. Additionally, scientific innovation is important for development of new techniques to manage key resources and advance military capabilities. Favorable physical geography facilitates the mobilization of military forces and the transportation of resources, hence why the control of the Panama and Suez canals have been historical issues.
  • Conflicts and war arise from the need to control key natural resources, including access to water and energy sources, such as oil. Inherent in the need to access resources is the need to control territory, so that competing claims to territories leads to conflicts also, such as the conflict in Palestine.  Physical geography serves to isolate and protect some locations and facilitate the mobilization of troops in other places. International organizations such as the United Nations (UN) often serve to mitigate conflicts and respond to war.
  • The need to share resources has impacted international relationships, including creating trade agreements between nation-states such as free trade agreements, creating cartels such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and facilitating the creation of the European Union (EU).
NewWG.15 The student understands how different points of view influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes at national and international levels. The student is expected to:
NewWG.15A Identify and give examples of different points of view that influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes at national and international levels.

Identify, Give examples

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW THAT INFLUENCE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC POLOCIES AND DECISION-MAKING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Possible points of view to examine may include climate change, globalization, environmental regulations, migration, sustainability, wildlife management, use of alternative energy sources.
NewWG.15B Explain how citizenship practices, public policies, and decision making may be influenced by cultural beliefs, including nationalism and patriotism.

Explain

HOW CITIZENSHIP PRACTICES MAY BE INFLUENCED BY CULTURAL BELIEFS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cultural beliefs such as patriotism and nationalism can influence citizens to become involved in public policy and decision-making. For example in the United States the commitment to democratic traditions results in political stability.  Religious influences are evident in the constitutions of nations, including predominately Muslim nations, such as Kuwait.  
  • Nationalism and patriotism can lead to motivated and informed citizenry, but can also lead to extremist movements that push particularly cultural beliefs into citizenship practices, public policy, and decision-making.
NewWG.16 The student understands how the components of culture affect the way people live and shape the characteristics of regions. The student is expected to:
NewWG.16A Describe distinctive cultural patterns and landscapes associated with different places in Texas, the United States, and other regions of the world and how these patterns influenced the processes of innovation and diffusion.

Describe

CULTURAL PATTERNS AND HOW PATTERNS INFLUENCED THE PROCESSES OF INNOVATION AND DIFFUSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cultural landscape refers to the modification of a place by people and includes what humans have planted, built and modified in the physical landscape.  
  • Cultural patterns refer to the distribution and characteristics of the beliefs, values, attitudes, norms, and customs in a region.
  • Distinctive cultural patterns of Texas, the United States, and other regions of the world include cultural landscapes of agriculture versus urban centers, and reflect varying belief systems and values of cultures.
  • Cultural landscapes and cultural patterns are influenced by the processes of innovation and diffusion. An example of this is the predominance of fast food restaurants around the globe that have created a common cultural landscape.
NewWG.16C Describe life in a variety of urban and rural areas in the world to compare political, economic, social, and environmental changes.

Describe

LIFE IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

Compare

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Descriptions may include how political, economic, social and environmental changes affect ways of life in both rural and urban settings. For example how is life affected when living in democratic regions compared to the theocracy of Iran or the dictatorship of North Korea? How is life affected by economics, such as comparing life in more industrialized region with life in a less industrialized region? How is life affected by social patterns, such as living in colonial areas of the Caribbean or Australia?
NewWG.18 The student understands the ways in which cultures change and maintain continuity. The student is expected to:
NewWG.18B Assess causes and effects of conflicts between groups of people, including modern genocides and terrorism.

Assess

CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND PERCEPTIONS OF CONFLICTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conflicts between groups generally occur when there is a disparity in access to resources and/ or a disparity in political power between groups.  Ethnic and cultural differences serve to differentiate the oppressed and the oppressors.
  • Effects from conflicts between groups can result in genocide, ethnic cleansing, acts of terrorism, emergence of new cultural patterns such as  with colonization in Latin America, lingering animosities, and codified segregation such as apartheid in South Africa Perceptions of conflicts between groups of people can be influenced by propaganda, media reports, and one’s cultural beliefs.
NewWG.18D Evaluate the spread of cultural traits to find examples of cultural convergence and divergence such as the spread of democratic ideas, language, foods, technology, or global sports.

Evaluate, Find examples

CULTURAL CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cultural convergence occurs when the ideas, habits, skills, arts, and institutions of one culture come in contact and interact with those of another culture. Subsequently, this contact results in the cultures becoming more alike.
  • Cultural divergence is the process of disassociating cultures or protecting a culture from other influences.
  • Examples of cultural convergence include the spread of democratic ideas from Europe to North America and other countries around the world, the spread of the English language as the dominant form of communication, the spread of U.S.-based fast-food franchises and technology companies, spread and popularity of soccer, the emergence of new styles of dance and music in Latin America.
  • Examples of cultural divergence include the historical ethnic division in the Balkans, the Basques in Spain, Québécois, and indigenous cultures.
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21C Create and interpret different types of maps to answer geographic questions, infer relationships, and analyze change.

Create, Interpret

TYPES OF MAPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examples of types of maps: physical, topographical, political, climate, population, economic, cultural trait (e.g., religion), road
  • Examples of types of map projections: Mercator, Robinson, Mollweide, broken equal area (interrupted), polar
  • Use maps to
    • Answer geographic questions
    • Infer relationships
    • Analyze change
NewWG.21D Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
  • Developing connections over time involves the examination of how political, economic, social, and geographic factors have change over time or how those factors have remained the same over time.
NewWG.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWG.22A Create appropriate graphics such as maps, diagrams, tables, and graphs to communicate geographic features, distributions, and relationships.

Design, Draw

APPROPRIATE GRAPHICS TO COMMUNICATE GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND RELATIONSHIPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Diagrams
  • Tables
  • Graphs
NewWG.22B Generate summaries, generalizations, and thesis statements supported by evidence.

Generate

SUMMARIES, GENERALIZATIONS, AND THESIS STATEMENTS SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Summaries are a concise version of information.
  • Generalizations are broad statements based on the evidence presented by patterns.
  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay.
NewWG.22C Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

GEOGRAPHIC TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWG.22D Create original work using effective written communication skills, including proper citations and understanding and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

ORIGINAL WORK

Use

EFFECTIVE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21A Analyze and evaluate the validity and utility of multiple sources of geographic information such as primary and secondary sources, aerial photographs, and maps.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Primary sources
  • Secondary sources
  • Aerial photographs
  • Maps
NewWG.21B Identify places of contemporary geopolitical significance on a map.

Locate

PLACES OF CONTEMPORARY GEOPOLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE ON A MAP

NewWG.21E Identify different points of view about an issue or current topic.

Identify

POINTS OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
NewWG.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWG.23A Plan, organize, and complete a research project that involves asking geographic questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information; answering questions; and communicating results.

Plan, Organize, Complete

RESEARCH PROJECT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking geographic questions
  • Acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information
  • Answering questions
  • Communicating results
NewWG.23B Use case studies and GIS to identify contemporary challenges and to answer real-world questions.

Use

CASE STUDIES AND GIS

Identify

CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES

Answer

REAL-WORLD QUESTIONS

NewWG.23C Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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