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Instructional Focus Document
World Geography Studies Regional
TITLE : Regional Unit 04: Latin America SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit continues the examination of the world’s major regions by applying the knowledge gained in the previous units. An examination of regions is intended to facilitate students’ knowledge about 1) natural conditions of various regions, 2) human conditions of various regions, and 3) an understanding of the human connections made within a region and across regions. Such connections are evident in human patterns of migration and human-environment interaction. Throughout the remainder of the course students examine various regions by exploring the following questions in regards to each regional unit of study:

  1. Where is it?
  2. What is it like there in both physical and human terms?
  3. How would the character of this place be described?
  4. How have the physical landscape and human characteristics of this place changed over time?
  5. How is this place linked physically, economically, culturally to other places?
  6. How is this place similar or different when compared to other places?
  7. What influence does this place have on other places?
  8. How does knowing about this place help in understanding the world better?

This unit bundles student expectations that facilitate an examination of the physical and human geographic factors that characterize Latin America as a region and the connections between this region and the world. Latin America is characterized by a unique cultural blending of peoples and traditions from indigenous groups, Africans, and Europeans as a result of the Columbian Exchange. Latin America is generally viewed as a culturally unified region that encompasses Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.  Each of these regions has distinct physical and human characteristics. South America is home to the world’s largest rainforest and human activity in that area affects the entire world’s environment.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the United States and Canada as a region. 

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about human adaptations in Latin America, about the cultural landscape and unique cultural blending in Latin America, about the connection between economic development and the management of key resources in the region, and about the impact of human-environment interaction in the region. 

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about the physical and human characteristics that distinguish Europe as a region and the connections between the region and the world.


Interactions among humans lead to change.

  • How does the world change as people become more connected?

Humans have a complex relationship with the environment.

  • What is characteristic of the interactions between humans and the environment?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Latin Americans adapt to a diversity of climate regions, a variety of ecosystems, and a pattern of extreme weather and other natural disasters.

  • What is characteristic about the distribution of climate regions and biomes in Latin America?
  • How does physical geography affect the distribution of climate regions in Latin America?
  • How are Latin Americans affected by the extreme weather and other natural disasters in the region?
  • How have people in Latin America adapted to climate variations in the region?

Spatial Patterns

  • Climate
  • Ecosystems/Biomes
  • Human-Environment Interaction
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The culture and cultural landscape of Latin America reflect a history of cultural diffusion.

  • Why was Latin America colonized by Spanish and Portuguese explorers?
  • In what ways did the Columbian Exchange impact the physical and human geographic patterns in Latin America?
  • What is unique about the cultures and demographics of Latin America?
  • How has migration to Latin America affected the cultural landscape and cultural patterns of the region?

Historical Processes

  • Diffusion

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration

Cultural Patterns

  • Language
  • Demographics
  • Customs/Traditions
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Economic development in Latin America is linked to the management of natural resources.

  • What is characteristic of the economic activities in Latin America?
  • What is characteristic of the levels of economic development and the types of economic activities in Latin America?
  • What is characteristic about the location of economic activities in Latin America and what factors impact those locations?
  • What challenges are faced in Latin America in regards to the management of key resources?
  • How are technological developments impacting economic development in Latin America?
  • How does the management of natural resources influence patterns of movement in the region?

Economic Patterns

  • Resources
  • Levels of Developent
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Human-environment interaction in Latin America impacts the region as well as the world.

  • How has economic development in Latin America affected the environment and urban development?
  • How has the process of deforestation affected Latin America and the world?
  • What points of view influence the development of policies in Latin America related to the environment?

Spatial Patterns

  • Human-Environment Interaction
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students are often confused about the term and origins of Latin in the term Latin America.
  • Students lack knowledge about the trans-Atlantic slavery trade in Latin America and may only be familiar with the slavery trade in the context of the southern United States.

Unit Vocabulary

economic development – process of creating wealth for the well-being of a region’s inhabitants
resources – anything that can be used for the creation of wealth
sustainable development – the practice of creating social and environmental policies that protect resources for future generations
deforestation – the natural or human destruction of forests
environment – everything on and around the Earth’s surface and atmosphere
human-environmental interaction – the interdependent relationship between humans and the environment
urban – relating to and characteristic of cities
rural – relating to and characteristic of being in the countryside

Related Vocabulary

  • migration
  • cultural diffusion
  • cultural landscape
  • cultural convergence
  • cultural divergence
  • El Niño/ La Niña
  • Columbian Exchange
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWG.1 The student understands how geography and processes of spatial exchange (diffusion) influenced events in the past and helped to shape the present. The student is expected to:
NewWG.1A Analyze significant physical features and environmental conditions that have influenced the past and migration patterns and have shaped the distribution of culture groups today.

Analyze

PHYSICAL FEATURES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS THAT HAVE INFLUENCED THE PAST AND MIGRATION PATTERNS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURE GROUPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical features such as major mountain ranges, deserts, plains, bodies of water, and river basins can act as barriers to migration or facilitate migration. For example the Sahara desert has historically been a barrier to migration, while the Northern Plains of Europe have facilitated migration.  Where physical geography has facilitated migration, multicultural patterns emerge.
  • Environmental conditions, such as drought, water scarcity, rising sea levels, and extreme weather events can impact migration as some choose or are forced to leave from affected areas.
NewWG.1B Trace the spatial diffusion of phenomena such as the Columbian Exchange or the diffusion of American popular culture and describe the effects on regions of contact.

Trace, Describe

SPATIAL DIFFUSION OF PHENOMENA AND THE EFFECTS ON REGIONS OF CONTACT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Columbian Exchange – resulted in the spread of disease from the Eurasian region to the Americas; spread of primarily livestock to the Americas and crops to Europe, Africa and Asia; potatoes from the Americas to Europe supported a population increase in Europe; sugar from Asia to the America’s fueled the demand for enslaved people to work the plantations
  • American popular culture – has resulted in a cultural landscape that is becoming more similar in commercial areas around the world
  • Pandemics - possible examples include the Black Death, influence in 1918, AIDS, Avian bird flu, West African ebola
NewWG.2 The student understands how people, places, and environments have changed over time and the effects of these changes. The student is expected to:
NewWG.2A Describe the human and physical characteristics of the same regions at different periods of time to analyze relationships between past events and current conditions.

Describe, Analyze

HUMAN AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAME REGIONS AT DIFFERENT PERIODS OF TIME TO EVALUATE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PAST EVENTS AND CURRENT CONDITIONS

Including, but not limited to:
Human Characteristic to analyze for change over time

  • Development of governments, economies, cultural convergence
  • Events like war, revolution, exploration, trade have an impact on societies over time, including changes in city landscapes and cultural landscapes

Physical Characteristics to analyze for change over time

  • Domestication of plants and animals and the use of different geographic features (e.g., plains for agriculture)
  • The expansion or decline of environment regions (e.g., the expansion of the Sahara and the decline of tropical rainforests)
  • Major geological events on civilizations
NewWG.4 The student understands the patterns and characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems of Earth and the interrelated processes that produce them. The student is expected to:
NewWG.4A Explain how elevation, latitude, wind systems, ocean currents, position on a continent, and mountain barriers influence temperature, precipitation, and distribution of climate regions.

Explain

HOW ELEVATION, LATITUDE, WIND SYSTEMS, OCEAN CURRENTS, POSITION ON A CONTINENT, AND MOUNTAIN BARRIERS INFLUENCE TEMPERATURE, PRECIPITATION, AND DISTRIBUTION OF CLIMATE REGIONS

Including, but not limited to:
Elevation

  • Locations in higher elevations experience cooler temperatures and high amounts of precipitation in the form of snow. Thin air in higher elevations lacks ability to hold heat causing both cooler temperatures and precipitation.

Latitude

  • Latitude has a significant impact on temperature with locations nearest the equator experiencing high temperatures and those near the poles experiencing cold temperatures. Average yearly temperatures decrease in progression from north and south of the equator.  Latitude has a slight influence on precipitation, mostly near the equator where rising hot air contributes to the humidity.

Wind systems

  • Wind systems serve to move warm or cool air across the earth’s surface and to distribute precipitation around the globe. Wind systems can bring moist air from across an ocean or dry air from across land. Monsoons are an example of a wind pattern that brings moist air across areas of South Asia causing heavy rainfall. Temperatures in coastal locations are affected by the temperature of the water nearby and the winds that cross over the water.

Ocean currents

  • Ocean currents help to distribute heat away from the equator. Warm water at the equator circulates toward the tropics. Water from the tropics circulates to the poles where the water cools and then circulates back towards the equator.  Wind systems have an effect on ocean currents and like wind systems, ocean currents also transfer precipitation around the world.

Position on continent

  • Locations that are located nearer coastlines tend to experience more moderate temperatures as opposed to locations that are further inland. Locations that are further inland generally experience greater daily and seasonal temperature variations.  Locations near coastlines also tend to experience greater amounts of precipitation. Position on continent is most evident in the middle latitudes and it along with latitude has the greatest effect on climate.

Mountain Barriers

  • Mountain barriers have a great effect on precipitation. As air rises to pass over a mountain barrier it releases moisture as the air cools.  This creates a wet side or windward side and a dry side or leeward side to mountain barriers. The windward side of a mountain is generally on the side closest to ocean.  This process is referred to as orographic precipitation or the rain shadow effect. Windward sides of mountain ranges receive higher average precipitation and leeward sides of mountain ranges tend to receive lower average precipitation.

Distribution of Climate Regions

  • Climate regions are characterized by a combination of average temperatures with average amounts of precipitation. There are five major categories of climate; polar, temperate, tropical, arid, and highland along with many sub categories within these larger groups.
  • The polar climate region is located in the higher latitudes and is characterized by generally low temperatures, low precipitation, long winters and short summers. Within the polar climate region are the sub regions of subarctic, tundra, and ice cap.
  • The temperate climate region is located in the mid latitudes and is characterized by seasonal temperature variations and seasonal precipitations variations. Within the temperate climate region are the sub regions of marine west coast, Mediterranean, humid subtropical and humid continental. Humid subtropical climates vary around the globe.
  • The tropical climate region is located in the low latitudes and characterized by warm temperatures year round and abundant rainfall.  Within the tropical climate region are the sub regions of tropical rainforest and savanna.
  • The arid/dry climate region is characterized by variations in temperatures and low rainfall. This climate zone is most commonly sub divided into desert or steppe.
  • Highland climate regions are located in higher elevations no matter the latitude.
NewWG.4C Explain the influence of climate on the distribution of biomes in different regions.

Explain

THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF BIOMES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Biomes or ecosystems are defined by a specific community of plants and animals that inhabit that region. Biomes are classified into four main categories: forests, grasslands, deserts, and tundra.

Forests

  • Temperate Deciduous Forest – found in the mid latitudes where the climate is characterized by plentiful rainfall, moderate temperatures, and cool winters. Characterized by trees that lose their leaves after changing colors in the fall.
  • Temperate Coniferous Forest – found in temperate climate zones where the summers are warm and the winters are cool and rainfall is adequate. Evergreens predominate and these forests can be found in coastal areas that experience mild winters and heavy rainfall as well as inland in mountainous areas.
  • Taiga or Boreal Forest – the world’s largest biome is located in the highest northern latitudes where average temperatures and average precipitation are low and are characterized by evergreen coniferous forests.  Animals living in this biome must adapt to very cold temperatures.
  • Tropical Rainforests – found in tropical areas near the equator where the climate is characterized by plentiful rainfall and warm year round temperatures. This biome is home to a great variety of plant and animal life. 

Grasslands

  • Steppes – found in climates that are experience low levels of rainfall, therefore there is an absence of trees. This biome is home to large grazing animals.
  • Savannas – found in climates that experience low levels of rainfall, yet have a little more than steppes and therefore have some trees. Also home to a variety of large animal species.

Deserts

  • Deserts are distinguished by a lack of rainfall, usually less than ten inches per year and can be hot or cold. These climate conditions require the plants and the animals in this biome to adapt to the extreme conditions.

Tundra or Arctic Biome

  • Found almost entirely in the Northern Hemisphere near the Arctic Ocean, it is characterized by low amounts of precipitation and extremely cold temperatures. Permafrost or frozen subsoil makes it difficult to sustain plant life in this biome; therefore this biome lacks trees and is distinguished by small shrubs and low growing plants. These plants have adapted to the colder climate conditions and thrive in the short summer and spring. Animals in this region are few and must adapt to the extreme climate conditions.
NewWG.5 The student understands how political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions. The student is expected to:
NewWG.5A Analyze how the character of a place is related to its political, economic, social, and cultural elements.

Analyze

HOW THE CHARACTER OF A PLACE IS RELATED TO ITS POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL ELEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Character of a place refers to the physical and human geographic characteristics that distinguish a particular place. Physical geographic factors such as climate, vegetation, settlement patterns, population density relate to the character of a place as do the political, economic, social and cultural features that make a place unique. Since these features can change over time the character of a place can change over time also.
  • Character of place can be analyzed on a macro level such as examining the character of a culture region or on a micro level, such as examine the character of a city or neighborhood.
NewWG.7 The student understands the growth, distribution, movement, and characteristics of world population. The student is expected to:
NewWG.7B Explain how physical geography and push and pull forces, including political, economic, social, and environmental conditions, affect the routes and flows of human migration.

Explain

HOW PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND PUSH AND PULL FACTORS AFFECT HUMAN MIGRATION

Including, but not limited to:

Human Geographic Push-Pull Factors

  • Political push-pull factors relate to the migrations that are motivated by war, political persecution or the attraction of a political circumstance in another country. Examples include refugees from wars and defections from totalitarian government.
  • Economic push-pull factors relate to the migration of individuals seeking better economic opportunities. Examples include migration from Mexico to the United States and Canada, east to west migration within the European Union and eighteenth century migration of Europeans to the United States.
  • Social push-pull factors relate to the migration of an entire group of people escaping persecution because of religion or ethnicity. Examples include the migration of Jews from Europe prior to the formation of Israel and migrations of the Puritans to the America’s in the 1600s.
  • Environmental push-pull factors relate to migrations that occur as a result of a natural disaster or changing environment conditions

Physical Geographic Push-Pull Factors

  • Mountain ranges, deserts and dense forests have served as barriers to human migration, while the steppes, water routes, plains and valleys have facilitated the flow of human migration
NewWG.7D Analyze how globalization affects connectivity, standard of living, pandemics, and loss of local culture.

Analyze

HOW GLOBALIZATION AFFECTS CONNECTIVITY, STANDARD OF LIVING, PANDEMICS, LOSS OF LOCAL CULTURE

Including, but not limited to:

  •  Rising standards of living in regions that benefit from global markets
  • Political cooperation/connectivity among nations, i.e. European Union
  • Connectivity has increased with use of social media
  • Spread of technological innovations, including advances in medical care
  • Cultural diffusion that sometimes results in a rich cultural convergence or loss of local culture
  • Pandemics as products and people travel more
  • Poor treatment of low wage earners in some industries
  • Growth in multinational corporations challenges the sovereignty of vulnerable nation-states
  • Loss of jobs in some regions with the growth of outsourcing in other regions
NewWG.8 The student understands how people, places, and environments are connected and interdependent. The student is expected to:
NewWG.8A Compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment, including the influences of culture and technology.

Compare

WAYS THAT HUMANS DEPEND ON, ADAPT TO, AND MODIFY THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Build dams, windmills, dikes, polders, levees, railroads, bridges, highways, terrace farming
  • Installing solar panels
  • Dredging and irrigation
  • Deforestation, mining, oil extraction, desalination, soil leaching, overgrazing
  • Burning fossil fuels
  • Creating advanced  warning systems for earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes and tsunamis
  • Planting seasonal and/or drought resistant crops  and using fertilizers to increase agricultural output
NewWG.8B Analyze the consequences of extreme weather and other natural disasters such as El Niño, floods, tsunamis, and volcanoes on people and their environment.

Analyze

CONSEQUENCES OF EXTREME WEATHER AND OTHER NATURAL DISASTERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • El Niño/La Niña refers to the periodic warming (El Niño) and cooling (La Niña) of the Pacific waters along the western coast of Central and South America. Both impact precipitation levels causing periods of drought and flooding. Both negatively impact agricultural output and the fishing industries in Latin America causing economic disruption.
  • Hurricanes are westward moving tropical cyclone activity organized due to warm air rising from the warm waters near the equator. Hurricanes are responsible for flooding and high winds that cause extensive property and crop damage along with loss of lives. The Caribbean, eastern Mexico, eastern Central America, and the eastern gulf coasts of the United States are most vulnerable to hurricanes.
  • Earthquakes/Volcanoes refer to the seismic activity that occurs with tectonic plate movements. Earthquakes cause significant damage to property and loss of lives as well as produce tsunamis, immense ocean waves which also cause severe damage and loss of lives. Volcanic eruptions create lava flows that threaten people and property and release ash that can blanket large areas causing damage and respiratory issues for some.
  • Monsoons   are winds that blow from the northeast across South Asia and Southeast Asia   carrying dry air during the winter and blowing from the southwest Indian   Ocean in the summer carrying moist air. Summer monsoons are responsible for large   amounts of rainfall in South and Southeast Asia, which causes extensive   flooding but is also needed for agricultural output.
  • Tornados are violently rotating columns of air extending from a thunderstorm cloud to the ground. Generally occur when the atmospheric conditions are favorable to producing severe thunderstorms. Tornados cause huge amounts of damage in a short period of time along with loss of lives. Many occur in a swath across the central and southeastern United States referred to as “tornado alley”.
  • Droughts-lengthy periods of low rainfall in a given region. Droughts contribute to desertification, as well as economic decline and severe loss of agricultural output.
NewWG.8C Evaluate the economic and political relationships between settlements and the environment, including sustainable development and renewable/non-renewable resources.

Evaluate

ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SETTLEMENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sustainable development refers to a pattern of economic development and resource management that ensures the preservation of the environment for future generations.  Political entities have a vested interest in economic development.  The challenge for most political entities is to balance economic development with promotion of sustainable development, environment protection and management of natural resources, both renewable and nonrenewable.
NewWG.10 The student understands the distribution, characteristics, and interactions of the economic systems in the world. The student is expected to:
NewWG.10C Compare the ways people satisfy their basic needs through the production of goods and services such as subsistence agriculture versus commercial agriculture or cottage industries versus commercial industries.

Compare

WAYS PEOPLE SATISFY THEIR BASIC NEEDS THROUGH THE PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • People who practice subsistence farming produce enough agricultural output to provide for the needs of their family.  In comparison, commercial agriculture is characterized by agricultural surplus output that is sold for profit.
  • Cottage industries are characterized by the small scale production of goods done generally in a home-based setting, such as weaving cloth. In comparison commercial industries produce in a larger setting, such as a factory, produce a larger amount of goods, and employ more workers.
NewWG.11 The student understands how geography influences economic activities. The student is expected to:
NewWG.11A Understand the connections between levels of development and economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary).

Understand

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Developing countries rely more on primary and secondary economic activities, while developed countries rely more on tertiary and quaternary activities. More developed countries are able to offer more service-oriented jobs, while importing raw materials and manufactured goods from developing countries.
  • Primary activities include those jobs focused on raw extraction of natural resources (e.g., mining, agriculture, fishing), secondary activities are jobs focused on manufacturing goods (e.g., manufacturing, construction), tertiary activities include those in the service sector (e.g., transportation, sanitary services, commerce and trade), and quaternary activities involve jobs related to information processing and management (e.g., finance, computer industry, high education, research).
NewWG.11B Identify the factors affecting the location of different types of economic activities, including subsistence and commercial agriculture, manufacturing, and service industries.

Identify

FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Including, but not limited to:

Factors affecting the location of subsistence agriculture

  • Favorable climate, access to arable land and water, as well as natural resources

Factors affecting the location of commercial agriculture

  • Favorable climate, arable land, access to labor, access to water, proximity of transportation corridors

Factors affecting the location of manufacturing

  • Availability of labor, infrastructure, capital resources and proximity to transportation corridors

Factors affecting the location of service industries

  • Availability of labor, capital resources, access to consumers, and proximity to transportation corridors
NewWG.11C Assess how changes in climate, resources, and infrastructure (technology, transportation, and communication) affect the location and patterns of economic activities.

Assess

HOW CHANGES AFFECT LOCATION AND PATTERNS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Including, but not limited to:

Climate changes affecting economic patterns

  • Climate changes can affect economic patterns by impacting the output of agricultural production, such as when droughts occur. Increasing desertification results in the movement of agricultural activities. Natural disasters can cause economic disruptions and relation of businesses, as well as destroying cash crops.

Resources affecting economic patterns

  • Access to cheaper resources can affect the location of economic activities. This is evident in the relocation of economic activities to regions with cheaper labor as well as the relocation of economic activities to be near skilled labor, such as locating near higher education facilities.

Infrastructure affecting economic patterns

  • Economic activities tend to located near transportation networks that allow for distribution of goods as well as allow for access for consumers. Improvements and lower costs in communication technologies have allowed for outsourcing. 
NewWG.12 The student understands the economic importance of, and issues related to, the location and management of resources. The student is expected to:
NewWG.12A Analyze how the creation, distribution, and management of key natural resources affects the location and patterns of movement of products, money, and people.

Analyze

HOW CREATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES AFFECT LOCATION AND PATTERNS OF PRODUCTS, MONEY, AND PEOPLE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Discovery of key deposits of natural resources results in migration of people seeking economic opportunities working to extract natural resources. Examples of this include the migration of South Asians to work mines in South Africa, the California Gold Rush, and migrations to oil fields. In order to distribute key resources roads and pipelines are constructed, such as the Interoceanic Highway linking Peruvian ports with Brazil.
  • Demand for arable land can result in the loss of forested areas and cause animal populations in those regions to be pushed out of their habitat.
  • Creation of resources such as the through the use of desalination allows for settlement in regions stricken by a lack of water resources.
  • Analysis may include examination of land redistribution, extraction of minerals and oil, desalinization, cutting of rainforests, and building of infrastructure such as pipelines.
NewWG.12B Evaluate the geographic and economic impact of policies related to the development, use, and scarcity of natural resources such as regulations of water.

Evaluate

GEOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF POLICIES RELATED TO THE USE OF RESOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Geographic impacts of policies related to the development, use, and scarcity of natural resources include loss or preservation of habitats, human development and growth of urban centers, and sustainable use of resources.
  • Policies related to use, scarcity, and development (water): desalination, water recycling, conservation
  • Economic impacts of policies related to the development, use, and scarcity of natural resources include growth or loss in income, creation or loss in jobs, and sustainability of resources for economic use in the future.
  • Management of water resources, particularly in areas of scarcity, can have social, political, economic, and environmental impacts.
NewWG.15 The student understands how different points of view influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes at national and international levels. The student is expected to:
NewWG.15A Identify and give examples of different points of view that influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes at national and international levels.

Identify, Give examples

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW THAT INFLUENCE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC POLOCIES AND DECISION-MAKING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Possible points of view to examine may include climate change, globalization, environmental regulations, migration, sustainability, wildlife management, use of alternative energy sources.
NewWG.17 The student understands the distribution, patterns, and characteristics of different cultures. The student is expected to:
NewWG.17D Evaluate the experiences and contributions of diverse groups to multicultural societies.

Evaluate

EXPERIENCES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIVERSE GROUPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Diversity adds ideas, innovation, technology, and new cultural beliefs and attitudes to groups, especially when new cultural traditions emerge from the cultural convergence of various groups.
  • Cultural convergence examples are illustrated in the migration patterns of the United States, Canada, and especially Latin America
NewWG.18 The student understands the ways in which cultures change and maintain continuity. The student is expected to:
NewWG.18A Analyze cultural changes in specific regions caused by migration, war, trade, innovations, and diffusion.

Analyze

CULTURAL CHANGE IN SPECIFIC REGIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Spread of new cultural beliefs which may result in cultural convergence, such as forced migration of Africans to Latin America and the resulting new forms of music and dance
  • Adoption of new economic and political practices, such as the adoption of some free enterprise principles in China and democratic ideals in Poland after the fall of communism
  • Changes in the cultural landscape, such as the building of religious sites and the proliferation of fast food restaurants
  • Increasing access to technologies and education, such as the spread of Internet connectivity
  • Spread of languages, such as the widespread use of English, especially in aviation
  • Loss of indigenous cultural practices along with processes to preserve those practices, such as in Australia and Canada
NewWG.20 The student understands how current technology affects human interaction. The student is expected to:
NewWG.20B Examine the economic, environmental, and social effects of technology such as medical advancements or changing trade patterns on societies at different levels of development.

Examine

EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON SOCIETIES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Technological advances have resulted in medical advancements including better access to appropriate medical treatments, education about spread of diseases, and changes in cultural behaviors to improve health and sanitation as well as changing trade patterns. Over time technological advances have been applied to transportation methods that have changed trade patterns, such as the building of canals and railroads.
  • Technological innovations that resulted in industrialization have changed global economic, environment and social patterns most evident in rising urbanization.
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21A Analyze and evaluate the validity and utility of multiple sources of geographic information such as primary and secondary sources, aerial photographs, and maps.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Primary sources
  • Secondary sources
  • Aerial photographs
  • Maps
NewWG.21B Identify places of contemporary geopolitical significance on a map.

Locate

PLACES OF CONTEMPORARY GEOPOLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE ON A MAP

NewWG.21C Create and interpret different types of maps to answer geographic questions, infer relationships, and analyze change.

Create, Interpret

TYPES OF MAPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examples of types of maps: physical, topographical, political, climate, population, economic, cultural trait (e.g., religion), road
  • Examples of types of map projections: Mercator, Robinson, Mollweide, broken equal area (interrupted), polar
  • Use maps to
    • Answer geographic questions
    • Infer relationships
    • Analyze change
NewWG.21D Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
  • Developing connections over time involves the examination of how political, economic, social, and geographic factors have change over time or how those factors have remained the same over time.
NewWG.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWG.22A Create appropriate graphics such as maps, diagrams, tables, and graphs to communicate geographic features, distributions, and relationships.

Design, Draw

APPROPRIATE GRAPHICS TO COMMUNICATE GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND RELATIONSHIPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Diagrams
  • Tables
  • Graphs
NewWG.22B Generate summaries, generalizations, and thesis statements supported by evidence.

Generate

SUMMARIES, GENERALIZATIONS, AND THESIS STATEMENTS SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Summaries are a concise version of information.
  • Generalizations are broad statements based on the evidence presented by patterns.
  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay.
NewWG.22C Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

GEOGRAPHIC TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWG.22D Create original work using effective written communication skills, including proper citations and understanding and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

ORIGINAL WORK

Use

EFFECTIVE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewWG.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWG.23B Use case studies and GIS to identify contemporary challenges and to answer real-world questions.

Use

CASE STUDIES AND GIS

Identify

CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES

Answer

REAL-WORLD QUESTIONS

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21E Identify different points of view about an issue or current topic.

Identify

POINTS OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
NewWG.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWG.23A Plan, organize, and complete a research project that involves asking geographic questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information; answering questions; and communicating results.

Plan, Organize, Complete

RESEARCH PROJECT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking geographic questions
  • Acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information
  • Answering questions
  • Communicating results
NewWG.23C Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 09/16/2019
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