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Instructional Focus Document
World Geography Studies Regional
TITLE : Regional Unit 03: United States and Canada SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit begins the examination of the world’s major regions by applying the knowledge gained in the previous units. An examination of regions is intended to facilitate students’ knowledge about 1) natural conditions of various regions, 2) human conditions of various regions, and 3) an understanding of the human connections made within a region and across regions. Such connections are evident in human patterns of migration and human-environment interaction. Throughout the remainder of the course students continue an examination of various regions by exploring the following questions in regards to each regional unit of study:

  1. Where is it?
  2. What is it like there in both physical and human terms?
  3. How would the character of this place be described?
  4. How have the physical landscape and human characteristics of this place changed over time?
  5. How is this place linked physically, economically, culturally to other places?
  6. How is this place similar or different when compared to other places?
  7. What influence does this place have on other places?
  8. How does knowing about this place help in understanding the world better?

This unit bundles student expectations that facilitate an examination of the physical and human geographic factors that characterize the Unites States and Canada as a region and the connections between this region and the world. As a place, the United States/Canada region is characterized by economic and political freedom, multiculturalism, and urbanization. Both have a history of colonization and immigration. Immigration to the region continues to affect human and cultural patterns of United States/Canada. Many influences from British colonization are evident in the region’s general character, yet the region is home to multiple, culturally-distinct places, such as Quebec in Canada and Acadian Louisiana in the United States.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about physical and human geographic patterns and processes. 

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about physical region of the United States/Canada, the settlement patterns of the region, the common human patterns of the region, and cultural diffusion to and from the region.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about the physical and human characteristics that distinguish Latin America as a region and the connections between the region and the world.


The world is characterized by a variety of regions, places, and cultures.

  • What makes a region, place, or culture unique?

The values of a society are reflected in its culture and institutions.

  • How does a society preserve and perpetuate its values?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The US/Canada region is characterized by a variety of regions, including physical geographic regions, multiple political divisions, and large urban centers.

  • What types of climate regions and biomes are found in the US/Canada region?
  • What physical regions are found within the US/Canada region?
  • What formal and functional regions are found within the US/Canada region?
  • Why is the United States and Canada together considered a region?

Spatial Patterns

  • Region/Borders
  • Climate
  • Ecosystems/Biomes
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Urbanization and technological developments have impacted settlement patterns and population distribution in the US/Canada region.

  • What is characteristic about the demographic patterns in the US/Canada region?
  • How does physical and human geography affect the location of the large urban centers in the US/Canada region?
  • In what ways has physical geography affected migration within the US/Canada region and from other regions to the US/Canada region?
  • What processes have influenced settlement patterns in the US/Canada region over time?

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution

Cultural Patterns

  • Demographics
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Citizens in the US/Canada region enjoy economic and political freedom that has historically attracted immigrants to the region.

  • What types of economic and political freedoms are characteristic of the US/Canada region?
  • What is characteristic of the level of economic development in the US/Canada region?
  • How has immigration to the US/Canada region affected the cultural landscape and cultural patterns of the region?
  • Why does the US/Canada region continue to attract immigrants?
  • What challenges/benefits are evident in the US/Canada region because of immigration?

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Cultural trends in the US/Canada have diffused to other regions.

  • How do the people living in the US/Canada region perceive their own culture as it relates to other cultures in the world?
  • How has globalization influenced the spread of cultural trends to and from the US/Canada region?
  • What examples are there of cultural traits from the US/Canada region that have spread to other regions?
  • How does the spread of cultural traits and trends from the US/Canada region affect other regions?

Historical Processes

  • Diffusion

Cultural Patterns

  • Customs/Traditions
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Student may have an underdeveloped understanding of the differences between the United States and Canada.
  • Students may have an underdeveloped understanding of region.
  • Students may have the misconception that a formal region cannot also be a functional region. Regions can and do overlap.

Unit Vocabulary

migration – movement from one place to another
demographics – statistical data about human populations
urbanization – the process of increasing human settlement in cities
megalopolis – a very large urban region consisting of several adjoining cities and suburbs
settlement patterns – the spatial distribution of where humans inhabit the Earth
cultural diffusion – process by which culture is spread
cultural convergence – a  process of cultures becoming more alike
cultural divergence – a process in which cultural groups distinguish themselves from other culture groups
indigenous – originating in a particular region
multicultural –  inclusion of a variety of cultures

Related Vocabulary

  • region
  • free enterprise
  • immigration 
  • formal region
  • functional region 
  • character of place
  • perceptual region 
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
NewWG.1 The student understands how geography and processes of spatial exchange (diffusion) influenced events in the past and helped to shape the present. The student is expected to:
NewWG.1A Analyze significant physical features and environmental conditions that have influenced the past and migration patterns and have shaped the distribution of culture groups today.

Analyze

PHYSICAL FEATURES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS THAT HAVE INFLUENCED THE PAST AND MIGRATION PATTERNS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURE GROUPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical features such as major mountain ranges, deserts, plains, bodies of water, and river basins can act as barriers to migration or facilitate migration. For example the Sahara desert has historically been a barrier to migration, while the Northern Plains of Europe have facilitated migration.  Where physical geography has facilitated migration, multicultural patterns emerge.
  • Environmental conditions, such as drought, water scarcity, rising sea levels, and extreme weather events can impact migration as some choose or are forced to leave from affected areas.
NewWG.1B Trace the spatial diffusion of phenomena such as the Columbian Exchange or the diffusion of American popular culture and describe the effects on regions of contact.

Trace, Describe

SPATIAL DIFFUSION OF PHENOMENA AND THE EFFECTS ON REGIONS OF CONTACT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Columbian Exchange – resulted in the spread of disease from the Eurasian region to the Americas; spread of primarily livestock to the Americas and crops to Europe, Africa and Asia; potatoes from the Americas to Europe supported a population increase in Europe; sugar from Asia to the America’s fueled the demand for enslaved people to work the plantations
  • American popular culture – has resulted in a cultural landscape that is becoming more similar in commercial areas around the world
  • Pandemics - possible examples include the Black Death, influence in 1918, AIDS, Avian bird flu, West African ebola
NewWG.4 The student understands the patterns and characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems of Earth and the interrelated processes that produce them. The student is expected to:
NewWG.4C Explain the influence of climate on the distribution of biomes in different regions.

Explain

THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF BIOMES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Biomes or ecosystems are defined by a specific community of plants and animals that inhabit that region. Biomes are classified into four main categories: forests, grasslands, deserts, and tundra.

Forests

  • Temperate Deciduous Forest – found in the mid latitudes where the climate is characterized by plentiful rainfall, moderate temperatures, and cool winters. Characterized by trees that lose their leaves after changing colors in the fall.
  • Temperate Coniferous Forest – found in temperate climate zones where the summers are warm and the winters are cool and rainfall is adequate. Evergreens predominate and these forests can be found in coastal areas that experience mild winters and heavy rainfall as well as inland in mountainous areas.
  • Taiga or Boreal Forest – the world’s largest biome is located in the highest northern latitudes where average temperatures and average precipitation are low and are characterized by evergreen coniferous forests.  Animals living in this biome must adapt to very cold temperatures.
  • Tropical Rainforests – found in tropical areas near the equator where the climate is characterized by plentiful rainfall and warm year round temperatures. This biome is home to a great variety of plant and animal life. 

Grasslands

  • Steppes – found in climates that are experience low levels of rainfall, therefore there is an absence of trees. This biome is home to large grazing animals.
  • Savannas – found in climates that experience low levels of rainfall, yet have a little more than steppes and therefore have some trees. Also home to a variety of large animal species.

Deserts

  • Deserts are distinguished by a lack of rainfall, usually less than ten inches per year and can be hot or cold. These climate conditions require the plants and the animals in this biome to adapt to the extreme conditions.

Tundra or Arctic Biome

  • Found almost entirely in the Northern Hemisphere near the Arctic Ocean, it is characterized by low amounts of precipitation and extremely cold temperatures. Permafrost or frozen subsoil makes it difficult to sustain plant life in this biome; therefore this biome lacks trees and is distinguished by small shrubs and low growing plants. These plants have adapted to the colder climate conditions and thrive in the short summer and spring. Animals in this region are few and must adapt to the extreme climate conditions.
NewWG.5 The student understands how political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions. The student is expected to:
NewWG.5A Analyze how the character of a place is related to its political, economic, social, and cultural elements.

Analyze

HOW THE CHARACTER OF A PLACE IS RELATED TO ITS POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL ELEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Character of a place refers to the physical and human geographic characteristics that distinguish a particular place. Physical geographic factors such as climate, vegetation, settlement patterns, population density relate to the character of a place as do the political, economic, social and cultural features that make a place unique. Since these features can change over time the character of a place can change over time also.
  • Character of place can be analyzed on a macro level such as examining the character of a culture region or on a micro level, such as examine the character of a city or neighborhood.

 

NewWG.5B Interpret political, economic, social, and demographic indicators (gross domestic product per capita, life expectancy, literacy, and infant mortality) to determine the level of development and standard of living in nations using the levels as defined by the Human Development Index.

Interpret

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS TO DETERMINE THE LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARD OF LIVING IN NATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Human Development Index (HDI)- refers to the ranking of nations done by the United Nations based on a composite data; intended to measure human development; the index is based on a measure of basic facets of human development, including a decent standard of living, long and healthy life, and education
  • The HDI provides data which allows for a glimpse of current conditions as well as an examination of long term trends
NewWG.6 The student understands the types, patterns, and processes of settlement. The student is expected to:
NewWG.6A Locate and describe human and physical features that influence the size and distribution of settlements.

Locate, Describe

HUMAN AND PHYSICAL FEATURES THAT INFLUENCE THE SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SETTLEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Human features that influence settlement patterns may include the availability of economic opportunities, the location of transportation routes, access to housing, opportunities for political participation. Populations tend to settle in areas that provide services, have infrastructure in place and are politically attractive.
  • Physical features greatly influence the habitability of a place. Populations tend to concentrate in regions with favorable climates, where there is access to water and areas that are suitable for agricultural output. Through most of history settlements have concentrated near coastlines and in river valleys. For example the eastern coast of China, or along the coast in Australia.
NewWG.6B Explain the processes that have caused changes in settlement patterns, including urbanization, transportation, access to and availability of resources, and economic activities.

Explain

PROCESSES THAT HAVE CAUSED CHANGES IN SETTLEMENT PATTERNS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Urbanization refers to the migration of people from rural to urban settings generally to access jobs, which primarily coincidences with industrial development in a nation
  • Transportation systems facilitate the settlement of areas that were previously inaccessible; generally settlements grow near locations along the transportation routes and allow people to live further from location of work; examples include the building of railroads such as the Trans-Siberian and Transcontinental Railroads, building the Interstate highway system which resulted in the growth of suburban settlements; urban and suburban road systems of principal  and minor arteries connecting dwellings with commerce and employment.  
  • Availability of resources such as water facilitate population centers that need abundant water resources; settlements grow near locations of economic activities associated with extraction of natural resources
  • Economic activities facilitate people migrating to and settling where there are new economic opportunities; examples include the California Gold Rush, the Austin Colony, migration from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt, Eastern Europe to Western Europe migration within the EU, migration to western North Dakota and south Texas to work in an expanding oil industry
NewWG.7 The student understands the growth, distribution, movement, and characteristics of world population. The student is expected to:
NewWG.7B Explain how physical geography and push and pull forces, including political, economic, social, and environmental conditions, affect the routes and flows of human migration.

Explain

HOW PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND PUSH AND PULL FACTORS AFFECT HUMAN MIGRATION

Including, but not limited to:

Human Geographic Push-Pull Factors

  • Political push-pull factors relate to the migrations that are motivated by war, political persecution or the attraction of a political circumstance in another country. Examples include refugees from wars and defections from totalitarian government.
  • Economic push-pull factors relate to the migration of individuals seeking better economic opportunities. Examples include migration from Mexico to the United States and Canada, east to west migration within the European Union and eighteenth century migration of Europeans to the United States.
  • Social push-pull factors relate to the migration of an entire group of people escaping persecution because of religion or ethnicity. Examples include the migration of Jews from Europe prior to the formation of Israel and migrations of the Puritans to the America’s in the 1600s.
  • Environmental push-pull factors relate to migrations that occur as a result of a natural disaster or changing environment conditions

Physical Geographic Push-Pull Factors

  • Mountain ranges, deserts and dense forests have served as barriers to human migration, while the steppes, water routes, plains and valleys have facilitated the flow of human migration
NewWG.7C Describe trends in world population growth and distribution.

Describe

TRENDS IN WORLD POPULATION GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • World population growth is dependent on birth rates and death rates and these rates vary across the globe. Less developed regions tend to experience higher birth rates and higher infant mortality rates and lower life expectancy rates, while developed regions characteristically have low birth rates resulting in slow population growth and sometimes negative growth rates.
  • Over the last 150 years the world’s population has grown exponentially reaching one billion in the early nineteenth century. Currently the world’s population is over seven billion and is projected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Medical advances have resulted in increased life expectancies at the same time birth rates have been declining. Since the early nineteenth century the world’s population has increasingly become urbanized so now half of the world’s population lives in urban areas.
  • The world’s population is distributed unevenly and is correlated to the access to economic opportunities and resources as well as to climate. Increased economic opportunities accounts for a concentration of population in urban areas, along transportation corridors and near water. Population is less concentrated in in the polar regions of the globe because of the extreme climate in the region.
NewWG.7D Analyze how globalization affects connectivity, standard of living, pandemics, and loss of local culture.

Analyze

HOW GLOBALIZATION AFFECTS CONNECTIVITY, STANDARD OF LIVING, PANDEMICS, LOSS OF LOCAL CULTURE

Including, but not limited to:

  •  Rising standards of living in regions that benefit from global markets
  • Political cooperation/connectivity among nations, i.e. European Union
  • Connectivity has increased with use of social media
  • Spread of technological innovations, including advances in medical care
  • Cultural diffusion that sometimes results in a rich cultural convergence or loss of local culture
  • Pandemics as products and people travel more
  • Poor treatment of low wage earners in some industries
  • Growth in multinational corporations challenges the sovereignty of vulnerable nation-states
  • Loss of jobs in some regions with the growth of outsourcing in other regions
NewWG.9 The student understands the concept of region as an area of Earth's surface with related geographic characteristics. The student is expected to:
NewWG.9A Identify physical and/or human factors such as climate, vegetation, language, trade networks, political units, river systems, and religion that constitute a region.

Identify

PHYSICAL AND/OR HUMAN FACTORS THAT CONSTITUTE A REGION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical factors that constitute a region include common landforms, vegetation, climate, biomes
  • Human factors that constitute a region many include culture regions, trade networks, religion, language, political units, supranational organization, trade corridors
NewWG.9B Describe different types of regions, including formal, functional, and perceptual regions.

Describe

DIFFERENT TYPES OF REGIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Geographers examine the world by dividing it spatially into regions. Regions all have spatial extents and boundaries. Regions vary in size and are generally categorized as formal, functional or perceptual. 
  • Formal regions refer to spatial areas that are unified by a physical or human geographic factor. Examples may include culture regions, political entities, climate zones, biomes.
  • Functional regions refer to spatial systems that are defined by an interaction or connectivity. Examples may include trade corridors, metropolises, business districts, spheres of influence.
  • Perceptual regions are less structured than formal and functional regions and are constructed around a reality that is perceived by the people living in the area or the general society. Perceptual regions are not based on objective data. Examples may include “Dixie”, vernacular regions, “Chinatown”, gang “turfs”, “Bible belt”, “Rust belt”
NewWG.13 The student understands the spatial characteristics of a variety of global political units. The student is expected to:
NewWG.13A Interpret maps to explain the division of land, including man-made and natural borders, into separate political units such as cities, states, or countries.

Interpret, Explain

MAPS OF POLITICAL DIVISIONS AND UNITS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical geographic features such as mountains, rivers, and oceans can create natural borders between political units.
  • Several factors can contribute to the creation of man-made borders. Man-made political borders are generally made following wars to reflect the changes in control of territory. Man-made division may reflect the ethnic divisions within a region, colonial land claims, or the efforts of groups to isolate themselves.
NewWG.16 The student understands how the components of culture affect the way people live and shape the characteristics of regions. The student is expected to:
NewWG.16A Describe distinctive cultural patterns and landscapes associated with different places in Texas, the United States, and other regions of the world and how these patterns influenced the processes of innovation and diffusion.

Describe

CULTURAL PATTERNS AND HOW PATTERNS INFLUENCED THE PROCESSES OF INNOVATION AND DIFFUSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cultural landscape refers to the modification of a place by people and includes what humans have planted, built and modified in the physical landscape.  
  • Cultural patterns refer to the distribution and characteristics of the beliefs, values, attitudes, norms, and customs in a region.
  • Distinctive cultural patterns of Texas, the United States, and other regions of the world include cultural landscapes of agriculture versus urban centers, and reflect varying belief systems and values of cultures.
  • Cultural landscapes and cultural patterns are influenced by the processes of innovation and diffusion. An example of this is the predominance of fast food restaurants around the globe that have created a common cultural landscape.
NewWG.17 The student understands the distribution, patterns, and characteristics of different cultures. The student is expected to:
NewWG.17D Evaluate the experiences and contributions of diverse groups to multicultural societies.

Evaluate

EXPERIENCES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIVERSE GROUPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Diversity adds ideas, innovation, technology, and new cultural beliefs and attitudes to groups, especially when new cultural traditions emerge from the cultural convergence of various groups.
  • Cultural convergence examples are illustrated in the migration patterns of the United States, Canada, and especially Latin America
NewWG.18 The student understands the ways in which cultures change and maintain continuity. The student is expected to:
NewWG.18D Evaluate the spread of cultural traits to find examples of cultural convergence and divergence such as the spread of democratic ideas, language, foods, technology, or global sports.

Evaluate, Find examples

CULTURAL CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cultural convergence occurs when the ideas, habits, skills, arts, and institutions of one culture come in contact and interact with those of another culture. Subsequently, this contact results in the cultures becoming more alike.
  • Cultural divergence is the process of disassociating cultures or protecting a culture from other influences.
  • Examples of cultural convergence include the spread of democratic ideas from Europe to North America and other countries around the world, the spread of the English language as the dominant form of communication, the spread of U.S.-based fast-food franchises and technology companies, spread and popularity of soccer, the emergence of new styles of dance and music in Latin America.
  • Examples of cultural divergence include the historical ethnic division in the Balkans, the Basques in Spain, Québécois, and indigenous cultures.
NewWG.19 The student understands the impact of technology and human modifications on the physical environment. The student is expected to:
NewWG.19A Evaluate the significance of major technological innovations in the areas of transportation and energy that have been used to modify the physical environment.

Evaluate

SIGNIFICANCE OF MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS THAT MODIFY THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

Innovations in Transportation

  • Railroads have allowed for faster transportation of goods to market and the settlement of people to varied locations, examples include the Trans-Siberian Railroad, the Trans-Canadian Railroad and the Transcontinental Railroad
  • Highways and roads have facilitated the transportation of goods to market and allowed for economic activities to move from city centers such as the Interstate Highway System in the United States and the Interoceanic Highway in South America
  • Canals facilitate the faster  transportation of goods to market promoting economic development
  • Dredging allows for the creation of deeper ports and creation of land such as the Hong Kong airport

Innovations in Energy

  • Wind/Solar Power allow for the renewable creation of energy
  • Dams/Hydroelectric Power provide for widespread access to electricity and control of flooding
  • Oil drilling/Hydraulic fracturing increase the amount of oil extracted; may have environmental implications
  • Nuclear power provides an alternative source of energy, but poses a risk for human exposure to radiation
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21A Analyze and evaluate the validity and utility of multiple sources of geographic information such as primary and secondary sources, aerial photographs, and maps.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Primary sources
  • Secondary sources
  • Aerial photographs
  • Maps
NewWG.21B Identify places of contemporary geopolitical significance on a map.

Locate

PLACES OF CONTEMPORARY GEOPOLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE ON A MAP

NewWG.21C Create and interpret different types of maps to answer geographic questions, infer relationships, and analyze change.

Create, Interpret

TYPES OF MAPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examples of types of maps: physical, topographical, political, climate, population, economic, cultural trait (e.g., religion), road
  • Examples of types of map projections: Mercator, Robinson, Mollweide, broken equal area (interrupted), polar
  • Use maps to
    • Answer geographic questions
    • Infer relationships
    • Analyze change
NewWG.21D Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
  • Developing connections over time involves the examination of how political, economic, social, and geographic factors have change over time or how those factors have remained the same over time.
NewWG.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWG.22A Create appropriate graphics such as maps, diagrams, tables, and graphs to communicate geographic features, distributions, and relationships.

Design, Draw

APPROPRIATE GRAPHICS TO COMMUNICATE GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND RELATIONSHIPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Diagrams
  • Tables
  • Graphs
NewWG.22B Generate summaries, generalizations, and thesis statements supported by evidence.

Generate

SUMMARIES, GENERALIZATIONS, AND THESIS STATEMENTS SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Summaries are a concise version of information.
  • Generalizations are broad statements based on the evidence presented by patterns.
  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay.
NewWG.22C Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

GEOGRAPHIC TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWG.22D Create original work using effective written communication skills, including proper citations and understanding and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

ORIGINAL WORK

Use

EFFECTIVE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21A Analyze and evaluate the validity and utility of multiple sources of geographic information such as primary and secondary sources, aerial photographs, and maps.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Primary sources
  • Secondary sources
  • Aerial photographs
  • Maps
NewWG.21B Identify places of contemporary geopolitical significance on a map.

Locate

PLACES OF CONTEMPORARY GEOPOLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE ON A MAP

NewWG.21E Identify different points of view about an issue or current topic.

Identify

POINTS OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
NewWG.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWG.23A Plan, organize, and complete a research project that involves asking geographic questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information; answering questions; and communicating results.

Plan, Organize, Complete

RESEARCH PROJECT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking geographic questions
  • Acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information
  • Answering questions
  • Communicating results
NewWG.23B Use case studies and GIS to identify contemporary challenges and to answer real-world questions.

Use

CASE STUDIES AND GIS

Identify

CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES

Answer

REAL-WORLD QUESTIONS

NewWG.23C Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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